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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731452/temporal-order-of-alzheimer-s-disease-related-cognitive-marker-changes-in-blsa-and-wrap-longitudinal-studies
#1
Murat Bilgel, Rebecca L Koscik, Yang An, Jerry L Prince, Susan M Resnick, Sterling C Johnson, Bruno M Jedynak
Investigation of the temporal trajectories of currently used neuropsychological tests is critical to identifying earliest changing measures on the path to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used the Progression Score (PS) method to characterize the temporal trajectories of measures of verbal memory, executive function, attention, processing speed, language, and mental status using data spanning normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and AD from 1,661 participants with a total of 7,839 visits (age at last visit 77...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729542/reaching-agreement-in-quantum-hybrid-networks
#2
Guodong Shi, Bo Li, Zibo Miao, Peter M Dower, Matthew R James
We consider a basic quantum hybrid network model consisting of a number of nodes each holding a qubit, for which the aim is to drive the network to a consensus in the sense that all qubits reach a common state. Projective measurements are applied serving as control means, and the measurement results are exchanged among the nodes via classical communication channels. In this way the quantum-opeartion/classical-communication nature of hybrid quantum networks is captured, although coherent states and joint operations are not taken into consideration in order to facilitate a clear and explicit analysis...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728918/financing-transformative-health-systems-towards-achievement-of-the-health-sustainable-development-goals-a-model-for-projected-resource-needs-in-67-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Karin Stenberg, Odd Hanssen, Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer, Melanie Bertram, Callum Brindley, Andreia Meshreky, James E Rosen, John Stover, Paul Verboom, Rachel Sanders, Agnès Soucat
BACKGROUND: The ambitious development agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires substantial investments across several sectors, including for SDG 3 (healthy lives and wellbeing). No estimates of the additional resources needed to strengthen comprehensive health service delivery towards the attainment of SDG 3 and universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries have been published. METHODS: We developed a framework for health systems strengthening, within which population-level and individual-level health service coverage is gradually scaled up over time...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725284/addiction-and-moralization-the-role-of-the-underlying-model-of-addiction
#4
Lily E Frank, Saskia K Nagel
Addiction appears to be a deeply moralized concept. To understand the entwinement of addiction and morality, we briefly discuss the disease model and its alternatives in order to address the following questions: Is the disease model the only path towards a 'de-moralized' discourse of addiction? While it is tempting to think that medical language surrounding addiction provides liberation from the moralized language, evidence suggests that this is not necessarily the case. On the other hand non-disease models of addiction may seem to resuscitate problematic forms of the moralization of addiction, including, invoking blame, shame, and the wholesale rejection of addicts as people who have deep character flaws, while ignoring the complex biological and social context of addiction...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724343/vero-cell-technology-for-rapid-development-of-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccines-for-emerging-viral-diseases
#5
P Noel Barrett, Sara J Terpening, Doris Snow, Ronald R Cobb, Otfried Kistner
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723992/social-inequalities-in-the-face-of-scientific-and-technological-development-an-antinomy-or-an-historic-problem
#6
Guilherme Costa Delgado
This paper aims to conduct a conceptual analysis of the relationship between scientific and technical progress and social equality, or the reduction of inequalities. We examine this relationship by drawing on three theoretical perspectives: 1) ethical economics, championed by classical economic thinkers and centered on utilitarian self-interest, 2) Mainstream theories of economic development espousing the endogenous link between labor productivity growth and technical progress, 3) the critique of theories of economic development that emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, including Celso Furtado's critique of the theory of underdevelopment, emphasizing the prevalence of egalitarian tendencies, and ecological economics, which suggest alternative paths to those set by "classical" theories of development...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723069/surface-localized-sealing-of-porous-ultralow-k-dielectric-films-with-ultrathin-2-nanometer-polymer-coating
#7
Seong Jun Yoon, Kwanyong Pak, Taewook Nam, Alexander Yoon, Hyungjun Kim, Sung Gap Im, Byung Jin Cho
Semiconductor integrated circuit chip industries have been striving to introduce porous ultralow-k (ULK) dielectrics into the multilevel interconnection process in order to improve their chip operation speed by reducing capacitance along the signal path. To date, however, highly porous ULK dielectrics (porosity > 40%, dielectric constant (k) < 2.4) have not been successfully adopted in real devices because the porous nature causes many serious problems including non-continuous barrier deposition, penetration of the barrier metal, and reliability issues...
