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actor network theory or actor-network

Dan Guttman, Oran Young, Yijia Jing, Barbara Bramble, Maoliang Bu, Carmen Chen, Kathinka Furst, Tao Hu, Yifei Li, Kate Logan, Lingxuan Liu, Lydia Price, Michael Spencer, Sangwon Suh, Xiaopu Sun, Bowen Tan, Harold Wang, Xin Wang, Juan Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Rodrigo Zeidan
In the West, limited government capacity to solve environmental problems has triggered the rise of a variety of "nonstate actors" to supplement government efforts or provide alternative mechanisms for addressing environmental issues. How does this development - along with our efforts to understand it - map onto environmental governance processes in China? China's efforts to address environmental issues reflect institutionalized governance processes that differ from parallel western processes in ways that have major consequences for domestic environmental governance practices and the governance of China "going abroad...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jie Pan, Xuesong Wang, Yuhu Cheng, Qiang Yu
Deep reinforcement learning (RL) comprehensively uses the psychological mechanisms of "trial and error" and "reward and punishment" in RL as well as powerful feature expression and nonlinear mapping in deep learning. Currently, it plays an essential role in the fields of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Since an RL agent needs to constantly interact with its surroundings, the deep Q network (DQN) is inevitably faced with the need to learn numerous network parameters, which results in low learning efficiency...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Emmanuel Delille, Ivan Crozier
The history of transcultural psychiatry has recently attracted much historical attention, including a workshop in March 2016 in which an international panel of scholars met at the Maison de Sciences de l'Homme Paris-Nord (MSH-PN). Papers from this workshop are presented here. By conceiving of transcultural psychiatry as a dynamic social field that frames its knowledge claims around epistemic objects that are specific to the field, and by focusing on the ways that concepts within this field are used to organize intellectual work, several themes are explored that draw this field into the historiography of psychiatry...
May 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Fausto Di Vincenzo
BACKGROUND: Despite an extensive body of knowledge exists on network outcomes and on how hospital network structures may contribute to the creation of outcomes at different levels of analysis, less attention has been paid to understanding how and why hospital organizational networks evolve and change. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of networking behaviors of hospital organizations. METHODS: Stochastic actor-based model for network dynamics was used to quantitatively examine data covering six-years of patient transfer relations among 35 hospital organizations...
May 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Thomas Pollet, Lyria Berdjeb, Cédric Garnier, Gaël Durrieu, Christophe Le Poupon, Benjamin Misson, Jean-François Briand
Despite clear advances in characterizing marine biofilms, details on their formation and species succession remain scarce particularly during the early stage of development. We investigated the microbial community composition and succession in coastal marine biofilms on plastic. Samples were collected over 75 days of immersion with strengthened samplings during the early stages of biofilm establishment. Biofilm composition was estimated using Illumina Miseq and microbial community interactions were assessed through microbial association network analysis...
May 3, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Emmanuel Helm, Andreas Schuler, Herwig Mayr
BACKGROUND: The research project REPO (Radiology Ehealth PlatfOrm) was started in 2017 with the goal to "enable cross-enterprise collaboration in radiology using the Austrian eHealth infrastructure". OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper was to provide an overview of the radiology IT environment - actors, use cases and technology. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured expert interviews with radiologists and hospital operators and we statistically analyzed the client database of our research project partner...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Goutham Narla, Jaya Sangodkar, Christopher B Ryder
The dynamic and stringent coordination of kinase and phosphatase activity controls a myriad of physiologic processes. Aberrations that disrupt the balance of this interplay represent the basis of numerous diseases. For a variety of reasons, early work in this area portrayed kinases as the dominant actors in these signaling events with phosphatases playing a secondary role. In oncology, these efforts led to breakthroughs that have dramatically altered the course of certain diseases and directed vast resources toward the development of additional kinase-targeted therapies...
May 3, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Ole Boe, Glenn-Egil Torgersen
Strategic Competence Leadership (SCL) is a tool meant to ensure that the Norwegian Armed Forces Cyber Defence (NAFCD) has the necessary expertise to cope with current and future unforeseen events. This is necessary in order to develop a better digital border defense against digital threats from different state or non-state actors. Unforeseen cyber incidents include for instance "zero-days" attacks and similar severe threats. The goal of the SCL in the NAFCD is the development of a reliable "Cyber Resilience...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Reza Yousefi Nooraie, Sobia Khan, Jennifer Gutberg, G Ross Baker
Although implementation models broadly recognize the importance of social relationships, our knowledge about applying social network analysis (SNA) to formative, process, and outcome evaluations of health system interventions is limited. We explored applications of adopting an SNA lens to inform implementation planning, engagement and execution, and evaluation. We used Health Links, a province-wide program in Canada aiming to improve care coordination among multiple providers of high-needs patients, as an example of a health system intervention...
January 1, 2018: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Jiacheng Wu, Forrest W Crawford, David A Kim, Derek Stafford, Nicholas A Christakis
Sociologists, economists, epidemiologists, and others recognize the importance of social networks in the diffusion of ideas and behaviors through human societies. To measure the flow of information on real-world networks, researchers often conduct comprehensive sociometric mapping of social links between individuals and then follow the spread of an "innovation" from reports of adoption or change in behavior over time. The innovation is introduced to a small number of individuals who may also be encouraged to spread it to their network contacts...
