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Maria Goiko, John R de Bruyn, Bryan Heit
Diffusion in cellular membranes is regulated by processes that occur over a range of spatial and temporal scales. These processes include membrane fluidity, interprotein and interlipid interactions, interactions with membrane microdomains, interactions with the underlying cytoskeleton, and cellular processes that result in net membrane movement. The complex, non-Brownian diffusion that results from these processes has been difficult to characterize, and moreover, the impact of factors such as membrane recycling on membrane diffusion remains largely unexplored...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Vítor Angelo Ferreira, Karla Spelta, Lucia Martins Diniz, Elton Almeida Lucas
Cutaneous metastasis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality of cancer patients, denoting a guarded prognosis. The clinical spectrum of the disease is broad and can mimic benign conditions. The diagnosis depends on thorough clinical examination and complementary exams, with emphasis on the histopathological study and immunohistochemistry. Because it indicates a systemic relapse, it is necessary to intervene with intravenous chemotherapy, to which local therapies can be associated. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with cutaneous metastasis from breast cancer treated 14 years back, manifested by extensive firm and infiltrated red-purple plaques on the sides of the trunk, with a course of six months...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Nikita Devnarain, Mahmoud E S Soliman
The global threat of the Zika virus to humanity is real. Innovative and potent anti-Zika virus drugs are still at large, due to the lack of anti-Zika virus drugs that have passed phase 1 trials. Experimental research has revealed novel inhibitors of Zika virus NS5 methyltransferase enzyme. This study has taken a step further to provide insight into the molecular dynamics of Zika virus and inhibitor binding, which have not been established experimentally. Movements of the methyltransferase binding site loops have a large role to play in the methylation of the viral mRNA cap, which is essential for Zika virus replication...
June 20, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Ramashankar Rath, Anand Krishnan, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, Puneet Misra
Background: Legislative route is one of the known method to control behaviour of population. Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act is one of the laws enacted to control the use of tobacco in India lunched in the year 2003. Objective: The objective of this study was to find compliance of COTPA among tobacco stores and to find the knowledge of people regarding COTPA. Methods: All selected communities were studied by community audit. All stores selling tobacco products were assessed for its compliance to COTPA...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Rebecca Sanders, Stephen Bustin, Jim Huggett, Deborah Mason
Human health and safety depend on reliable measurements in medical diagnosis and on tests that support the selection and evaluation of therapeutic intervention and newly discovered molecular biomarkers must pass a rigorous evaluation process if they are to be of benefit to patients. Measurement standardization helps to maximize data quality and confidence and ultimately improves the reproducibility of published research. Failure to consider how a given experiment may be standardized can be costly, both financially as well as in time and failure to perform and report pre-clinical research in an appropriately rigorous manner will hinder the development of diagnostic methods...
May 2018: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Alba Práxedes, Fernando Del Villar, David Pizarro, Alberto Moreno
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a teaching program, based on Non-Linear Pedagogy, on decision-making and performance in youth soccer players as a function of the type of play action. Our participants were 19 players from the U12 age category. The teaching program, which was based on the application of modified games characterized by a numerical superiority in attack, was used for 14 training sessions. This program was conducted in two phases (preparation-for-intervention and intervention)...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Marco Beato, Mikael Jamil, Gavin Devereux
The Video Tracking multiple cameras system (VTS) is a technology that records two-dimensional position data (x and y) at high sampling rates (over 25 Hz). The VTS is of great interest because it can record external load variables as well as collect technical and tactical parameters. Performance analysis is mainly focused on physical demands, yet less attention has been afforded to technical and tactical factors. Digital.Stadium® VTS is a performance analysis device widely used at national and international levels (i...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Kathrin Siebers, Bijan Fink, Anna Zakrzewicz, Alisa Agné, Katrin Richter, Sebastian Konzok, Andreas Hecker, Sven Zukunft, Mira Küllmar, Jochen Klein, J Michael McIntosh, Thomas Timm, Katherina Sewald, Winfried Padberg, Nupur Aggarwal, Walee Chamulitrat, Sentot Santoso, Wendy Xia, Sabina Janciauskiene, Veronika Grau
While interleukin (IL)-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in host defense, high levels can cause life-threatening sterile inflammation including systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Hence, the control of IL-1β secretion is of outstanding biomedical importance. In response to a first inflammatory stimulus such as lipopolysaccharide, pro-IL-1β is synthesized as a cytoplasmic inactive pro-form. Extracellular ATP originating from injured cells is a prototypical second signal for inflammasome-dependent maturation and release of IL-1β...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Martin J Spencer, Hamish Meffin, Anthony N Burkitt, David B Grayden
Asynchrony among synaptic inputs may prevent a neuron from responding to behaviorally relevant sensory stimuli. For example, "octopus cells" are monaural neurons in the auditory brainstem of mammals that receive input from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) representing a broad band of sound frequencies. Octopus cells are known to respond with finely timed action potentials at the onset of sounds despite the fact that due to the traveling wave delay in the cochlea, synaptic input from the auditory nerve is temporally diffuse...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Siyi Tan, Hairong Zhao, Wanqin Yang, Bo Tan, Xiangyin Ni, Kai Yue, Yu Zhang, Fuzhong Wu
Canopy exchange is one of the most important processes involved in the internal transfer of elements in forest ecosystems. However, little information is available on how canopy exchange influences the input of base cations in subalpine forests. Therefore, the concentrations and fluxes of base cations in throughfall and stemflow were investigated from August 2015 to July 2016 (except for the frozen season) in a representative subalpine spruce plantation in the eastern Tibet Plateau. Our results showed that the mean concentrations of K, Ca, Na and Mg were higher in the stemflow than in the throughfall and precipitation...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicholas A Levine, Brandon R Rigby
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) describes a group of disorders that are due to a dynamic compression of blood vessels or nerves, between the clavicle and first rib or cervical vertebral nerve roots. Individuals with TOS typically experience upper limb pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness that is exacerbated by shoulder or neck movement. The causes of TOS vary, and can include abrupt movements, hypertrophy of the neck musculature, and anatomical variations in which the brachial plexus roots pass through this musculature, edema, pregnancy, repeated overhead motions, the blockage of an artery or vein, or abnormal posture...
