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Dietary and nutritional supplements

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426360/pharmaceutical-cognitive-enhancement-in-greek-university-students-differences-between-users-and-non-users-in-social-cognitive-variables-burnout-and-engagement
#1
Lambros Lazuras, Antonia Ypsilanti, Efthymios Lamprou, Christos Kontogiorgis
Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) represents the non-medical use of prescribed medication for the improvement of cognitive functioning and academic performance. Although there are some studies about PCE prevalence, it is less clear how users and non-users of PCE substances differ with respect to their positive and negative student experiences (e.g. academic burnout and engagement with studies) and in social cognitive variables that relate to decision-making and self-regulation of PCE use. The present study assessed whether students with different experiences of PCE substance use displayed differences in academic burnout, study engagement, and social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424769/folates-in-plants-research-advances-and-progress-in-crop-biofortification
#2
REVIEW
Vera Gorelova, Lars Ambach, Fabrice Rébeillé, Christophe Stove, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424257/an-animal-source-food-supplement-increases-micronutrient-intakes-and-iron-status-among-reproductive-age-women-in-rural-vietnam
#3
Andrew G Hall, Tu Ngu, Hoang T Nga, Phi N Quyen, Pham T Hong Anh, Janet C King
Background: Few studies have examined the impact of local animal-source foods (ASFs) on the nutritional status of reproductive-age women in developing countries.Objective: We hypothesized that a midmorning snack of local ASF for 6 mo would reduce dietary micronutrient deficiencies [usual intake less than the estimated average requirement (EAR)] and improve blood biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamins A and B-12 status among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women in rural Vietnam.Methods: One hundred seventeen women, 18-30 y old, were randomly assigned to receive either an ASF (mean: 144 kcal, 8...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421792/micronutrient-supplementation-in-gastric-bypass-surgery-prospective-study-on-in%C3%AF-ammation-and-iron-metabolism-in-premenopausal-women
#4
Flávia Andréia Marin, Rozangela Verlengia, Alex Harley Crisp, Patrícia Fátima Sousa Novais, Irineu Rasera-Junior, Maria Rita Marques De Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Low-grade chronic inflammation in morbid obesity is associated with impaired iron metabolism. Bariatric surgery is effective in weight loss; however, it can induce specific nutritional deficiencies, such as iron, especially in premenopausal women. Alternatively, after surgery, there is an improvement in systemic inflammation, raising questions concerning the dosages of micronutrient supplementation. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the effect of two micronutrient supplementation schemes before and 6 months after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on inflammation and iron metabolism in premenopausal women...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411961/nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-and-respiratory-health-a-descriptive-review-of-the-last-five-years-literature
#5
REVIEW
E Verduci, A Martelli, V L Miniello, M Landi, B Mariani, M Brambilla, L Diaferio, D G Peroni
The aim of this paper is to discuss the current evidence regarding short and long-term health respiratory effects of nutrients and dietary patterns during the first 1000 days from conception. Population of interest included children from birth to two years and their mothers (during pregnancy and lactation). Studies were searched on MEDLINE® and Cochrane database, inserting individually and using the Boolean ANDs and ORs, 'nutrients', 'micronutrients', 'LC-PUFA', 'Mediterranean Diet', 'human milk', 'complementary food', 'pregnancy', 'respiratory disease', 'pulmonary disease', 'asthma', 'epigenetics', 'first 1000 days', 'maternal diet' and 'respiratory health'...
April 12, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409409/hypoglycemic-and-hypolipidemic-effects-of-leucine-zinc-and-chromium-alone-and-in-combination-in-rats-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Hassan Sadri, Negar Nowroozi Larki, Saeed Kolahian
For the increasing development of diabetes, dietary habits and using appropriate supplements can play important roles in the treatment or reduction of risk for this disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of leucine (Leu), zinc (Zn), and chromium (Cr) supplementation, alone or in combination, in rats with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventy-seven adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned in 11 groups, using nutritional supplements and insulin (INS) or glibenclamide (GLC). Supplementing Leu significantly reduced blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations compared to vehicle-treated T2D animals, and those improvements were associated with reduced area under the 2-h blood glucose response curve (AUC)...
