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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642272/networks-underpinning-symbiosis-revealed-through-cross-species-eqtl-mapping
#1
Yuelong Guo, Sylwia Fudali, Jacinta Gimeno, Peter DiGennaro, Stella Chang, Valerie M Williamson, David McK Bird, Dahlia M Nielsen
Organisms engage in extensive cross-species molecular dialogue, yet the underlying molecular actors are known for only a few interactions. Many techniques have been designed to uncover genes involved in signaling between organisms. Typically, these focus on only one of the partners. We developed an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping-based approach to identify cause-and-effect relationships between genes from two partners engaged in an interspecific interaction. We demonstrated the approach by assaying expression of ninety-eight isogenic plants (Medicago truncatula), each inoculated with a genetically distinct line of the diploid parasitic nematode Meloidogyne hapla With this design, systematic differences in gene expression across host plants could be mapped to genetic polymorphisms of their infecting parasites...
June 22, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641502/ordering-theories-typologies-and-conceptual-frameworks-for-sociotechnical-change
#2
Benjamin K Sovacool, David J Hess
What theories or concepts are most useful at explaining socio technical change? How can - or cannot - these be integrated? To provide an answer, this study presents the results from 35 semi-structured research interviews with social science experts who also shared more than two hundred articles, reports and books on the topic of the acceptance, adoption, use, or diffusion of technology. This material led to the identification of 96 theories and conceptual approaches spanning 22 identified disciplines. The article begins by explaining its research terms and methods before honing in on a combination of fourteen theories deemed most relevant and useful by the material...
June 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633937/our-teacher-likes-you-so-i-like-you-a-social-network-approach-to-social-referencing
#3
Marloes M H G Hendrickx, Tim Mainhard, Henrike J Boor-Klip, Mieke Brekelmans
A teacher is a social referent for peer liking and disliking when students adjust their evaluations of a peer based on their perceptions of teacher liking and disliking for this peer. The present study investigated social referencing as an intra-individual process that occurs over time, using stochastic actor-oriented modeling with RSiena. The co-evolution of peer-perceived teacher liking and disliking networks with peer liking and disliking networks was analyzed in 52 fifth-grade classes in the Netherlands, with 1370 students (Mage=10...
August 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628250/grain-subproteome-responses-to-nitrogen-and-sulfur-supply-in-diploid-wheat-triticum-monococcum-ssp-monococcum
#4
Titouan Bonnot, Emmanuelle Bancel, David Alvarez, Marlène Davanture, Julie Boudet, Marie Pailloux, Michel Zivy, Catherine Ravel, Pierre Martre
Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling...
June 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618560/topology-dependent-rationality-and-quantal-response-equilibria-in-structured-populations
#5
Sabin Roman, Markus Brede
Given that the assumption of perfect rationality is rarely met in the real world, we explore a graded notion of rationality in socioecological systems of networked actors. We parametrize an actors' rationality via their place in a social network and quantify system rationality via the average Jensen-Shannon divergence between the games Nash and logit quantal response equilibria. Previous work has argued that scale-free topologies maximize a system's overall rationality in this setup. Here we show that while, for certain games, it is true that increasing degree heterogeneity of complex networks enhances rationality, rationality-optimal configurations are not scale-free...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610578/sub-national-assessment-of-aid-effectiveness-a-case-study-of-post-conflict-districts-in-uganda
#6
Freddie Ssengooba, Justine Namakula, Vincent Kawooya, Suzanne Fustukian
BACKGROUND: In post-conflict settings, many state and non-state actors interact at the sub-national levels in rebuilding health systems by providing funds, delivering vital interventions and building capacity of local governments to shoulder their roles. Aid relationships among actors at sub-national level represent a vital lever for health system development. This study was undertaken to assess the aid-effectiveness in post-conflict districts of northern Uganda. METHOD: This was a three district cross sectional study conducted from January to April 2013...
June 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596424/s100-a9-protein-in-exosomes-from-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cells-promotes-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-during-disease-progression
#7
Daniel Prieto, Natalia Sotelo, Noé Seija, Sandra Sernbo, Cecilia Abreu, Rosario Durán, Magdalena Gil, Estefanía Sicco, Victoria Irigoin, Carolina Oliver, Ana Inés Landoni, Raúl Gabus, Guillermo Dighiero, Pablo Oppezzo
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is an incurable disease characterized by accumulation of clonal B lymphocytes, resulting from a complex balance between cell proliferation and apoptotic death. A continuous crosstalk between cancer cells and local/distant host environment is required for effective tumor growth. Among the main actors of this dynamic interplay between tumoral cells and their microenvironment are the nano-sized vesicles called exosomes. Emerging evidence indicates that secretion, composition, and functional capacity of the exosomes are altered as tumors progress to an aggressive phenotype...
