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Dawei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Guangqi Kong
BACKGROUND Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, the knowledge of circRNAs in bladder cancer remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of circRNAs in the development and progression of bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three pairs of bladder carcinomas (including high- and low-grade tumors) and adjacent normal tissues were collected from patients. The total RNAs were extracted from these samples and subjected to Clariom D microarray assays to detect the differentially expressed circRNAs and mRNAs...
March 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jing Jie, Yixin Zhang, Hongyue Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhai, Nannan Zhang, Hongyan Yuan, Weihua Ni, Guixiang Tai
Mucin 1 ( MUC1 ), being an oncogene, is an attractive target in tumor immunotherapy. Maltose binding protein (MBP) is a potent built-in adjuvant to enhance protein immunogenicity. Thus, a recombinant MUC1 and MBP antitumor vaccine (M-M) was constructed in our laboratory. To enhance the antitumor immune activity of M-M, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides 1826 (CpG 1826), a toll-like receptor-9 agonist, was examined in this study as an adjuvant. The combination of M-M and CpG 1826 significantly inhibited MUC1 -expressing B16 cell growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Yide Huang, Yafei Zhang, Lilin Ge, Yao Lin, Hang Fai Kwok
The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family is involved in multiple cellular functions and plays an important role in various pathological and physiological processes. In many chronic diseases, for example cancer, PTP is a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In the last two decades, dozens of PTP inhibitors which specifically target individual PTP molecules were developed as therapeutic agents. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and is the second most lethal cancer worldwide due to a lack of effective therapies...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Karin Kosulin, Elena Lam, Albert Heim, Thomas Dobner, Estefanía Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviral (HAdV) infections are usually mild and self-limited, however, some infections from species A, B, C, D and E, can cause severe illnesses, which have raised public health concerns over the past few years. Current available antiviral therapies have limited efficacy and severe toxicity; therefore, finding new targets for specific anti-adenoviral drug design is urgently needed. Our previous work showed that the small molecule compound, HBX, inhibits HAdV type 5 (species C, HAdV-C5) replication and oncogenic transformation through inhibition of the cellular pro-viral factor ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7)...
March 20, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Zeanap A Mabruk, Samrein B M Ahmed, Asha Caroline Thomas, Sally A Prigent
Preliminary screening data showed that the ShcD adaptor protein associates with the proto-oncogene RET receptor tyrosine kinase. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the molecular interaction between ShcD and RET in human neuroblastoma cells and study the functional impact of this interaction. We were able to show that ShcD immunoprecipitated with RET from SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cell lysates upon GDNF treatment. This result was validated by ShcD-RET co-localization, which was visualized using a fluorescence microscope...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Silvia Di Agostino, Fabio Valenti, Andrea Sacconi, Giulia Fontemaggi, Matteo Pallocca, Claudio Pulito, Federica Ganci, Paola Muti, Sabrina Strano, Giovanni Blandino
Over 70% of head & neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients carry TP53 oncogenic mutations. Here we studied the role of specific tumor-derived mutant p53 proteins in the aberrant transcription of long non-coding (lnc) MIR205HG gene in head and neck cancer cells. Methods: To understand the role of lncMIR205HG, that we showed to be transcriptionally regulated by mutant p53 in HNSCC, we have employed siRNA and shRNA in CAL27 and FaDu HNSCC cell lines to suppress p53 gene expression in ChIP assays and RT-qPCR...
