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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349880/beyond-the-realist-turn-a-socio-material-analysis-of-heart-failure-self-care
#1
Allan McDougall, Elizabeth Anne Kinsella, Mark Goldszmidt, Karen Harkness, Patricia Strachan, Lorelei Lingard
For patients living with chronic illnesses, self-care has been linked with positive outcomes such as decreased hospitalisation, longer lifespan, and improved quality of life. However, despite calls for more and better self-care interventions, behaviour change trials have repeatedly fallen short on demonstrating effectiveness. The literature on heart failure (HF) stands as a case in point, and a growing body of HF studies advocate realist approaches to self-care research and policymaking. We label this trend the 'realist turn' in HF self-care...
January 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346908/mechanisms-of-self-organized-criticality-in-social-processes-of-knowledge-creation
#2
Bosiljka Tadić, Marija Mitrović Dankulov, Roderick Melnik
In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A)...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344752/transforming-dermatologic-imaging-for-the-digital-era-metadata-and-standards
#3
Liam J Caffery, David Clunie, Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, Josep Malvehy, H Peter Soyer, Allan C Halpern
Imaging is increasingly being used in dermatology for documentation, diagnosis, and management of cutaneous disease. The lack of standards for dermatologic imaging is an impediment to clinical uptake. Standardization can occur in image acquisition, terminology, interoperability, and metadata. This paper presents the International Skin Imaging Collaboration position on standardization of metadata for dermatologic imaging. Metadata is essential to ensure that dermatologic images are properly managed and interpreted...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325777/data-driven-model-reference-control-of-mimo-vertical-tank-systems-with-model-free-vrft-and-q-learning
#4
Mircea-Bogdan Radac, Radu-Emil Precup, Raul-Cristian Roman
This paper proposes a combined Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning-Q-learning model-free control approach, which tunes nonlinear static state feedback controllers to achieve output model reference tracking in an optimal control framework. The novel iterative Batch Fitted Q-learning strategy uses two neural networks to represent the value function (critic) and the controller (actor), and it is referred to as a mixed Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning-Batch Fitted Q-learning approach. Learning convergence of the Q-learning schemes generally depends, among other settings, on the efficient exploration of the state-action space...
January 8, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325409/all-health-partnerships-great-and-small-comparing-mandated-with-emergent-health-partnerships-comment-on-evaluating-global-health-partnerships-a-case-study-of-a-gavi-hpv-vaccine-application-process-in-uganda
#5
Elaine Green, Dan Ritman, Graeme Chisholm
The plurality of healthcare providers and funders in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has given rise to an era in which health partnerships are becoming the norm in international development. Whether mandated or emergent, three common drivers are essential for ensuring successful health partnerships: trust; a diverse and inclusive network; and a clear governance structure. Mandated and emergent health partnerships operate as very different models and at different scales. However, there is potential for sharing and learning between these types of partnerships...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325406/polycentrism-in-global-health-governance-scholarship-comment-on-four-challenges-that-global-health-networks-face
#6
Jale Tosun
Drawing on an in-depth analysis of eight global health networks, a recent essay in this journal argued that global health networks face four challenges to their effectiveness: problem definition, positioning, coalition-building, and governance. While sharing the argument of the essay concerned, in this commentary, we argue that these analytical concepts can be used to explicate a concept that has implicitly been used in global health governance scholarship for quite a few years. While already prominent in the discussion of climate change governance, for instance, global health governance scholarship could make progress by looking at global health governance as being polycentric...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316702/an-autonomous-connectivity-restoration-algorithm-based-on-finite-state-machine-for-wireless-sensor-actor-networks
#7
Ying Zhang, Jun Wang, Guan Hao
With the development of autonomous unmanned intelligent systems, such as the unmanned boats, unmanned planes and autonomous underwater vehicles, studies on Wireless Sensor-Actor Networks (WSANs) have attracted more attention. Network connectivity algorithms play an important role in data exchange, collaborative detection and information fusion. Due to the harsh application environment, abnormal nodes often appear, and the network connectivity will be prone to be lost. Network self-healing mechanisms have become critical for these systems...
