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Weifeng Zhao, Jie Kong, Hu Liu, Qiang Zhuang, Junwei Gu, Zhanhu Guo
Self-alignment of thermally reduced graphene sheets (TRG) that enable highly efficient heat transfer paths in their poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO)-based nanocomposite films along the in-plane direction was achieved for the first time without any assistance of an external magnetic or an electric field. In the in-plane direction, the nanocomposite films possess an ultra-high thermal diffusivity (900-1000 mm(2) s(-1)) and a thermal conductivity (50 W m(-1) K(-1)) with a TRG concentration <5.0 vol%, setting a new record for polymer composites with such a low graphene filler loading...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Alexandre Darmon, Michael Benzaquen, Simon Čopar, Olivier Dauchot, Teresa Lopez-Leon
We investigate experimentally and numerically the defect configurations emerging when a cholesteric liquid crystal is confined to a spherical shell. We uncover a rich scenario of defect configurations, some of them non-existent in nematic shells, where new types of defects are stabilized by the helical ordering of the liquid crystal. In contrast to nematic shells, here defects are not simple singular points or lines, but have a large structured core. Specifically, we observe five different types of cholesteric shells...
October 21, 2016: Soft Matter
Fabien Brieuc, Yael Bronstein, Hichem Dammak, Philippe Depondt, Fabio Finocchi, Marc Hayoun
The quantum thermal bath (QTB) has been presented as an alternative to path-integral based methods to introduce nuclear quantum effects in molecular dynamics simulations. The method has proved to be efficient, yielding accurate results for various systems. However, the QTB method is prone to zero-point energy leakage (ZPEL) in highly anharmonic systems. This is a well known problem in methods based on classical trajectories where part of the energy of the high frequency modes is transferred to the low frequency modes leading to a wrong energy distribution...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Gina Lee, Brenda Auffinger, Donna Guo, Tanwir Hasan, Marc Deheeger, Alex L Tobias, Jeong Yeon Kim, Fatemeh Atashi, Lingjiao Zhang, Maciej S Lesniak, James C David, Atique U Ahmed
Increasing evidence exposes a subpopulation of cancer cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), to be critical for the progression of several human malignancies, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). CSCs are highly tumorigenic, capable of self-renewal, and resistant to conventional therapies, and thus considered to be one of the key contributors to disease recurrence. In order to elucidate the poorly understood evolutionary path of tumor recurrence and the role of CSCs in this process, we developed patient-derived xenograft GBM recurrent models induced by anti-glioma chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ)...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Fahmy A Mamuya, Jose Luis Cano-Peñalver, Wei U Li, Diego Rodriguez-Puyol, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Dennis Brown, Sergio de Frutos, Hua Jenny Lu
Within the past decade tremendous efforts have been made to understand the mechanism behind aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel trafficking and recycling, in order to open a path towards effective diabetes insipidus therapeutics. A recent study has shown that Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) conditional-knockdown mice developed polyuria along with decreased expression of AQP2. To understand whether ILK also regulates AQP2 trafficking in kidney tubular cells, we performed in vitro analysis using LLCPK1 cells stably expressing rat AQP2 (LLC-AQP2 cells)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Béla Voß, Reinhard Seifert, U Benjamin Kaupp, Helmut Grubmüller
Ligand-protein binding processes are essential in biological systems. A well-studied system is the binding of cyclic adenosine monophosphate to the cyclic nucleotide binding domain of the bacterial potassium channel MloK1. Strikingly, the measured on-rate for cyclic adenosine monophosphate binding is two orders of magnitude slower than a simple Smoluchowski diffusion model would suggest. To resolve this discrepancy and to characterize the ligand-binding path in structural and energetic terms, we calculated 1100 ligand-binding molecular dynamics trajectories and tested two scenarios: In the first scenario, the ligand transiently binds to the protein surface and then diffuses along the surface into the binding site...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Sunkyu Yu, Xianji Piao, Jiho Hong, Namkyoo Park
Disorder plays a critical role in signal transport by controlling the correlation of a system, as demonstrated in various complex networks. In wave physics, disordered potentials suppress wave transport, because of their localized eigenstates, from the interference between multiple scattering paths. Although the variation of localization with tunable disorder has been intensively studied as a bridge between ordered and disordered media, the general trend of disorder-enhanced localization has remained unchanged, and the existence of complete delocalization in highly disordered potentials has not been explored...
