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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334165/3d-printing-of-liquid-crystal-elastomeric-actuators-with-spatially-programed-nematic-order
#1
Arda Kotikian, Ryan L Truby, John William Boley, Timothy J White, Jennifer A Lewis
Liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) are soft materials capable of large, reversible shape changes, which may find potential application as artificial muscles, soft robots, and dynamic functional architectures. Here, the design and additive manufacturing of LCE actuators (LCEAs) with spatially programed nematic order that exhibit large, reversible, and repeatable contraction with high specific work capacity are reported. First, a photopolymerizable, solvent-free, main-chain LCE ink is created via aza-Michael addition with the appropriate viscoelastic properties for 3D printing...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331944/liver-sampling-a-vital-window-into-hbv-pathogenesis-on-the-path-to-functional-cure
#2
REVIEW
Upkar S Gill, Laura J Pallett, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
In order to optimally refine the multiple emerging drug targets for hepatitis B virus (HBV), it is vital to evaluate virological and immunological changes at the site of infection. Traditionally liver biopsy has been the mainstay of HBV disease assessment, but with the emergence of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, there has been a move away from tissue sampling. Here we argue that liver biopsy remains an important tool, not only for the clinical assessment of HBV but also for research progress and evaluation of novel agents...
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331835/integrating-priority-areas-and-ecological-corridors-into-national-network-for-conservation-planning-in-china
#3
Jie Liang, Xinyue He, Guangming Zeng, Minzhou Zhong, Xiang Gao, Xin Li, Xiaodong Li, Haipeng Wu, Chunting Feng, Wenle Xing, Yilong Fang, Dan Mo
Considering that urban expansion and increase of human activities represent important threats to biodiversity and ecological processes in short and long term, developing protected area (PA) network with high connectivity is considered as a valuable conservation strategy. However, conservation planning associated with the large-scale network in China involves important information loopholes about the land cover and landscape connectivity. In this paper, we made an integrative analysis for the identification of conservation priority areas and least-cost ecological corridors (ECs) in order to promote a more representative, connected and efficient ecological PA network for this country...
January 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329283/modeling-the-assembly-order-of-multimeric-heteroprotein-complexes
#4
Lenna X Peterson, Yoichiro Togawa, Juan Esquivel-Rodriguez, Genki Terashi, Charles Christoffer, Amitava Roy, Woong-Hee Shin, Daisuke Kihara
Protein-protein interactions are the cornerstone of numerous biological processes. Although an increasing number of protein complex structures have been determined using experimental methods, relatively fewer studies have been performed to determine the assembly order of complexes. In addition to the insights into the molecular mechanisms of biological function provided by the structure of a complex, knowing the assembly order is important for understanding the process of complex formation. Assembly order is also practically useful for constructing subcomplexes as a step toward solving the entire complex experimentally, designing artificial protein complexes, and developing drugs that interrupt a critical step in the complex assembly...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328723/second-order-temporal-interference-with-thermal-light-interference-beyond-the-coherence-time
#5
Yong Sup Ihn, Yosep Kim, Vincenzo Tamma, Yoon-Ho Kim
We report the observation of a counterintuitive phenomenon in multipath correlation interferometry with thermal light. The intensity correlation between the outputs of two unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers (UMZIs) with two classically correlated beams of thermal light at the input exhibits genuine second-order interference with the visibility of 1/3. Surprisingly, the second-order interference does not degrade at all no matter how much the path length difference in each UMZI is increased beyond the coherence length of the thermal light...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327582/uranium-vi-on-chip-microliter-concentration-measurements-in-a-highly-extended-uv-vis-absorbance-linearity-range
#6
Isaac Rodriguez-Ruiz, Fabrice Lamadie, Sophie Charton
The reduction of effluents deriving from analytical control is a serious concern in the nuclear industry, for both production and R & D units. In this work we report an alternative methodology for the standard UV-Vis absorbance analyses for acti-nides concentration monitoring along the PUREX (Plutonium Uranium Redox Extraction) process. This methodology, based on Photonic Lab-on-a-chip (PhLoC) technology, enables drastic sampling reduction down to a few microliters, and simulta-neously allows to track concentrations over several orders of magnitude while maintaining a detection linearity range...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323685/coarsening-dynamics-of-ferromagnetic-granular-networks-experimental-results-and-simulations
#7
Armin Kögel, Pedro A Sánchez, Robin Maretzki, Tom Dumont, Elena S Pyanzina, Sofia S Kantorovich, Reinhard Richter
We investigate the phase separation of a shaken mixture of glass and magnetised steel spheres after a sudden quench of the shaker amplitude. After quenching, transient networks of steel spheres emerge in the experiment. For the developing network clusters we estimate the number of spheres in them, and the characteristic path lengths. We find that both quantities follow a log-normal distribution function. Moreover, we study the temporal evolution of the networks. In the sequence of snapshots we observe an initial regime, where the network incubates, followed by a temporal regime where network structures are elongated and broken, and finally a regime where the structures have relaxed to compact clusters of rounded shapes...