2018: Theranostics
Duanyang Zhai, Chunhui Cui, Lang Xie, Lianxu Cai, Jinlong Yu
Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC), the mechanism of which remains unclear. In the present study, by detecting mRNA expression using a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), it was revealed that sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) is highly expressed in CRC. Using a cell wound healing assay and a cell invasion assay, a novel metastasis-promoting role for SREBP1 in CRC was identified. Furthermore, snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAIL) was identified as a key downstream effector of SREBP1 in CRC by the use of small interfering RNA against SNAIL...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Zhejia Zhang, Xinying Li, Qian Xiao, Zhiming Wang
Thyroid cancer is the most frequently occurring type of endocrine tumor, with a rapidly increasing incidence rate. MicroRNA (miR)-574-5p is a candidate oncogene in various types of cancer. The present study identified that miR-574-5p affected the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of BCPAP and FTC133 thyroid cancer cells via β-catenin/Wnt signaling by targeting Quaking proteins (QKIs). An MTT assay demonstrated that the knockdown of miR-574-5p suppressed the proliferation of the thyroid cancer cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis demonstrated that the inhibition of miR-574-5p induced the G1 /S phase arrest and apoptosis of the cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Rui Dou, Lili Zhang, Tingxia Lu, Dong Liu, Fang Mei, Jian Huang, Linxue Qian
HRas proto-oncogene ( HRAS ) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in thyroid cancer, with mutations frequently occurring in the follicular and Hurthle cell subtypes. However, the contribution of mutations in HRAS to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) progression and the tall-cell variant (TCV) is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the somatic genetic variants present in HRAS in patients with PTC, and to investigate the association of these mutations with PTC. The present study is a retrospective case-control study using tumor samples collected from 139 patients with PTC and blood samples from 195 healthy individuals...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Kunyuan Wang, Chenxi Duan, Xuejing Zou, Yang Song, Wenwen Li, Lushan Xiao, Jie Peng, Liheng Yao, Qian Long, Li Liu
Mediator complex subunit 15 (MED15) is a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of RNA polymerase II-dependent genes and serves an oncogenic role in numerous types of cancer. However, the expression and function of MED15 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the expression and clinical significance of MED15 in HCC. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MED15 mRNA and protein levels were significantly upregulated in HCC tissues compared with those in the corresponding adjacent non-tumor liver tissues...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Ruilian Xu, Guolin Zhong, Tanxiao Huang, Wan He, Cheng Kong, Xiaoni Zhang, Ying Wang, Ming Liu, Mingyan Xu, Shifu Chen
Lung cancer is the most commonly occurring type of cancer worldwide and also has the highest mortality rate. Although targeted therapy of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has become common, the majority of patients receiving first-line epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)-TKI treatment develop drug resistance. The EGFR T790M (NM_005228.4(EGFR):c.2369C>T (p.Thr790Met)) mutation accounts for half of all reported resistance cases; however, the molecular mechanism resulting in the drug resistance remains to be characterized...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Peijie Chen, Jing Quan, Lu Jin, Canbin Lin, Weijie Xu, Jinling Xu, Xin Guan, Zebo Chen, Liangchao Ni, Shangqi Yang, Yun Chen, Yongqing Lai
MiR-216a-5p has been acknowledged as an oncogene and is known to be involved in the progression and metastasis of numerous cancer subtypes. However, the potential role of miR-216a-5p in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains to be elucidated. In the present study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-216a-5p in RCC tissues. Cell counting kit-8, MTT, wound scratch, Transwell and flow cytometric assays were performed to establish the biological functions of miR-216a-5p in RCC...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dharmendra K Yadav, Surendra Kumar, Saloni, Sanjeev Misra, Lalit Yadav, Mahesh Teli, Praveen Sharma, Sandeep Chaudhary, Naresh Kumar, Eun Ha Choi, Hyung Sik Kim, Mi-Hyun Kim