January 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313070/the-governance-of-indigenous-natural-products-in-namibia-a-policy-network-analysis
#8
Albertina Ndeinoma, K Freerk Wiersum, Bas Arts
At the end of the 20th century, optimism existed that non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can form an integral part in conservation and development strategies. However, there is limited knowledge on how the different stakeholders could relate to the state or to each other in promoting commercialization of NTFPs. Applying the policy network as an analytical framework, we investigated the structural patterns of actor relations in the governance structure of indigenous natural products (INPs) in Namibia, to understand the implications of such relations on INP policy process...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304251/the-role-of-leadership-in-people-centred-health-systems-a-sub-national-study-in-the-gambia
#9
Simukai Chigudu, Momodou Jasseh, Umberto d'Alessandro, Tumani Corrah, Adama Demba, Julie Balen
Recently, increasing attention has been given to behavioural and relational aspects of the people who both define and shape health systems, placing them at the core. A growing refrain includes the assertion that important decisions determining health system performance, including agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation, are made by people. Within this actor-oriented approach, good leadership has been identified as a key contributing factor in health systems strengthening. However, leadership remains ill-defined and under-researched, especially in resource-limited settings, and understanding the links between leadership and health outcomes remains a challenge...
January 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297336/engaging-stakeholders-lessons-from-the-use-of-participatory-tools-for-improving-maternal-and-child-care-health-services
#10
Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Upasona Ghosh, Rittika Brahmachari, Ligia Paina
BACKGROUND: Effective stakeholder engagement in research and implementation is important for improving the development and implementation of policies and programmes. A varied number of tools have been employed for stakeholder engagement. In this paper, we discuss two participatory methods for engaging with stakeholders - participatory social network analysis (PSNA) and participatory impact pathways analysis (PIPA). Based on our experience, we derive lessons about when and how to apply these tools...
December 28, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278253/news-values-on-social-media-news-organizations-facebook-use
#11
Ahmed Al-Rawi
This study examines the news selection practices followed by news organizations through investigating the news posted on social networking sites and, in particular, the Facebook pages of four foreign Arabic language TV stations: The Iranian Al-Alam TV, Russia Today, Deutsche Welle, and BBC. A total of 15,589 news stories are analyzed in order to examine the prominence of references to countries and political actors. The study reveals that social significance and proximity as well as the news organizations' ideological agenda are the most important elements that dictate the news selection process...
August 2017: Journalism (Lond)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276550/inference-for-social-network-models-from-egocentrically-sampled-data-with-application-to-understanding-persistent-racial-disparities-in-hiv-prevalence-in-the-us
#12
Pavel N Krivitsky, Martina Morris
Egocentric network sampling observes the network of interest from the point of view of a set of sampled actors, who provide information about themselves and anonymized information on their network neighbors. In survey research, this is often the most practical, and sometimes the only, way to observe certain classes of networks, with the sexual networks that underlie HIV transmission being the archetypal case. Although methods exist for recovering some descriptive network features, there is no rigorous and practical statistical foundation for estimation and inference for network models from such data...
March 2017: Annals of Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250752/the-dynamic-relationship-between-unhealthy-weight-control-and-adolescent-friendships-a-social-network-approach
#13
Melissa Simone, Emily Long, Ginger Lockhart
Although adolescence marks a vulnerable stage for peer influence on health behavior, little is known about the longitudinal and dynamic relationship between adolescent friendship and weight control. The current study aims to explain these dynamic processes among a sample of 1156 American adolescents in grades 9-11 (48.6% girls, 23.4% European American, 25.2% African American) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Stochastic actor-oriented models were fit to examine changes in friendship networks and unhealthy weight control across two waves...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243963/how-did-the-information-flow-in-the-alphago-hashtag-network-a-social-network-analysis-of-the-large-scale-information-network-on-twitter
#14
Jinyoung Kim
As it becomes common for Internet users to use hashtags when posting and searching information on social media, it is important to understand who builds a hashtag network and how information is circulated within the network. This article focused on unlocking the potential of the #AlphaGo hashtag network by addressing the following questions. First, the current study examined whether traditional opinion leadership (i.e., the influentials hypothesis) or grassroot participation by the public (i.e., the interpersonal hypothesis) drove dissemination of information in the hashtag network...
