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Yong Hyun Kim, Baek-Kyu Kim
Frontal sinus outflow tract (FSOT) injury may occur in cases of frontal sinus fractures and nasoethmoid orbital fractures. Since the FSOT is lined with mucosa that is responsible for the path from the frontal sinus to the nasal cavity, an untreated injury may lead to complications such as mucocele formation or chronic frontal sinusitis. Therefore, evaluation of FSOT is of clinical significance, with FSOT being diagnosed mostly by computed tomography or intraoperative dye. Several options are available to surgeons when treating FSOT injury, and they need to be familiar with these options to take the proper treatment measures in order to follow the treatment principle for FSOT, which is a safe sinus, and to reduce complications...
March 2017: Arch Craniofac Surg
J E Hayes, R J Stevenson, R M Stuetz
In the context of environmental malodour, surveys are valuable as they allow for the relatively detailed analysis of multiple factors pertaining to odour perception and subsequent reaction. However, the causes for an individual to experience odour impact while a neighbour will not are still not understood. The goal of this current survey design was to consolidate varying research paths for surveys within the environmental odour research space. This survey investigated the area of effect for wastewater treatment plants by using stratified random sampling techniques that radiated from the industrial areas...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
S Boccardi, D B Callá, F Ciampa, M Meo
Nonlinear ultrasonic techniques rely on the measurement of nonlinear elastic effects caused by the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the material damage, and have shown high sensitivity to detect micro-cracks and defects in the early stages. This paper presents a nonlinear ultrasonic technique, here named nonlinear elastic multi-path reciprocal method, for the identification and localisation of micro-damage in composite laminates. In the proposed methodology, a sparse array of surface bonded ultrasonic transducers is used to measure the second harmonic elastic response associated with the material flaw...
September 5, 2017: Ultrasonics
Gilney Figueira Zebende, Florêncio Mendes Oliveira Filho, Juan Alberto Leyva Cruz
In this paper we analyzed, by the FDFA root mean square fluctuation (rms) function, the motor/imaginary human activity produced by a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG). We utilized the Physionet on-line databank, a publicly available database of human EEG signals, as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method for EEG analysis. We show that the complex time series of the EEG exhibits characteristic fluctuations depending on the analyzed channel in the scalp-recorded EEG...
2017: PloS One
Sujith Ovallath, Bahiya Sulthana
Levodopa - the aromatic amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine has held the attention of neurologists and pharmacologists alike for more than half a century. Even though extensive research has been done across the globe in treatment of Parkinson's disease, with different molecules, none could replace the gold standard treatment or provide complete relief for the debilitated. Although research brought us better tips and tricks to modulate the dopamine blood levels to balance between the desired and deleterious effects, it could never replace the basic substrate...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Peipei Song, Chunlin Jin, Wei Tang
On July 11, 2017, the State Council of China issued a bold plan to revolutionize medical education and promote collaboration between medical education and practice. The cornerstone of the plan is training more qualified medical professionals to improve public healthcare on the path to Healthy China 2030. According to this plan, a "5+3" training system will be instituted to train medical professionals in China, and top medical colleges will be encouraged to recruit more students. However, given the less-than-ideal professional status of Chinese doctors, the frequent incidents of violence against them, long working hours and a heavy workload, and an unsatisfactory income, attracting personnel to work in medicine and health care has become a challenge...