SIRT6 and COX-2 are oncogenes target that promote the expression of proinflammatory and pro-survival proteins through a signaling pathway, which leads to increased survival and proliferation of tumor cells. However, COX-2 also suppresses skin tumorigenesis and their relationship with SIRT6, making it an interesting target for the discovery of drugs with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Herein, we studied the interaction of thieno[3,2-c]pyran analogs and RONS species with SIRT6 and COX-2 through the use of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tao Wang, Zhong-Yi Qin, Liang-Zhi Wen, Yan Guo, Qin Liu, Zeng-Jie Lei, Wei Pan, Kai-Jun Liu, Xing-Wei Wang, Shu-Jie Lai, Wen-Jing Sun, Yan-Ling Wei, Lei Liu, Ling Guo, Yu-Qin Chen, Jun Wang, Hua-Liang Xiao, Xiu-Wu Bian, Dong-Feng Chen, Bin Wang
The evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway is a key regulator of stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and organ size. While alterations in Hippo signaling are causally linked to uncontrolled cell growth and a broad range of malignancies, genetic mutations in the Hippo pathway are uncommon and it is unclear how the tumor suppressor function of the Hippo pathway is disrupted in human cancers. Here, we report a novel epigenetic mechanism of Hippo inactivation in the context of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Xiaoyan Liu, Lei Bi, Qin Wang, Mingxin Wen, Ce Li, Yidan Ren, Qinlian Jiao, Jian-Hua Mao, Chuanxin Wang, Guangwei Wei, Yunshan Wang
Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) is an lncRNA that plays vital roles in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs that reside in the PVT1 locus are the main driver of the oncogenic roles of PVT1 in cancer. However, the oncogenic role and underlying mechanism of miR-1204, located in the PVT1 locus, in human cancer is still unclear. In this study, we discovered that increased expression of miR-1204 is associated with poor prognosis in BC. Moreover, miR-1204 promotes proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion of BC cells both in vitro and in vivo...
March 20, 2018: Oncogene
Lin Jia, Dinglan Wu, Yuliang Wang, Wenxing You, Zhu Wang, Lijia Xiao, Ganhui Cai, Zhenyu Xu, Chang Zou, Fei Wang, Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Chi-Fai Ng, Shan Yu, Franky L Chan
The metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a lethal form of prostate cancer, in which the expression of androgen receptor (AR) is highly heterogeneous. Indeed, lower AR expression and attenuated AR signature activity is shown in CRPC tissues, especially in the subset of neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) and prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSCs). However, the significance of AR downregulation in androgen insensitivity and de-differentiation of tumor cells in CRPC is poorly understood and much neglected...
March 20, 2018: Oncogene
Guideng Li, Alex Yick-Lun So, Reeshelle Sookram, Stephanie Wong, Jessica K Wang, Yong Ouyang, Peng He, Yapeng Su, Rafael Casellas, David Baltimore
Deregulation of several microRNAs can influence critical developmental checkpoints during hematopoiesis as well as cell functions, eventually leading to the development of autoimmune disease or cancer. We found that miR-125b is expressed in bone marrow multipotent progenitors and myeloid cells but is shut down in the B cell lineage, and the gene encoding miR-125b lacked transcriptional activation markers in B cells. To understand the biological importance of the physiological silencing of miR-125b expression in B cells, we drove its expression in the B cell lineage and found that dysregulated miR-125b expression impaired egress of immature B cells from the bone marrow to peripheral blood...
March 19, 2018: Blood
Katherine Ting-Wei Lee, Vinod Gopalan, Farhadul Islam, Riajul Wahab, Afraa Mamoori, Cu-Tai Lu, Robert Anthony Smith, Alfred King-Yin Lam
GAEC1 (gene amplified in oesophageal cancer 1) is a transforming oncogene with tumorigenic potential observed in both oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, there has been a lack of study done on this gene to understand how this gene exert its oncogenic properties in cancer. This study aims to identify novel mutation sites in GAEC1. To do so, seventy-nine matched colorectal cancers were tested for GAEC1 mutation via Sanger sequencing. The mutations noted were investigated for the correlations with the clinicopathological parameters of the patients with the cancer...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ningshu Huang, Zhenglan Huang, Miao Gao, Zhenhong Luo, Fangzhu Zhou, Lin Liu, Qing Xiao, Xin Wang, Wenli Feng
BACKGROUND: The bcr-abl fusion gene is the pathological origin of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and plays a critical role in the resistance of imatinib. Thus, bcr-abl disruption-based novel therapeutic strategy may warrant exploration. In our study, we were surprised to find that the characteristics of bcr-abl sequences met the design requirements of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs). METHODS: We constructed the ZFNs targeting bcr-abl with high specificity through simple modular assembly approach...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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