January 11, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322926/construction-and-analysis-of-gene-gene-dynamics-influence-networks-based-on-a-boolean-model
#8
Maulida Mazaya, Hung-Cuong Trinh, Yung-Keun Kwon
BACKGROUND: Identification of novel gene-gene relations is a crucial issue to understand system-level biological phenomena. To this end, many methods based on a correlation analysis of gene expressions or structural analysis of molecular interaction networks have been proposed. They have a limitation in identifying more complicated gene-gene dynamical relations, though. RESULTS: To overcome this limitation, we proposed a measure to quantify a gene-gene dynamical influence (GDI) using a Boolean network model and constructed a GDI network to indicate existence of a dynamical influence for every ordered pair of genes...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319705/structure-thermodynamics-and-rearrangement-mechanisms-in-gold-clusters-insights-from-the-energy-landscapes-framework
#9
D Schebarchov, F Baletto, D J Wales
We consider finite-size and temperature effects on the structure of model AuN clusters (30 ≤ N ≤ 147) bound by the Gupta potential. Equilibrium behaviour is examined in the harmonic superposition approximation, and the size-dependent melting temperature is also bracketed using molecular dynamics simulations. We identify structural transitions between distinctly different morphologies, characterised by various defect features. Reentrant behaviour and trends with respect to cluster size and temperature are discussed in detail...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317890/enterobius-vermicularis-in-the-endometrium-of-the-uterus-a-case-report
#10
Biserka Pigac, Silvija Mašić, Valentina Mašić
Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode of humans and the most common helminth infection. Main transmission path is direct contact between infected and uninfected person meaning ingestion of the eggs. Human infections are usually asymptomatic or manifest as perianal itching. Although ectopic locations are uncommon, Enterobius can occasionally be detected in appendix, kidney, male urinary tract and female genital tract. We present a case from Varaždin General Hospital, Varaždin, Croatia in 2012, involving a 90-yr-old female patient who underwent hysterectomy leading to accidental finding of E...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316664/retransmission-avoidance-for-reliable-data-delivery-in-underwater-wsns
#11
Babar Ali, Arshad Sher, Nadeem Javaid, Saif Ul Islam, Khursheed Aurangzeb, Syed Irtaza Haider
The energy-efficient and reliable delivery of data packets in resource constraint underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) is one of the key considerations to enhance the network lifetime. The traditional re-transmissions approach consumes the node battery and increases the communication overhead, which results in congestion and affects the reliable data packet delivery in the network. To ensure the reliability and conserve the node battery, in this paper, we propose adaptive forwarding layer multipath power control routing protocol to reduce the energy dissipation, achieve the data reliability and avoid the energy hole problem...
January 7, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316403/microsolvated-model-for-the-kinetics-and-thermodynamics-of-glycosidic-bond-dissociative-cleavage-of-nucleoside-d4g
#12
Yang Jiang, Ying Xue, Yi Zeng
Using the microsolvated model that involves explicit water molecules and implicit solvent in the optimization, two proposed dissociative hydrolysis mechanisms of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine (d4G) have been firstly investigated by means of M062X(CPCM, water)/6-31++G(d,p) method. The glycosidic bond dissociation for the generation of oxacarbenium ion intermediate is the rate-determining step (RDS). The subsequent nucleophilic water attack from different side of the oxacarbenium ion intermediate gives either the α-product [(2S,5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-ol] or β-product [(2R,5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-ol], and is thus referred to as α-path (inversion) and β-path (retention)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315902/chemically-responsive-elastomers-exhibiting-unity-order-refractive-index-modulation
#13
Di M Wu, Michelle L Solomon, Gururaj V Naik, Aitzol García-Etxarri, Mark Lawrence, Alberto Salleo, Jennifer A Dionne
Chameleons are masters of light, expertly changing their color, pattern, and reflectivity in response to their environment. Engineered materials that share this tunability can be transformative, enabling active camouflage, tunable holograms, and novel colorimetric medical sensors. While progress has been made in creating artificial chameleon skin, existing schemes often require external power, are not continuously tunable, and may prove too stiff or bulky for applications. Here, a chemically tunable, large-area metamaterial is demonstrated that accesses a wide range of colors and refractive indices...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306272/perspective-maximum-caliber-is-a-general-variational-principle-for-dynamical-systems
#14
Purushottam D Dixit, Jason Wagoner, Corey Weistuch, Steve Pressé, Kingshuk Ghosh, Ken A Dill
We review here Maximum Caliber (Max Cal), a general variational principle for inferring distributions of paths in dynamical processes and networks. Max Cal is to dynamical trajectories what the principle of maximum entropy is to equilibrium states or stationary populations. In Max Cal, you maximize a path entropy over all possible pathways, subject to dynamical constraints, in order to predict relative path weights. Many well-known relationships of non-equilibrium statistical physics-such as the Green-Kubo fluctuation-dissipation relations, Onsager's reciprocal relations, and Prigogine's minimum entropy production-are limited to near-equilibrium processes...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303269/tunable-d-limonene-permeability-in-starch-based-nanocomposite-films-reinforced-by-cellulose-nanocrystals