2017: Bioscience Trends
Steve Guglielmo, Bertram F Malle
When people make moral judgments, what information do they look for? Despite its theoretical and practical implications, this question has largely been neglected by prior literature. The recent Path Model of Blame predicts a canonical order in which people acquire information when judging blame. Upon discovering a negative event, perceivers consider information about causality, then intentionality, then (if the event is intentional) reasons or (if the event is unintentional) preventability. Three studies, using two novel paradigms, assessed and found support for these predictions: In constrained (Study 1) and open-ended (Study 2) information-acquisition contexts, participants were most likely, and fastest, to seek information in the canonical order, even when under time pressure (Study 3)...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Peng Shang, YueHan Lu, YingXun Du, Rudolf Jaffé, Robert H Findlay, Anne Wynn
Human land use has led to significant changes in the character of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in lotic ecosystems. These changes are expected to have important environmental and ecological consequences. However, high spatiotemporal variability has been reported in previous studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain inadequately understood. This study assessed variation in the properties of stream water DOM within watersheds across a gradient of agricultural land use with grazing pasture lands as the dominant agricultural type in the southeastern United States...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shuaidi Zhang, Ren Geryak, Jeffrey Geldmeier, Sunghan Kim, Vladimir V Tsukruk
The robust, sensitive, and selective detection of targeted biomolecules in their native environment by prospective nanostructures holds much promise for real-time, accurate, and high throughput biosensing. However, in order to be competitive, current biosensor nanotechnologies need significant improvements, especially in specificity, integration, throughput rate, and long-term stability in complex bioenvironments. Advancing biosensing nanotechnologies in chemically "noisy" bioenvironments require careful engineering of nanoscale components that are highly sensitive, biorecognition ligands that are capable of exquisite selective binding, and seamless integration at a level current devices have yet to achieve...
September 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Gloria Valdés
The potent and now longstanding evidence of the association between placentation-related disorders and cardiovascular disease should be translated into clinical practice in order to introduce a preventive approach to future obstetric and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to integrate cardiovascular risk/disease and obstetric complications, which are linked by endothelial dysfunction, as windows of opportunity for improving women's health. Questionnaires adaptable to local practices are proposed to incorporate cardiovascular and obstetrical indexes into two stages of a woman's lifetime...
2017: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
Tajalli Ilm Chandel, Masihuz Zaman, Mohsin Vahid Khan, Maroof Ali, Gulam Rabbani, Mohd Ishtikhar, Rizwan Hasan Khan
This review article summarises the possible mechanisms of the protein-ligand interaction, folding, misfolding, aggregation and inhibition of protein aggregates. Under certain stressed condition the folding process deviates from its path and results into misfolding and aggregation of proteins. So aggregates have to be inhibited in order to cure the diseases. In some cases of protein-ligand interaction studies we have seen that the interaction of a protein with more than one ligand may show both type of quenching mechanisms i...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Feng Zhang, Quanying Zhang, Juntao Liu, Xinguang Wang, He Wu, Wenbao Jia, Yongzhou Ti, Fei Qiu, Xiaoyang Zhang
Pulsed neutron gamma density logging (NGD) is of great significance for radioprotection and density measurement in LWD, however, the current methods have difficulty in quantitative calculation and single factor analysis for the inelastic gamma field distribution. In order to clarify the NGD mechanism, a new method is developed to describe the inelastic gamma field distribution. Based on the fast-neutron scattering and gamma attenuation, the inelastic gamma field distribution is characterized by the inelastic scattering cross section, fast-neutron scattering free path, formation density and other parameters...
August 21, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jason Hindes, Ira B Schwartz
We propose an analytical technique to study large fluctuations and switching from internal noise in complex networks. Using order-disorder kinetics as a generic example, we construct and analyze the most probable, or optimal path of fluctuations from one ordered state to another in real and synthetic networks. The method allows us to compute the distribution of large fluctuations and the time scale associated with switching between ordered states for networks consistent with mean-field assumptions. In general, we quantify how network heterogeneity influences the scaling patterns and probabilities of fluctuations...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Emad Oveisi, Antoine Letouzey, Duncan T L Alexander, Quentin Jeangros, Robin Schäublin, Guillaume Lucas, Pascal Fua, Cécile Hébert
The ability to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) information about morphologies of nanostructures elucidates many interesting properties of materials in both physical and biological sciences. Here we demonstrate a novel method in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that gives a fast and reliable assessment of the 3-D configuration of curvilinear nanostructures, all without needing to tilt the sample through an arc. Using one-dimensional crystalline defects known as dislocations as a prototypical example of a complex curvilinear object, we demonstrate their 3-D reconstruction two orders of magnitude faster than by standard tilt-arc TEM tomographic techniques, from data recorded by selecting different ray paths of the convergent STEM probe...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Duy Anh Bui, Karsten G Kraiczek, Peter C Hauser
A photometric detector based on eight different light-emitting diodes covering the ultraviolet range from 255 nm to 350 nm is described. These are coupled with fused silica optical fibres to a conventional cuvette with 1 cm optical path length or to a low volume flow through cell for detection in high-performance liquid chromatography. Photodiodes are employed for the measurement of the transmitted intensity as well as of a reference signal and the photocurrents are processed with a log-ratio amplifier to obtain a voltage proportional to absorbance values...