April 13, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405813/estimation-of-dietary-total-antioxidant-capacity-of-korean-adults
#7
Shinyoung Jun, Ock K Chun, Hyojee Joung
PURPOSE: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been reported to be inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. However, little is known about dietary TAC among the Korean population. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the dietary TAC of Korean adults and to document the major food sources. METHODS: We studied 33,581 Korean adults aged ≥19 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. Dietary TAC was estimated from 1-day 24-h dietary recall data using a TAC database comprising antioxidant capacities of 42 dietary antioxidants, developed for common Korean foods...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404835/coverage-and-utilization-in-food-fortification-programs-critical-and-neglected-areas-of-evaluation
#8
REVIEW
Lynnette M Neufeld, Shawn Baker, Greg S Garrett, Lawrence Haddad
The need for evidence to inform nutrition program design and implementation has long been recognized, yet the generation and use of evidence for program decision making has lagged. The results of the coverage surveys reported in this supplement highlight some of the strengths and areas for improvement of current population-based (i.e., staple foods and condiments) and targeted (e.g., foods for infants and young children) fortification programs. Among other topics, the results identify a few striking successful fortification programs whereby the majority of the food vehicle used is fortifiable and fortified, and coverage is equitable among those classified as vulnerable and not...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402322/nutritional-status-in-patients-with-phenylketonuria-using-glycomacropeptide-as-their-major-protein-source
#9
A Pinto, M F Almeida, P C Ramos, S Rocha, A Guimas, R Ribeiro, E Martins, A Bandeira, A MacDonald, J C Rocha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low phenylalanine (PHE), glycomacropeptide-based protein substitute (GMP) is an alternative to traditional L-amino acid supplements (AA) used in the dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU). In a retrospective, longitudinal study, we report the nutritional status of PKU patients taking AA and GMP. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eleven PKU patients aged 27±10 years (1 HPA, 4 mild and 6 classical PKU) on dietary treatment were evaluated (anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure measurements, biochemical markers including vitamin, mineral, lipids, carbohydrates and protein status/metabolism, and nutritional intake assessment) at two different annual reviews...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399676/a-social-marketing-approach-to-1-milk-use-resonance-is-the-key
#10
Karla Jaye Finnell, Robert John
The U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend low-fat milk consumption, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) programs follow these guidelines to develop health education programs for SNAP recipients. This study evaluated a multilevel media intervention promoting low-fat milk use among Oklahoma SNAP recipients, a population often missed. Behavior change was measured with pre- and postintervention telephone interviews with SNAP recipients ( n = 860). Immediately following the intervention, self-reported purchases of 1% milk, the focus of behavior change, significantly increased to 7...
April 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398657/study-exploring-the-effects-of-daily-supplementation-with-400-%C3%AE-g-of-folic-acid-on-the-nutritional-status-of-folate-in-women-of-reproductive-age
#11
Laidy D Arias, Beatriz E Parra, Angélica M Muñoz, Diana L Cárdenas, Tiffany G Duque, Luz M Manjarrés
BACKGROUND: This investigation determines the nutritional state of serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration and their relation with intake of folate, B6 ,and B12 , with serum vitamin B12 , and with genetic variants after provision of 400 μg/day of folic acid for 3 months to a group of 34 Colombian women of reproductive age. METHODS: We evaluated nutrient intake using 24-hr recall, assessing the levels of serum folate, RBC folate, serum B12 , and homocysteine, as well as determining genetic variants of the enzyme MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and CβS (844ins68pb)...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394002/supplementation-with-omega-3-acids-after-myocardial-infarction-and-modification-of-inflammatory-markers-in-light-of-the-patients-diet-a-preliminary-study
#12
Magdalena Makarewicz-Wujec, Gabriela Parol, Andrzej Parzonko, Małgorzata Kozłowska-Wojciechowska
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine activation, activation of proinflammatory cytokines and platelets, and endothelial dysfunction play a significant role in development of heart failure. AIM: The aim of the work was to assess the effect of supplementation with EPA and DHA in adaily dose of 1g on selected inflammatory markers and platelet activation in patients with heart failure after recent myocardial infarction in light of their diet. M ETHODS: This preliminary study was arandomised, double-blind trial involving 30patients with post-infarction heart failure...
April 10, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391446/a-review-of-current-and-future-management-of-geographic-atrophy
#13
REVIEW
Riccardo Sacconi, Eleonora Corbelli, Lea Querques, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease and a leading cause of vision impairment in elderly people in Western society. Geographic atrophy (GA), the late stage of dry AMD, is typically defined as a round or oval area of atrophy of 175 µm or more. In GA patients, visual acuity (VA) can still be good if the macula is spared, but decreased if GA extends through the fovea causing a great impairment of quality of life. Because of a poor correlation between VA and GA lesions or progression, a multimodal imaging approach is necessary to better follow up GA patients...