December 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236236/the-co-evolution-of-bullying-perpetration-homophobic-teasing-and-a-school-friendship-network
#15
Gabriel J Merrin, Kayla de la Haye, Dorothy L Espelage, Brett Ewing, Joan S Tucker, Matthew Hoover, Harold D Green
Bullying and homophobic teasing behaviors affect the lives of many school aged children, often co-occur, and tend to peak in middle school. While bullying and homophobic teasing behaviors are known to be peer group phenomena, studies typically examine the associations at the individual or school levels. An examination of these behaviors at the peer group level can aid in our understanding of the formation and maintenance of peer groups that engage in these forms of aggressive behavior (selection), and the extent to which friends and the peer group impact individual rates of these aggressive behaviors (influence)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235133/operating-on-the-self-transforming-agency-through-obesity-surgery-and-treatment
#16
Else Vogel
In this article, I describe the processes through which patients diagnosed with 'morbid obesity' become active subjects through undergoing obesity surgery and an empowerment lifestyle programme in a Dutch obesity clinic. Following work in actor-network theory and material semiotics that complicates the distinction between active and passive subjects, I trace how agency is configured and re-distributed throughout the treatment trajectory. In the clinic's elaborate care assemblage - consisting of dieticians, exercise coaches and psychologists - the person is not only actively involved in his/her own change, the subject of intervention is the self as 'actor': his/her material constitution, inclinations and feelings...
December 12, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213176/adapting-agricultural-water-use-to-climate-change-in-a-post-soviet-context-challenges-and-opportunities-in-southeast-kazakhstan
#17
Tristam Barrett, Giuseppe Feola, Marina Khusnitdinova, Viktoria Krylova
The convergence of climate change and post-Soviet socio-economic and institutional transformations has been underexplored so far, as have the consequences of such convergence on crop agriculture in Central Asia. This paper provides a place-based analysis of constraints and opportunities for adaptation to climate change, with a specific focus on water use, in two districts in southeast Kazakhstan. Data were collected by 2 multi-stakeholder participatory workshops, 21 semi-structured in-depth interviews, and secondary statistical data...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212482/biosecurity-aspects-of-cattle-production-in-western-uganda-and-associations-with-seroprevalence-of-brucellosis-salmonellosis-and-bovine-viral-diarrhoea
#18
C Wolff, S Boqvist, K Ståhl, C Masembe, S Sternberg-Lewerin
BACKGROUND: Many low-income countries have a human population with a high number of cattle owners depending on their livestock for food and income. Infectious diseases threaten the health and production of cattle, affecting both the farmers and their families as well as other actors in often informal value chains. Many infectious diseases can be prevented by good biosecurity. The objectives of this study were to describe herd management and biosecurity routines with potential impact on the prevalence of infectious diseases, and to estimate the burden of infectious diseases in Ugandan cattle herds, using the seroprevalence of three model infections...
December 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206357/understanding-uptake-of-an-intervention-to-accelerate-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-uganda-via-qualitative-inquiry
#19
Fred C Semitala, Carol S Camlin, Jeanna Wallenta, Leatitia Kampiire, Richard Katuramu, Gideon Amanyire, Jennifer Namusobya, Wei Chang, James G Kahn, Edwin D Charlebois, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Elvin H Geng
INTRODUCTION: The Streamlined Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Strategy (START-ART) study found that a theory-based intervention using opinion leaders to inform and coach health care providers about the risks of treatment delay, provision of point of care (POC) CD4 testing machines (PIMA) and reputational incentives, led to rapid rise in ART initiation. We used qualitative research methods to explore mechanisms of provider behaviour change. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 24 health care providers and nine study staff to understand perceptions, attitudes and the context of changes in ART initiation practices...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203133/-primary-care-a-definition-of-the-field-to-develop-research
#20
M Afonso, A Bénard, A Chapron, K Chau, E Doussiet, F Guillemin, S Guillo, D Gonthier, S Lafarge, M Lapeyre-Mestre, M Oriol, F Tubach, A Verga-Gérard
BACKGROUND: Research in the field of primary care has dramatically increased in France in recent years, especially since 2013 with the introduction of primary care as a thematic priority for research proposals launched by the Ministry of Health (Direction générale de l'offre de soins). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The RECaP (Research in Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health) network is a French research network supported by Inserm, which recently implemented a specific working group focusing on research in primary care, based on a multidisciplinary approach...
December 1, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
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