October 2016: Science Advances
Elpis-Athina Vlachopapadopoulou, Marina Vakaki, Fotini-Eleni Karachaliou, Irene Kaloumenou, Kleanthi Kalogerakou, Christina Gali, Stefanos Michalacos
BACKGROUND: During gestation, the primordial thymus migrates from the pharynx to the anterior mediastinum, thus thymic tissue can remain at any point along this path. Intrathyroidal thymic remnants are rare, and their sonographic patterns have only recently been described. This retrospective study presents the sonographic appearance of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus and emphasizes the role of sonography in order to avoid misdiagnosis. METHODS: The population consisted of 42 children, 3...
October 19, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Solomon Kadiri
Hypertension prevalence rates in most urbanized areas of Africa range from 20-30%, with a recent systematic review reporting 16.2% for sub-Saharan Africa. These rates are lower than those in the West but the age standardized rates are higher than in other regions of the world. The attendant morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high. For example, failure of nocturnal dipping and microalbuminuria, predictive of vascular disease, occur relatively early in the course of hypertension and predispose to early vascular disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joanne Paton, Sam Glasser, Richard Collings, Jon Marsden
BACKGROUND: Over 1 in 3 older people with diabetes sustain a fall each year. Postural instability has been identified as independent risk factor for falls within people with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN). People with DPN, at increased risk of falls, are routinely required to wear offloading insoles, yet the impact of these insoles on postural stability and postural control is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a standard offloading insole and its constituent parts on the balance in people with DPN...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
R Wagner, T J Woehl, R R Keller, J P Killgore
The response time of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever can be decreased by reducing cantilever size; however, the fastest AFM cantilevers are currently nearing the smallest size that can be detected with the conventional optical lever approach. Here, we demonstrate an electron beam detection scheme for measuring AFM cantilever oscillations. The oscillating AFM tip is positioned perpendicular to and in the path of a stationary focused nanometer sized electron beam. As the tip oscillates, the thickness of the material under the electron beam changes, causing a fluctuation in the number of scattered transmitted electrons that are detected...
July 25, 2016: Applied Physics Letters
Andreas A Schoenfeld, Soeren Wieker, Dietrich Harder, Bjoern Poppe
The optical origin of the lateral response and orientation artifacts, which occur when using EBT3 and EBT-XD radiochromic films together with flatbed scanners, has been reinvestigated by experimental and theoretical means. The common feature of these artifacts is the well-known parabolic increase in the optical density OD(x)  =  -log10 I(x)/I 0(x) versus offset x from the scanner midline (Poppinga et al 2014 Med. Phys. 41 021707). This holds for landscape and portrait orientations as well as for the three color channels...
October 14, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Michael Janas, Alex Kamenev, Baruch Meerson
We study the short-time behavior of the probability distribution P(H,t) of the surface height h(x=0,t)=H in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1+1 dimension. The process starts from a stationary interface: h(x,t=0) is given by a realization of two-sided Brownian motion constrained by h(0,0)=0. We find a singularity of the large deviation function of H at a critical value H=H_{c}. The singularity has the character of a second-order phase transition. It reflects spontaneous breaking of the reflection symmetry x↔-x of optimal paths h(x,t) predicted by the weak-noise theory of the KPZ equation...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Zengshan Tian, Ze Li, Mu Zhou, Yue Jin, Zipeng Wu
The aim of this paper is to present a new indoor localization approach by employing the Angle-of-arrival (AOA) and Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements in Wi-Fi network. To achieve this goal, we first collect the Channel State Information (CSI) by using the commodity Wi-Fi devices with our designed three antennas to estimate the AOA of Wi-Fi signal. Second, we propose a direct path identification algorithm to obtain the direct signal path for the sake of reducing the interference of multipath effect on the AOA estimation...