April 29, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Andrew Ivsins, Samona Marsh
BACKGROUND: Few studies have specifically explored what influences people who use drugs to consume them in certain ways (i.e., smoking, injecting). While a great deal of research has examined the transition from non-injection to injection routes of drug administration, less is known about people who use drugs (PWUD) but have never injected or have stopped injecting. This paper draws on actor-network theory to explore what moves people to inject or not, among both people who currently smoke/sniff drugs (PWSD) and people who currently inject drugs (PWID), to better understand factors that shape/influence methods of drug consumption...
April 24, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Andrea L Kjos, Ginelle A Bryant
BACKGROUND: Systems approaches in healthcare address complexities of care related to medication safety. Adverse drug events can be prevented by communication between providers. Thus, methods that depict the structures and processes of communications are foundational for prevention efforts. Social network analysis is a methodology applied in healthcare settings to describe and quantify communication patterns. Knowledge of the structures and processes surrounding medication management communications will be useful to explain and intervene on related quality or safety outcomes...
April 12, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Andrew Gonzalez, Patrick Thompson, Michel Loreau
Humans are producing complex and often undesirable social and ecological outcomes in many landscapes around the world. To sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services in fragmented landscapes conservation planning has turned to the identification and protection of large-scale spatial ecological networks (SEN). Now widely adopted, this approach typically focuses on static connectivity, and ignores the feedbacks between changes to the network's topology and the eco-evolutionary dynamics on the network. We review theory showing that diversity, stability, ecosystem functioning and evolutionary adaptation all vary nonlinearly with connectivity...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
Elena Andina-Diaz, Mª Antonia Ovalle-Perandones, Ignacio Ramos-Vidal, Francisca Camacho-Morell, Jose Siles-Gonzalez, Pilar Marques-Sanchez
Safety during birth has improved since hospital delivery became standard practice, but the process has also become increasingly medicalised. Hence, recent years have witnessed a growing interest in home births due to the advantages it offers to mothers and their newborn infants. The aims of the present study were to confirm the transition from a home birth model of care to a scenario in which deliveries began to occur almost exclusively in a hospital setting; to define the social networks surrounding home births; and to determine whether geography exerted any influence on the social networks surrounding home births...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A Vitali, G Grossi, G Martino, U Bernabucci, A Nardone, N Lacetera
BACKGROUND: Sustainability of food systems is one of the big challenges of humans kind in the next years. Local food networks, especially the organic ones, are growing worldwide and few information is known about their carbon footprint. This study was aimed to assess greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions associated to organic local beef supply chain with a cradle to grave approach. RESULTS: The study pointed out an overall burden of 24.46 kg CO2 eq./kg of cooked meat...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Chloe Puett, Cécile Salpéteur, Freddy Houngbe, Karen Martínez, Dieynaba S N'Diaye, Audrey Tonguet-Papucci
Background: This study assessed the costs and cost-efficiency of a mobile cash transfer implemented in Tapoa Province, Burkina Faso in the MAM'Out randomized controlled trial from June 2013 to December 2014, using mixed methods and taking a societal perspective by including costs to implementing partners and beneficiary households. Methods: Data were collected via interviews with implementing staff from the humanitarian agency and the private partner delivering the mobile money, focus group discussions with beneficiaries, and review of accounting databases...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Cristina Rojo-Gimeno, Jeroen Dewulf, Dominiek Maes, Erwin Wauters
A well-functioning swine health system is crucial to ensure a sustainable pig production. Yet, little attention has been paid to understand it. The objective of this study was to unravel the complexity of a swine health system by using a systems-thinking approach for the case of Flanders (Northern part of Belgium). To that end, qualitative interviews were held with 33 relevant stakeholders. A hybrid thematic analysis was conducted which consisted of two phases. First, an inductive thematic analysis was conducted and second, the resulting themes were classified into the building blocks of a systemic framework...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
S Zhang, K de la Haye, M Ji, R An
People's health behaviours and outcomes can be profoundly shaped by the social networks they are embedded in. Based on graph theory, social network analysis is a research framework for the study of social interactions and the structure of these interactions among social actors. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science for articles published until August 2017 that applied social network analysis to examine obesity and social networks. Eight studies (three cross-sectional and five longitudinal) conducted in the US (n = 6) and Australia (n = 2) were identified...
April 20, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Morten Bonde, Claus Bossen, Peter Danholt
This article analyses an experiment into healthcare governance in Denmark inspired by principles of value-based health care and intended to re-orient the focus of healthcare governance from 'productivity' to 'value for the patient'. The region in charge of the experiment exempted nine hospital departments from activity-based financing and accountability based on diagnosis-related groups, which allegedly incentivised hospitals in 'perverse' and counterproductive ways. Instead, the departments were to develop new indicators from their local practices to support and account for quality and value for the patient...
April 19, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Jan Kornelis Dijkstra, Christian Berger
The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile...
2018: Sex Roles
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