April 8, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390193/functional-amino-acids-in-the-development-of-the-pig-placenta
#14
REVIEW
Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Cassandra Herring, Heewon Seo, Zhaolai Dai, Junjun Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Xiaolong Wang
The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388370/will-we-ever-agree-on-protein-requirements-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#15
L John Hoffer, Roland N Dickerson, Robert G Martindale, Stephen A McClave, Juan B Ochoa Gautier
The precise value of the normal adult protein requirement has long been debated. For many reasons-one of them being the difficulty of carrying out long-term nutrition experiments in free-living people-uncertainty is likely to persist indefinitely. By contrast, the controlled environment of the intensive care unit and relatively short trajectory of many critical illnesses make it feasible to use hard clinical outcome trials to determine protein requirements for critically ill patients in well-defined clinical situations...
April 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386239/skeletal-muscle-myomir-are-differentially-expressed-by-endurance-exercise-mode-and-combined-essential-amino-acid-and-carbohydrate-supplementation
#16
Lee M Margolis, Holly L McClung, Nancy E Murphy, Christopher T Carrigan, Stefan M Pasiakos
Skeletal muscle microRNAs (myomiR) expression is modulated by exercise, however, the influence of endurance exercise mode, combined with essential amino acid and carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) supplementation are not well defined. This study determined the effects of weighted versus non-weighted endurance exercise, with or without EAA+CHO ingestion on myomiR expression and their association with muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Twenty five adults performed 90 min of metabolically-matched (2.2 VO2 L·m(-1)) load carriage (LC; performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass) or cycle ergometry (CE) exercise, during which EAA+CHO (10 g EAA and 46 g CHO) or non-nutritive control (CON) drinks were consumed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384735/effect-of-baseline-nutritional-status-on-long-term-multivitamin-use-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-physicians-health-study-ii-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Susanne Rautiainen, J Michael Gaziano, William G Christen, Vadim Bubes, Gregory Kotler, Robert J Glynn, JoAnn E Manson, Julie E Buring, Howard D Sesso
Importance: Long-term multivitamin use had no effect on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Physicians' Health Study II. Baseline nutritional status may have modified the lack of effect. Objective: To investigate effect modification by various baseline dietary factors on CVD risk in the Physicians' Health Study II. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Physicians' Health Study II was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing multivitamin use (multivitamin [Centrum Silver] or placebo daily) among US male physicians...
April 5, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380617/palatability-digestibility-and-metabolizable-energy-of-dietary-glycerol-in-adult-cats
#18
G S Machado, J G Pezzali, F R Marx, A M Kessler, L Trevizan
Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot be used. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, glycerol is generally recognized as sustenance safe (GRAS). It is suggested that cats are able to metabolize glycerol and use it as an energy source without compromising health. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the following characteristics of glycerol in the diet for cats: 1) a preference test, 2) digestibility, ME, and fecal and urinary characteristics, and 3) postprandial plasma glycemia...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375156/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-ameliorate-type-1-diabetes-and-autoimmunity
#19
Xinyun Bi, Fanghong Li, Shanshan Liu, Yan Jin, Xin Zhang, Tao Yang, Yifan Dai, Xiaoxi Li, Allan Zijian Zhao
Despite the benefit of insulin, blockade of autoimmune attack and regeneration of pancreatic islets are ultimate goals for the complete cure of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Long-term consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is known to suppress inflammatory processes, making these fatty acids candidates for the prevention and amelioration of autoimmune diseases. Here, we explored the preventative and therapeutic effects of ω-3 PUFAs on T1D. In NOD mice, dietary intervention with ω-3 PUFAs sharply reduced the incidence of T1D, modulated the differentiation of Th cells and Tregs, and decreased the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-6, and TNF-α...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373612/impact-of-a-multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-nutrition-team-on-evaluating-sarcopenia-cachexia-and-practice-of-rehabilitation-nutrition
#20
Yoji Kokura, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Keisuke Maeda, Shinta Nishioka, Saori Nakahara
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine whether the presence of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation nutrition team affects sarcopenia and cachexia evaluation and practice of rehabilitation nutrition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using online questionnaire among members of the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Nutrition (JARN) was conducted. Questions were related to sarcopenia and cachexia evaluation and practice of rehabilitation nutrition. RESULTS: 677 (14...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
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