July 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720495/crystal-structure-of-lysk-an-enzyme-catalyzing-the-last-step-of-lysine-biosynthesis-in-thermus-thermophilus-in-complex-with-lysine-insight-into-the-mechanism-for-recognition-of-the-amino-group-carrier-protein-lysw
#8
Satomi Fujita, Su-Hee Cho, Ayako Yoshida, Fumihito Hasebe, Takeo Tomita, Tomohisa Kuzuyama, Makoto Nishiyama
LysK is an M20 peptidase family enzyme that hydrolyzes the isopeptide bond between the carrier protein LysW and lysine in order to release lysine, which is the last step of lysine biosynthesis in Thermus thermophilus. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of LysK in complex with lysine at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The α-amino group of the bound lysine was oriented toward the catalytic center, which was composed of the residues coordinating divalent metal ions for the hydrolysis of the isopeptide bond...
July 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718407/cell-and-tissue-biology-paves-a-path-to-breast-cancer-prevention
#9
Michael E Todhunter, Mark A LaBarge
We hypothesize that breast cancer susceptibility stems from interactions between difficult-to-modify cultural and dietary habits and aging processes that are modifiable. We propose a pathway to prevention that uses human organotypic systems that recapitulate hallmarks of aging in order to better understand and to modulate the biological consequences of aging in breast.
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714468/high-order-harmonic-generation-from-the-dressed-autoionizing-states
#10
M A Fareed, V V Strelkov, N Thiré, S Mondal, B E Schmidt, F Légaré, T Ozaki
In high-order harmonic generation, resonant harmonics (RH) are sources of intense, coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation. However, intensity enhancement of RH only occurs for a single harmonic order, making it challenging to generate short attosecond pulses. Moreover, the mechanism involved behind such RH was circumstantial, because of the lack of direct experimental proofs. Here, we demonstrate the exact quantum paths that electron follows for RH generation using tin, showing that it involves not only the autoionizing state, but also a harmonic generation from dressed-AIS that appears as two coherent satellite harmonics at frequencies ±2Ω from the RH (Ω represents laser frequency)...
July 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711169/the-risk-of-suprascapular-and-axillary-nerve-injury-in-reverse-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-an-anatomic-study
#11
Tim Leschinger, Michael Hackl, Eduard Buess, Sebastian Lappen, Martin Scaal, Lars Peter Müller, Kilian Wegmann
PURPOSE: Implantation of a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) places the axillary and suprascapular nerves at risk. The aim of this anatomic study was to digitally analyse the location of these nerves in relation to bony landmarks in order to predict their path and thereby help to reduce the risk of neurological complications during the procedure. METHODS: A total of 22 human cadaveric shoulder specimens were used in this study. The axillary and suprascapular nerves were dissected, and radiopaque threads were sutured onto the nerves without mobilizing the nerves from their native paths...
June 28, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709921/effects-of-pattern-masks-on-the-formation-of-perceptual-grouping
#12
Daniel D Kurylo, Farhan Bukhari
Mechanisms underlying perceptual grouping serve to bind stimulus components that are contained within grouped patterns. In order to examine the time course of grouping development, grids of spatially isolated dots were followed by pattern masks across a range of SOA. Subjects indicated the predominant perceived grouping of the dot patterns. Masks either spatially superimposed target elements (element mask), or superimposed elements as well as paths among elements (connection mask). Element masks thereby disrupted processing of target elements, while connection masks additionally disrupted representations in regions among elements...
July 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702565/identifying-the-common-genetic-networks-of-adr-adverse-drug-reaction-clusters-and-developing-an-adr-classification-model
#13
Youhyeon Hwang, Min Oh, Giup Jang, Taekeon Lee, Chihyun Park, Jaegyoon Ahn, Youngmi Yoon
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of the major concerns threatening public health and have resulted in failures in drug development. Thus, predicting ADRs and discovering the mechanisms underlying ADRs have become important tasks in pharmacovigilance. Identification of potential ADRs by computational approaches in the early stages would be advantageous in drug development. Here we propose a computational method that elucidates the action mechanisms of ADRs and predicts potential ADRs by utilizing ADR genes, drug features, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks...