June 8, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571509/a-long-history-of-breakdowns-a-historiographical-review
#8
Dániel Margócsy
The introduction to this special issue argues that network breakdowns play an important and unacknowledged role in the shaping and emergence of scientific knowledge. It focuses on transnational scientific networks from the early modern Republic of Letters to 21st-century globalized science. It attempts to unite the disparate historiography of the early modern Republic of Letters, the literature on 20th-century globalization, and the scholarship on Actor-Network Theory. We can perceive two, seemingly contradictory, changes to scientific networks over the past four hundred years...
May 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527377/fishing-for-leadership-the-role-diversification-plays-in-facilitating-change-agents
#9
Joshua S Stoll
Leadership is often viewed as being critical to successful natural resource management. This research focuses on a set of leaders identified through a social network analysis of fishers in a rural coastal region. Leaders' connections to different fisheries are evaluated, and these actors are found to be significantly more diversified than other fishers in the area. Drawing on theory related to institutional entrepreneurship and a series of in-depth interviews with these actors, this paper puts forward several hypotheses to explain how diverse social-ecological connections facilitate leadership...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486475/a-simulated-annealing-heuristic-for-maximum-correlation-core-periphery-partitioning-of-binary-networks
#10
Michael Brusco, Hannah J Stolze, Michaela Hoffman, Douglas Steinley
A popular objective criterion for partitioning a set of actors into core and periphery subsets is the maximization of the correlation between an ideal and observed structure associated with intra-core and intra-periphery ties. The resulting optimization problem has commonly been tackled using heuristic procedures such as relocation algorithms, genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing. In this paper, we present a computationally efficient simulated annealing algorithm for maximum correlation core/periphery partitioning of binary networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466752/what-makes-a-robot-social
#11
Raya A Jones
Rhetorical moves that construct humanoid robots as social agents disclose tensions at the intersection of science and technology studies (STS) and social robotics. The discourse of robotics often constructs robots that are like us (and therefore unlike dumb artefacts). In the discourse of STS, descriptions of how people assimilate robots into their activities are presented directly or indirectly against the backdrop of actor-network theory, which prompts attributing agency to mundane artefacts. In contradistinction to both social robotics and STS, it is suggested here that to view a capacity to partake in dialogical action (to have a 'voice') is necessary for regarding an artefact as authentically social...
April 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464727/consumer-led-health-related-online-sources-and-their-impact-on-consumers-an-integrative-review-of-the-literature
#12
Elina Laukka, Piia Rantakokko, Marjo Suhonen
The aim of the review was to describe consumer-led health-related online sources and their impact on consumers. The review was carried out as an integrative literature review. Quantisation and qualitative content analysis were used as the analysis method. The most common method used by the included studies was qualitative content analysis. This review identified the consumer-led health-related online sources used between 2009 and 2016 as health-related online communities, health-related social networking sites and health-related rating websites...