October 10, 2016: Sensors
Christopher Bratt, Jim Sidanius, Jennifer Sheehy-Skeffington
Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been theorized as a stable, early-emerging trait influencing outgroup evaluations, a view supported by evidence from cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal research. Yet, the limitations of identifying causal paths with cross-sectional and two-wave designs are increasingly being acknowledged. This article presents the first use of multi-wave data to test the over-time relationship between SDO and outgroup affect among young people. We use cross-lagged and latent growth modeling (LGM) of a three-wave data set employing Norwegian adolescents (over 2 years, N = 453) and a five-wave data set with American university students (over 4 years, N = 748)...
October 11, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Daniel Algom, Daniel Fitousi
Research in the allied domains of selective attention and perceptual independence has made great advances over the past 5 decades ensuing from the foundational ideas and research conceived by Wendell R. Garner. In particular, Garner's speeded classification paradigm has received considerable attention in psychology. The paradigm is widely used to inform research and theory in various domains of cognitive science. It was Garner who provided the consensual definition of the separable-integral partition of stimulus dimensions, delineating a set of converging operations sustaining the distinction...
October 10, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
Jan Christian Kaiser, Reinhard Meckbach, Markus Eidemüller, Martin Selmansberger, Kristian Unger, Viktor Shpak, Maria Blettner, Horst Zitzelsberger, Peter Jacob
Strong evidence for the statistical association between radiation exposure and disease has been produced for thyroid cancer by epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl accident. However limitations of the epidemiological approach in order to explore health risks especially at low doses of radiation appear obvious. Statistical fluctuations due to small case numbers dominate the uncertainty of risk estimates. Molecular radiation markers have been searched extensively to separate radiation- induced cancer cases from sporadic cases...
October 11, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Asmita Gupta, Manju Bansal
Mechanical unfolding studies on Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) structures are a subject of tremendous interest as they shed light on the principles of higher order assembly of these structures. Pseudoknotting is one of the most elementary ways in which this higher order assembly is achieved as discrete secondary structural units in RNA are brought in close proximity to form a tertiary structure. Using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations, we have studied the unfolding of five RNA pseudoknot structures that differ from each other either by base substitutions in helices or loops...
October 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Veniamin A Borin, Sergey M Matveev, Darya S Budkina, Patrick Z El-Khoury, Alexander N Tarnovsky
Femtosecond transient absorption measurements powered by 40 fs laser pulses reveal that ultrafast isomerization takes place upon S1 excitation of both CH2I2 and CHBr3 in the gas phase. The photochemical conversion process is direct and intramolecular, i.e., it proceeds without caging media that have long been implicated in the photo-induced isomerization of polyhalogenated alkanes in condensed phases. Using multistate complete active space second order perturbation theory (MS-CASPT2) calculations, we investigate the structure of the photochemical reaction paths connecting the photoexcited species to their corresponding isomeric forms...
October 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Liulin Deng, Yehia M Ibrahim, Sandilya V B Garimella, Ian K Webb, Ahmed M Hamid, Randolph V Norheim, Spencer A Prost, Jeremy A Sandoval, Erin S Baker, Richard D Smith
The initial use of traveling waves (TW) for ion mobility (IM) separations using structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) employed an ion funnel trap (IFT) to accumulate ions from a continuous electrospray ionization source and was limited to injected ion populations of ∼10(6) charges due to the onset of space charge effects in the trapping region. Additional limitations arise due to the loss of resolution for the injection of ions over longer periods, such as in extended pulses. In this work a new SLIM "flat funnel" (FF) module has been developed and demonstrated to enable the accumulation of much larger ion populations and their injection for IM separations...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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