June 19, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Yunfeng Gao, Christoph Spahn, Mike Heilemann, Linda J Kenney
Bacterial pathogens exploit eukaryotic pathways for their own end. Upon ingestion, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium passes through the stomach and then catalyzes its uptake across the intestinal epithelium. It survives and replicates in an acidic vacuole through the action of virulence factors secreted by a type three secretion system located on Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). Two secreted effectors, SifA and SseJ, are sufficient for endosomal tubule formation, which modifies the vacuole and enables Salmonella to replicate within it...
June 19, 2018: MBio
A N Tavare, S S Hare, F N A Miller, C J Hammond, A Edey, A Devaraj
AIM: To ascertain current percutaneous lung biopsy practices around the UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to all British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) and British Society of Interventional Radiology (BSIR) members (May 2017) assessing all aspects of lung biopsy practice. Responses were collected anonymously. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-nine completed responses were received (28.8% response rate). Of the respondents, 48...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Radiology
W F Zhang, Z T Li, J J Fang, G B Wang, Y Yu, Z Q Liu, Y N Wu, S S Zheng, L Cai
The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which mannose protects the lung injury induced in rats with acute pancreatitis (AP). An AP combined with Acute Lung Injury (ALI) model was established. A total of 90 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300±50g weight) were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (SO group), severe acute pancreatitis lung injury group (SAP group), and mannose intervention group (MT group). Subsequently, each group was divided into two subgroups based on the time passed from intervention, namely 6 and 12 h...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
X L Zhao, L H Huang, X Y Wang, Yt DU, Xl Wang, X H Cheng, L P Zhao, Y Li
Objective: To explore the correlation of SLC26A4 genotype and audiology. Method: The subjects were 70 children aged 0 to 7 years old, who were admitted to otological outpatient department.All subjects received nine crystal hereditary deafness gene chip and confirmed by (or)SLC26A4 gene full coding region detection.The patients were diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations.At the same time,acoustic immittance,auditory brainstem response, auditory steady state response and pediatric behavior audiometry, newborn hearing screening and other audiological tests were displayed...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Paul W Gabrielson, Jeffery R Hughey, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido
An essential suite of coral reef ecosystem engineers is coralline red algae. Among these, the smooth, encrusting Porolithon onkodes has historically been considered the most important and common reef building species worldwide. We assess P. onkodes biodiversity by performing a genomic analysis of the lectotype specimen collected in 1892 from the Tami Islands, Gulf of Huon, east of New Guinea. Comparisons of DNA sequences from the lectotype specimen to those deposited in GenBank and to newly generated sequences from both field-collected and historical specimens demonstrate that at least 20 distinct species are passing under P...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Anthony Pio Dimech, Matthew Sammut, Kelvin Cortis, Nebosja Petrovic
INTRODUCTION: Communications between an artery and the bowel are termed arterio-enteric fistulae. These are uncommon and mainly involve the aorta and duodenum. They can cause fatal haemorrhage. A primary aorto-enteric fistula has several aetiologies, one of which is post-radiotherapy. CASE REPORT: 75-year old gentleman presented with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and haemorrhagic shock. He had a past history of right colonic cancer treated by resection and radiotherapy...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Evangelia Karkoula, Nikolaos Lemonakis, Nikolaos Kokras, Christina Dalla, Evagelos Gikas, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Anthony Tsarbopoulos
A novel, fit-for-purpose, highly sensitive, analytical UPLC-PDA methodology was developed and fully validated, according to ICH, FDA and EMA guidelines, for the rapid and accurate quantification of trans-crocin 4 (TC4) and crocetin (CRC) in mice plasma and brain after i.p. administration. A PDA based methodology shows a wider applicability as it is cost effective and can be easily and seamlessly adopted by the pharma industry. The separation of the analytes was performed on a C8 Hypersil Gold column with 2...
June 16, 2018: Fitoterapia
Udonna Ndu, Geoff A Christensen, Nelson A Rivera, Caitlin M Gionfriddo, Marc A Deshusses, Dwayne A Elias, Heileen Hsu-Kim
Mercury (Hg)-contaminated sediment and water contain various Hg species, with a small fraction available for microbial conversion to the bioaccumulative neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MeHg). Quantification of this available Hg pool is needed to prioritize sites for risk management. This study compared the efficacy of diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT) passive samplers to a thiol-based selective extraction method with glutathione (GSH) and conventional filtration (<0.2 μm) as indicators of Hg bioavailability...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Coit T Hendley, Lee A Fielding, Elizabeth R Jones, Anthony J Ryan, Steven P Armes, Lara A Estroff
Recently, it has become clear that a range of nanoparticles can be occluded within single crystals to form nanocomposites. Calcite is a much-studied model, but even in this case we have yet to fully understand the details of the nanoscale interactions at the organic-inorganic interface that lead to occlusion. Here, a series of diblock copolymer nanoparticles with well-defined surface chemistries were visualized interacting with a growing calcite surface using in situ atomic force microscopy. These nanoparticles comprise a poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) core-forming block and a non-ionic poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (Ph-PGMA), a carboxylic acid-tipped poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (HOOC-PGMA), or an anionic poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) stabilizer block...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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