April 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460939/a-holistic-approach-to-food-safety-risks-food-fraud-as-an-example
#13
Hans J P Marvin, Yamine Bouzembrak, Esmée M Janssen, H J van der Fels-Klerx, Esther D van Asselt, Gijs A Kleter
Production of sufficient, safe and nutritious food is a global challenge faced by the actors operating in the food production chain. The performance of food-producing systems from farm to fork is directly and indirectly influenced by major changes in, for example, climate, demographics, and the economy. Many of these major trends will also drive the development of food safety risks and thus will have an effect on human health, local societies and economies. It is advocated that a holistic or system approach taking into account the influence of multiple "drivers" on food safety is followed to predict the increased likelihood of occurrence of safety incidents so as to be better prepared to prevent, mitigate and manage associated risks...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460211/controversies-about-cervical-cancer-screening-a-qualitative-study-of-roma-women-s-non-participation-in-cervical-cancer-screening-in-romania
#14
Trude Andreassen, Elisabete Weiderpass, Florian Nicula, Ofelia Suteu, Andreea Itu, Minodora Bumbu, Aida Tincu, Giske Ursin, Kåre Moen
Romania has Europe's highest incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. While a free national cervical cancer-screening programme has been in operation since 2012, participation in the programme is low, particularly in minority populations. The aim of this study was to explore Roma women's (non)participation in the programme from women's own perspectives and those of healthcare providers and policy makers. We carried out fieldwork for a period of 125 days in 2015/16 involving 144 study participants in Cluj and Bucharest counties...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452007/lps-oleuropein-and-blueberry-extracts-affect-the-survival-morphology-and-phosphoinositide-signalling-in-stimulated-human-endothelial-cells
#15
Vincenza Rita Lo Vasco, Martina Leopizzi, Valeria Di Maio, Tania Di Raimo, Stefania Cesa, Alessandra Masci, Carlo Della Rocca
Endothelial cells (EC) act as leading actors in angiogenesis. Understanding the complex network of signal transduction pathways which regulate angiogenesis might offer insights in the regulation of normal and pathological events, including tumours, vascular, inflammatory and immune diseases. The effects of olive oil and of Blueberry extracts upon the phosphoinositide (PI)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes were evaluated both in quiescent and inflammatory stimulated human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) using molecular biology (multiliquid bioanalysis) and immunofluorescence techniques...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439403/policy-entrepreneurship-and-policy-networks-in-healthcare-systems-the-case-of-israel-s-pediatric-dentistry-reform
#16
Nissim Cohen, Tuvia Horev
BACKGROUND: Can the entry of a policy entrepreneur challenge the equilibrium of a policy network and promote changes that might clash with the goals of powerful civil-servants and/or interest groups and, if so, why and how? Our goal is to examine two sides of the same coin: how does an in-depth analysis of Israel's dental care reform enrich our understanding of policy networks and policy entrepreneurship? Second, how does the literature on policy networks and policy entrepreneurship help us understand this reform? Based on a theoretical framework that appears in the literature of policy entrepreneurship and policy networks, we analyze the motivations, goals and strategies of the main actors involved in the process of reforming pediatric dental care in Israel...
2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436891/off-policy-reinforcement-learning-for-synchronization-in-multiagent-graphical-games
#17
Jinna Li, Hamidreza Modares, Tianyou Chai, Frank L Lewis, Lihua Xie
This paper develops an off-policy reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm to solve optimal synchronization of multiagent systems. This is accomplished by using the framework of graphical games. In contrast to traditional control protocols, which require complete knowledge of agent dynamics, the proposed off-policy RL algorithm is a model-free approach, in that it solves the optimal synchronization problem without knowing any knowledge of the agent dynamics. A prescribed control policy, called behavior policy, is applied to each agent to generate and collect data for learning...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435425/power-and-integrated-health-care-shifting-from-governance-to-governmentality
#18
André Janse van Rensburg, Asta Rau, Pieter Fourie, Piet Bracke
Integrated care occurs within micro, meso and macro levels of governance structures, which are shaped by complex power dynamics. Yet theoretically-led notions of power, and scrutiny of its meanings and its functioning, are neglected in the literature on integrated care. We explore an alternative approach. Following a discussion on governance, two streams of theorising power are presented: mainstream and second-stream. Mainstream concepts are based on the notion of power-as-capacity, of one agent having the capacity to influence another-so the overall idea is 'power over?'...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Integrated Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433927/performing-boundary-work-the-emergence-of-a-new-practice-in-a-hybrid-operating-room
#19
Kajsa Lindberg, Lars Walter, Elena Raviola
This paper addresses the processes of boundary work, in relation to the introduction of new technology, unfolding during the emergence of new medical practices. Inspired by Gieryn's fluid and practical view of boundaries and boundary work, and by Actor-Network Theory's description of scripting processes, we study the processes of negotiating and (re-)constructing boundaries in order to reveal both the interactions between different kinds of boundary work and their situatedness in the context of the emerging practice...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429970/taking-data-seriously-the-value-of-actor-network-theory-in-rethinking-patient-experience-data
#20
Amit Desai, Giulia Zoccatelli, Mary Adams, Davina Allen, Sally Brearley, Anne Marie Rafferty, Glenn Robert, Sara Donetto
Hospitals are awash with patient experience data, much of it collected with the ostensible purpose of improving the quality of patient care. However, there has been comparatively little consideration of the nature and capacities of data itself. Using insights from actor-network theory, we propose that paying attention to patient experience data as having agency in particular hospital interactions allows us to better trace how and in what circumstances data lead (or fail to lead) to quality improvement.
April 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
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