#15
Siyuan Liu, Xiaoxi Li, Ling Chen, Lin Li, Bing Li, Jie Zhu
In order to control d-limonene permeability, the cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used to regulate starch-based film multi-scale structures. The effect of sphere-like cellulose nanocrystal (CS) and rod-like cellulose nanocrystal (CR) on starch molecular interaction, short-range molecular conformation, crystalline structure and micro-ordered aggregated region structure were systematically discussed. CNC aspect ratio and content were proved to be independent variables to control d-limonene permeability via film structures regulation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303257/unbiased-molecular-dynamics-of-11-min-timescale-drug-unbinding-reveals-transition-state-stabilizing-interactions
#16
Samuel D Lotz, Alex Dickson
Ligand (un)binding kinetics is being recognized as a determinant of drug specificity and efficacy in an increasing number of systems. However, the calculation of kinetics and the simulation of drug unbinding is more difficult than computing thermodynamic quantities, such as binding free energies. Here we present the first full simulations of an unbinding process at pharmacologically relevant time scales (11 min), without the use of biasing forces, detailed prior knowledge, or specialized processors using the weighted ensemble based algorithm, WExplore...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300466/amorphous-metal-free-room-temperature-phosphorescent-small-molecules-with-multicolor-photoluminescence-via-a-host-guest-and-dual-emission-strategy
#17
Dengfeng Li, Feifei Lu, Jie Wang, Wende Hu, Xiao-Ming Cao, Xiang Ma, He Tian
Metal-free room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) materials offer unprecedented potentials for photoelectric and biochemical materials due to their unique advantages of long lifetime and low-toxicity. However, the achievements of phosphorescence at ambient condition so far have been mainly focused on ordered crystal lattice or on embedding into rigid matrices, where the preparation process might bring out poor repeatability and limited application. In this research, a series of amorphous organic small molecular compounds were developed with efficient room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) emission through conveniently modifying phosphor moieties to β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299188/prevention-of-neurological-injuries-during-mandibular-third-molar-surgery-technical-notes
#18
Gerardo La Monaca, Iole Vozza, Rita Giardino, Susanna Annibali, Nicola Pranno, Maria Paola Cristalli
Surgery to the mandibular third molar is common, and injuries to the inferior alveolar nerve and the lingual nerve are well-recognized complications of this procedure. The aim of these technical notes is to describe operative measures for reducing neurological complications during mandibular third molar surgery. The following procedure should be used to prevent damage to the inferior alveolar nerve: a well-designed mucoperiosteal flap, to obtain appropriate access to the surgical area; a conservative ostectomy on the distal and distal-lingual side; tooth sectioning, to facilitate its removal by decreasing the retention zones; tooth dislocation in the path of withdrawal imposed by the curvature of the root apex; and careful socket debridement, when the roots of the extracted tooth are in intimate contact with the mandibular canal...
April 2017: Annali di Stomatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296502/automated-multimodal-spectral-histopathology-for-quantitative-diagnosis-of-residual-tumour-during-basal-cell-carcinoma-surgery
#19
Radu Boitor, Kenny Kong, Dustin Shipp, Sandeep Varma, Alexey Koloydenko, Kusum Kulkarni, Somaia Elsheikh, Tom Bakker Schut, Peter Caspers, Gerwin Puppels, Martin van der Wolf, Elena Sokolova, T E C Nijsten, Brogan Salence, Hywel Williams, Ioan Notingher
Multimodal spectral histopathology (MSH), an optical technique combining tissue auto-fluorescence (AF) imaging and Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS), was previously proposed for detection of residual basal cell carcinoma (BCC) at the surface of surgically-resected skin tissue. Here we report the development of a fully-automated prototype instrument based on MSH designed to be used in the clinic and operated by a non-specialist spectroscopy user. The algorithms for the AF image processing and Raman spectroscopy classification had been first optimised on a manually-operated laboratory instrument and then validated on the automated prototype using skin samples from independent patients...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290735/the-complex-and-quaternionic-quantum-bit-from-relativity-of-simultaneity-on-an-interferometer
#20
Andrew J P Garner, Markus P Müller, Oscar C O Dahlsten
The patterns of fringes produced by an interferometer have long been important testbeds for our best contemporary theories of physics. Historically, interference has been used to contrast quantum mechanics with classical physics, but recently experiments have been performed that test quantum theory against even more exotic alternatives. A physically motivated family of theories are those where the state space of a two-level system is given by a sphere of arbitrary dimension. This includes classical bits, and real, complex and quaternionic quantum theory...
December 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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