July 12, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702075/a-graph-extension-of-the-positional-burrows-wheeler-transform-and-its-applications
#14
Adam M Novak, Erik Garrison, Benedict Paten
We present a generalization of the positional Burrows-Wheeler transform, or PBWT, to genome graphs, which we call the gPBWT. A genome graph is a collapsed representation of a set of genomes described as a graph. In a genome graph, a haplotype corresponds to a restricted form of walk. The gPBWT is a compressible representation of a set of these graph-encoded haplotypes that allows for efficient subhaplotype match queries. We give efficient algorithms for gPBWT construction and query operations. As a demonstration, we use the gPBWT to quickly count the number of haplotypes consistent with random walks in a genome graph, and with the paths taken by mapped reads; results suggest that haplotype consistency information can be practically incorporated into graph-based read mappers...
2017: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699573/the-first-jewish-astronomers-lunar-theory-and-reconstruction-of-a-dead-sea-scroll
#15
Eshbal Ratzon
Argument The Astronomical Book of Enoch describes the passage of the moon through the gates of heaven, which stand at the edges of the earth. In doing so, the book describes the position of the rising and setting of the moon on the horizon. Otto Neugebauer, the historian of ancient science, suggested using the detailed tables found in later Ethiopic texts in order to reconstruct the path of the moon through the gates. This paper offers a new examination of earlier versions of the Astronomical Book, using a mathematical analysis of the figures and astronomical theories presented throughout the Aramaic Astronomical Book; the results fit both the data preserved in the scrolls and the mathematical approach and religious ideology of the scroll's authors better than the details found in the late Ethiopic texts...
June 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693007/dr-bibbo-s-presidential-address-on-automation-in-cytology-were-her-predictions-right-wrong-or-somewhere-in-the-middle
#16
David C Wilbur
In 1983, Dr. Marluce Bibbo gave the Presidential Address at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Cytology in Denver, CO, USA. The lecture was entitled "Analytic and Quantitative Cytology," a field in which Dr. Bibbo was intimately involved. In the presentation, she included a summary of 30 years of work already accomplished, the present state of the art, and musings about issues encountered, potential resolutions, progress that needed to be made, and her perception of how the field needed to evolve in order to become ultimately successful as a clinical service...
July 11, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687064/leachate-generation-from-landfill-in-a-semi-arid-climate-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-study-from-sousse-tunisia
#17
Youssef Frikha, Johann Fellner, Moncef Zairi
Despite initiatives for enhanced recycling and waste utilization, landfill still represents the dominant disposal path for municipal solid waste (MSW). The environmental impacts of landfills depend on several factors, including waste composition, technical barriers, landfill operation and climatic conditions. A profound evaluation of all factors and their impact is necessary in order to evaluate the environmental hazards emanating from landfills. The present paper investigates a sanitary landfill located in a semi-arid climate (Tunisia) and highlights major differences in quantitative and qualitative leachate characteristics compared to landfills situated in moderate climates...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684363/investigation-of-multiphase-multicomponent-aerosol-flow-dictating-pmdi-spacer-interactions
#18
Saurabh Sarkar, S Prasad Peri, Bodhisattwa Chaudhuri
The use of Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) for the treatment of asthma and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is frequently associated with breath-actuation synchronization problems and poor pulmonary delivery, particularly amongst the pediatric and geriatric population groups. Spacers, or Valved Holding Chambers (VHCs), are frequently used to address these problems. However, the performance of spacers with different pMDIs is also highly variable and needs to be investigated. The purpose of the current study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which can characterize multiphase multicomponent aerosol flow issuing from a commercial suspension-based pMDI into a spacer...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684136/open-innovation-towards-sharing-of-data-models-and-workflows
#19
Daniela J Conrado, Mats O Karlsson, Klaus Romero, Céline Sarr, Justin J Wilkins
Sharing of resources across organisations to support open innovation is an old idea, but which is being taken up by the scientific community at increasing speed, concerning public sharing in particular. The ability to address new questions or provide more precise answers to old questions through merged information is among the attractive features of sharing. Increased efficiency through reuse, and increased reliability of scientific findings through enhanced transparency, are expected outcomes from sharing...
July 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683340/how-counterfactuals-of-red-queen-theory-shed-light-on-science-and-its-historiography
#20
Joachim L Dagg
A historical episode of evolutionary theory, which has lead to the Red Queen theory of the evolutionary maintenance of sex, includes two striking contingencies. These are used to explore alternative what-if scenarios, in order to test some common opinions about such counterfactuals. This sheds new light on the nature of science and its historiography. One counterfactual leads to an unexpected convergence of its result to that of the actual science but, nevertheless, differs in its causal structure. The other diverges towards an incompatible alternative, but this requires further contingent choices that also diverge from actual science...
July 3, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
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