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John M Scanlon, Rini Sherony, Hampton C Gabler
OBJECTIVE: Accounting for one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the U.S., intersection crashes are among the most frequent and fatal crash modes. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of crashes and number of vehicles with a seriously injured driver (MAIS3+) that could be prevented or reduced if, for every straight crossing path (SCP) intersection crash, one of the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Karina Kangur, Jutta Billino, Constanze Hesse
Successful obstacle avoidance requires a close coordination of the visual and the motor systems. Visual information is essential for adjusting movements in order to avoid unwanted collisions. Yet, established obstacle avoidance paradigms have typically either focused on gaze strategies or on motor adjustments. Here we were interested in whether humans show similar visuomotor sensitivity to obstacles when gaze and motor behaviour are measured across different obstacle avoidance tasks. To this end, we measured participants' hand movement paths when grasping targets in the presence of obstacles as well as their gaze behaviour when walking through a cluttered hallway...
January 2017: I-Perception
Liping Pang, Beth Robson, Kata Farkas, Erin McGill, Arvind Varsani, Lea Gillot, Jinhua Li, Phillip Abraham
With the intensification of human activities, fresh water resources are increasingly being exposed to contamination from effluent disposal to land. Thus, there is a greater need to identify the sources and pathways of water contamination to enable the development of better mitigation strategies. To track discharges of domestic effluent into soil and groundwater, 10 synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)(3) tracers were developed in this study. Laboratory column experiment and field groundwater and soil lysimeter studies were carried out spiking DNA with oxidation-pond domestic effluent...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
M Gheju, I Balcu, A Enache, A Flueras
This paper examines the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal with Fe(0), and the possible effect of various experimental parameters, from a kinetic perspective. The experimental data was analyzed using five different kinetic models: three for chemical reactions and two for adsorption processes. It was found that the process fitted well to the zero-order kinetic model for all investigated systems, excepting experiments conducted at 6 °C and those with nano-Fe(0), when the process followed the Ho's pseudo second-order model...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Martin J Dorahy
This paper examines one particular way a person abused may come to internally position themselves and the abuser to understand their abuse experience. It is based on a differentiation and exploration of the dynamic relationship between shame and humiliation associated with complex feelings the abused has to the abuser. Humiliation is described as denoting the naked self exposed by another, while shame is described as denoting the naked self exposed to another. From this lens, abusive events are conceived as humiliating experiences that come to be represented as shame experiences...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Markus F Weber, Erwin Frey
This review provides a pedagogic and self-contained introduction to master equations and to their representation by path integrals. Since the 1930s, master equations have served as a fundamental tool to understand the role of fluctuations in complex biological, chemical, and physical systems. Despite their simple appearance, analyses of master equations most often rely on low-noise approximations such as the Kramers-Moyal or the system size expansion, or require ad-hoc closure schemes for the derivation of low-order moment equations...
April 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Benjamin Foerster, Anneli Joplin, Katharina Kaefer, Sirin Celiksoy, Stephan Link, Carsten Sönnichsen
Metallic nanoparticles show extraordinary strong light absorption near their plasmon resonance, orders of magnitude larger compared to nonmetallic nanoparticles. This "antenna" effect has recently been exploited to transfer electrons into empty states of an attached material, for example to create electric currents in photovoltaic devices or to induce chemical reactions. It is generally assumed that plasmons decay into hot electrons, which then transfer to the attached material. Ultrafast electron-electron scattering reduces the lifetime of hot electrons drastically in metals and therefore strongly limits the efficiency of plasmon induced hot electron transfer...
March 17, 2017: ACS Nano
Soudeh Jahanshahi, Hartmut Löwen, Borge Ten Hagen
We study the dynamics of a Brownian circle swimmer with a time-dependent self-propulsion velocity in an external temporally varying harmonic potential. For several situations, the noise-free swimming paths, the noise-averaged mean trajectories, and the mean-square displacements are calculated analytically or by computer simulation. Based on our results, we discuss optimal swimming strategies in order to explore a maximum spatial range around the trap center. In particular, we find a resonance situation for the maximum escape distance as a function of the various frequencies in the system...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Ronak Gupta, Meheboob Alam
Hydrodynamic fields, macroscopic boundary conditions, and non-Newtonian rheology of the acceleration-driven Poiseuille flow of a dilute granular gas are probed using "direct simulation Monte Carlo" method for a range of Knudsen numbers (Kn, the ratio between the mean free path and the macroscopic length), spanning the rarefied regime of slip and transitional flows. It is shown that the "dissipation-induced clustering" (for 1-e_{n}>0, where e_{n} is the restitution coefficient), leading to inhomogeneous density profiles along the transverse direction, competes with "rarefaction-induced declustering" (for Kn>0) phenomenon, leaving seemingly "anomalous" footprints on several hydrodynamic and rheological quantities; one example is the well-known rarefaction-induced temperature bimodality, which could also result from inelastic dissipation that dominates in the continuum limit (Kn→0) as found recently [Alam et al...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Ondrej Marsalek, Thomas E Markland
Understanding the reactivity and spectroscopy of aqueous solutions at the atomistic level is crucial for the elucidation and design of chemical processes. However, the simulation of these systems requires addressing the formidable challenges of treating the quantum nature of both the electrons and nuclei. Exploiting our recently developed methods that provide acceleration by up to 2 orders of magnitude, we combine path integral simulations with on-the-fly evaluation of the electronic structure at the hybrid density functional theory level to capture the interplay between nuclear quantum effects and the electronic surface...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jessica Robin Rodgers, Kathleen Surry, Eric Leung, David D'Souza, Aaron Fenster
PURPOSE: Treatment for gynecologic cancers, such as cervical, recurrent endometrial, and vaginal malignancies, commonly includes external-beam radiation and brachytherapy. In high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy, radiation treatment is delivered via hollow needles that are typically inserted through a template on the perineum with a cylinder placed in the vagina for stability. Despite the need for precise needle placement to minimize complications and provide optimal treatment, there is no standard intra-operative image-guidance for this procedure...