September 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sarah M Garcia, Cecilia Kopuchian, Gabriel B Mindlin, Matthew J Fuxjager, Pablo L Tubaro, Franz Goller
The evolution of complex behavior is driven by the interplay of morphological specializations and neuromuscular control mechanisms [1-3], and it is often difficult to tease apart their respective contributions. Avian vocal learning and associated neural adaptations are thought to have played a major role in bird diversification [4-8], whereas functional significance of substantial morphological diversity of the vocal organ remains largely unexplored. Within the most species-rich order, Passeriformes, "tracheophones" are a suboscine group that, unlike their oscine sister taxon, does not exhibit vocal learning [9] and is thought to phonate with tracheal membranes [10, 11] instead of the two independent sources found in other passerines [12-14]...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Hanshuang Chen, Chuansheng Shen, Haifeng Zhang, Jürgen Kurths
We theoretically study noise-induced phase switch phenomena in an inertial majority-vote (IMV) model introduced in a recent paper [Chen et al., Phys. Rev. E 95, 042304 (2017)]. The IMV model generates a strong hysteresis behavior as the noise intensity f goes forward and backward, a main characteristic of a first-order phase transition, in contrast to a second-order phase transition in the original MV model. Using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the master equation, we reduce the problem to finding the zero-energy trajectories in an effective Hamiltonian system, and the mean switching time depends exponentially on the associated action and the number of particles N...
August 2017: Chaos
Seçkin Tuncer, Tülay Tuncer Peker, İlksen Burat, Erhan Kiziltan, Barkin İlhan, Nizamettin Dalkiliç
In this study, effects of the long-acting amide-type local anesthetic levobupivacaine on axonal conduction and excitability parameters of the rat sciatic nerve were thoroughly examined both in vitro and in vivo. In order to deduce its effects on isolated nerve conduction, compound nerve action potential (CNAP) recordings were performed using the suction method over sciatic nerves of Wistar rats before and after administration of 0.05 % (1.7 mmol L-1) levobupivacaine. Levobupivacaine caused complete CNAP area and amplitude depression by blocking conduction in a time-dependent manner...
September 1, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
M A Nosir, L Martin-Gondre, G A Bocan, R Díez Muiño
We study the dissociative adsorption dynamics of N2 on clean bcc Fe(111) surfaces. We base our theoretical analysis on a multidimensional potential energy surface built from density functional theory. The dissociative sticking probability is computed by means of quasi-classical trajectory calculations. For normal incidence and impact energies of the order of a few eV, our theoretical results agree well with existing experimental values. For these energies, the dynamics of the dissociated molecules shows that dissociation is a direct process that follows narrow paths in the multidimensional space...
August 31, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Bo Olofsson, Hedi Rasul, Annika Lundmark
Traffic accidents sometimes lead to the spread of hazardous compounds to the environment. Accidental spills of hazardous compounds on roads in the vicinity of vulnerable objects such as water supplies pose a serious threat to water quality and have to be assessed. This study compared three different assessment methods, electrical resistivity measurements, analytical flow calculations, and 1D and 2D dynamic flow modeling, to describe rapid transport processes in the road shoulder and roadside verge after a major spill...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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