March 15, 2017: Medical Physics
A F Mark, W Li, S Sharples, P J Withers
Our aim was to establish the capability of spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) to map grain orientations and the anisotropy in stiffness at the sub-mm to micron scale by comparing the method with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) undertaken within a scanning electron microscope. In the former the grain orientations are deduced by measuring the spatial variation in elastic modulus; conversely, in EBSD the elastic anisotropy is deduced from direct measurements of the crystal orientations. The two test-cases comprise mapping the fusion zones for large TIG and MMA welds in thick power plant austenitic and ferritic steels, respectively; these are technologically important because, among other things, elastic anisotropy can cause ultrasonic weld inspection methods to become inaccurate because it causes bending in the paths of sound waves...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Karolina M Nowak, Lukasz J Nowak
PURPOSE: The force with which the diaphragm chestpiece of a stethoscope is pressed against the body of a patient during an auscultation examination introduces the initial stress and deformation to the diaphragm and the underlying tissues, thus altering the acoustic parameters of the sound transmission path. If the examination is performed by an experienced physician, he will intuitively adjust the amount of the force in order to achieve the optimal sound quality. However, in case of becoming increasingly popular auto-diagnosis and telemedicine auscultation devices with no such feedback mechanisms, the question arises regarding the influence of the possible force mismatch on the parameters of the recorded signal...
March 13, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
William B Ventres
In order to integrate the biological, psychological, social, and existential dimensions of care into my day-to-day clinical encounters with patients, I have worked to cultivate several intentions of practice. These intentions of practice-habits of mind that nurture my resolve to attend to patients as complex human beings- help me navigate my interactions with patients and families in ways that are simultaneously efficacious and therapeutic. When routinely recalled and adeptly implemented, they are what distinguish me as a competent and capable practitioner of person-centered care, when I am at my best, from when I am not...
March 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
Bin-Bin Wang, Ya-Wei Gu, Jian-Meng Chen, Qian Yao, Hui-Juan Li, Dang-Cong Peng, Feng He
Different from monomeric substrate, polymeric substrate (PS) needs to undergo slow hydrolysis process before becoming available for consumption by bacteria. Hydrolysis products will be available for the heterotrophs in low concentration, which will reduce competitive advantages of heterotrophs to nitrifiers in mixed culture. Therefore, some links between PS and nitrification process can be expected. In this study, three lab-scale sequencing batch reactors with different PS/total substrate (TS) ratio (0, 0.5 or 1) in influent were performed in parallel to investigate the influence of PS on nitrification process in activated sludge system...
March 6, 2017: Chemosphere
Toshihiko Shibanuma, Gustavo Grinblat, Pablo Albella, Stefan A Maier
High refractive index dielectric nanoantennas are expected to become key elements for nonlinear nano-optics applications due to their large nonlinearities, low energy losses and ability to produce high electric field enhancements in relatively large nanoscale volumes. In this work, we show that the nonlinear response from a high-index dielectric nanoantenna can be significantly improved by adding a metallic component to build metal-dielectric hybrid nanostructures. We demonstrate that the plasmonic resonance of a Au nanoring can boost the anapole mode supported by a Si nanodisk, strongly enhancing the electric field inside the large third-order susceptibility dielectric...
March 13, 2017: Nano Letters
Xuejin Li, E Du, Ming Dao, Subra Suresh, George Em Karniadakis
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a highly complex genetic blood disorder in which red blood cells (RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphology changes and decreased deformability. We employ a kinetic model for cell morphological sickling that invokes parameters derived from patient-specific data. This model is used to investigate the dynamics of individual sickle cells in a capillary-like microenvironment in order to address various mechanisms associated with SCD. We show that all RBCs, both hypoxia-unaffected and hypoxia-affected ones, regularly pass through microgates under oxygenated state...
March 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Michael Elad, Peyman Milanfar
Style transfer is a process of migrating a style from a given image to the content of another, synthesizing a new image which is an artistic mixture of the two. Recent work on this problem adopting Convolutional Neural-networks (CNN) ignited a renewed interest in this field, due to the very impressive results obtained. There exists an alternative path towards handling the style transfer task, via generalization of texture synthesis algorithms. This approach has been proposed over the years, but its results are typically less impressive compared to the CNN ones...
March 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Laura A Richards, Daniel Magnone, Chansopheaktra Sovann, Chivuth Kong, Sebastian Uhlemann, Oliver Kuras, Bart E van Dongen, Christopher J Ballentine, David A Polya
Arsenic contamination of groundwaters in South and Southeast Asia is a major threat to public health. In order to better understand the geochemical controls on the mobility of arsenic in a heavily arsenic-affected aquifer in northern Kandal Province, Cambodia, key changes in inorganic aqueous geochemistry have been monitored at high vertical and lateral resolution along dominant groundwater flow paths along two distinct transects. The two transects are characterized by differing geochemical, hydrological and lithological conditions...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Feng Chi, Jun Zhou, Qi Zhang, Yong Wang, Panling Huang
The vibration control of a construction vehicle must be carried out in order to meet the aims of sustainable environmental development and to avoid the potential human health hazards. In this paper, based on market feedback, the driver seat vibration of a type of wheel loader in the left and right direction, is found to be significant over a certain speed range. In order to find abnormal vibration components, the order tracking technique (OTT) and transmission path analysis (TPA) were used to analyze the vibration sources of the wheel loader...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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