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Elodie Lugez, Hossein Sadjadi, Chandra P Joshi, Selim G Akl, Gabor Fichtinger
PURPOSE: Electromagnetic (EM) catheter tracking has recently been introduced in order to enable prompt and uncomplicated reconstruction of catheter paths in various clinical interventions. However, EM tracking is prone to measurement errors which can compromise the outcome of the procedure. Minimizing catheter tracking errors is therefore paramount to improve the path reconstruction accuracy. METHODS: An extended Kalman filter (EKF) was employed to combine the nonlinear kinematic model of an EM sensor inside the catheter, with both its position and orientation measurements...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Mohammad Memarian, Xiaoqiang Li, Yasuo Morimoto, Tatsuo Itoh
Blazed gratings can reflect an oblique incident wave back in the path of incidence, unlike mirrors and metal plates that only reflect specular waves. Perfect blazing (and zero specular scattering) is a type of Wood's anomaly that has been observed when a resonance condition occurs in the unit-cell of the blazed grating. Such elusive anomalies have been studied thus far as individual perfect blazing points. In this work, we present reflective blazed surfaces that, by design, have multiple coupled blazing resonances per cell...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Devina K S McCray, Stephen R Grobmyer, Holly J Pederson
BACKGROUND: Bilateral breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used in the diagnostic workup of breast cancer (BC) to assess extent of disease and identify occult foci of disease. However, evidence for routine use of pre-operative MRI is lacking. Breast MRI is costly and can lead to unnecessary tests and treatment delays. Clinical care pathways (care paths) are value-based guidelines, which define management recommendations derived by expert consensus and available evidence based data...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
Georges Elias Khalil, Hua Wang, Karen Sue Calabro, Natasha Mitra, Ross Shegog, Alexander V Prokhorov
BACKGROUND: Web-based programs for smoking prevention are being increasingly used with some success among adolescents. However, little is known about the mechanisms that link the experience of such programs to intended nicotine or tobacco control outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Based on the experiential learning theory and extended elaboration likelihood model, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a Web-based intervention, A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), on adolescents' intention to smoke, while considering the experience of interactivity and entertainment as predictors of reduced intention to smoke, under a transitional user experience model...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Gang Li, Xiaohui Su, Fan Yang, Xiaoye Huo, Gengmin Zhang, Shengyong Xu
In this paper, we report the results of slight changes in the thermopower of long W, Mo, Zn, Cu, brass, and Ti wires, that resulted from changes in the wire's diameter or cross-sectional area. The samples used in the tests had a round shape with a diameter that ranged from tens of micron to 2 mm, which was much larger than the corresponding mean free paths of these materials. Nevertheless, a small change in thermopower, at the order of 1-10 nV/K, was repeatedly observed when the wire diameter was changed, or when the cross-sectional area of the wire was altered by mechanical methods, such as grinding or splitting...
February 10, 2017: Sensors
A A Panarin, A V Reznichenko, I S Terekhov
We consider the optical fiber channel modeled by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with zero dispersion and additive Gaussian noise. Using the Feynman path-integral approach for the model, we find corrections to conditional probability density function, output signal distribution, conditional and output signal entropies, and the channel capacity at large signal-to-noise ratio. We demonstrate that the correction to the channel capacity is positive for large signal power. Therefore, this correction increases the earlier calculated capacity for a nondispersive nonlinear optical fiber channel in the intermediate power region...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Isaac Yeaton, Jake Socha, Shane Ross
Gliding flight - moving horizontally downward through the air without power - has evolved in a broad diversity of taxa and serves numerous ecologically relevant functions such as predator escape, expanding foraging locations, and finding mates, and has been suggested as an evolutionary pathway to powered flight. Historically, gliding has been conceptualized using the idealized conditions of equilibrium, in which the net aerodynamic force on the glider balances its weight. While this assumption is appealing for its simplicity, recent studies of glide trajectories have shown that equilibrium gliding is not the norm for most species...
February 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Meng Xu, Linze Song, Kai Song, Qiang Shi
We propose a new method to directly calculate high order perturbative expansion terms in open system quantum dynamics. They are first written explicitly in path integral expressions. A set of differential equations are then derived by extending the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) approach. As two typical examples for the bosonic and fermionic baths, specific forms of the extended HEOM are obtained for the spin-boson model and the Anderson impurity model. Numerical results are then presented for these two models...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Malte R Schomers, Max Garagnani, Friedemann Pulvermüller
The human brain sets itself apart from that of its primate relatives by specific neuroanatomical features, especially the strong linkage of left perisylvian language areas (frontal and temporal cortex) by way of the arcuate fasciculus (AF). AF connectivity has been shown to correlate with verbal working memory (VWM) - a specifically human trait providing the foundation for language abilities - but a mechanistic explanation of any related causal link between anatomical structure and cognitive function is still missing...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ian R Blackman, Tracey M Giles
BACKGROUND: In order to meet national Australian nursing registration requisites, nurses need to meet competency requirements for evidence-based practices (EBPs). AIMS: A hypothetical model was formulated to explore factors that influenced Australian nursing students' ability and achievement to understand and employ EBPs related to health care provision. METHODS: A nonexperimental, descriptive survey method was used to identify self-reported EBP efficacy estimates of 375 completing undergraduate nursing students...
February 13, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
M Jason de la Cruz, Johan Hattne, Dan Shi, Paul Seidler, Jose Rodriguez, Francis E Reyes, Michael R Sawaya, Duilio Cascio, Simon C Weiss, Sun Kyung Kim, Cynthia S Hinck, Andrew P Hinck, Guillermo Calero, David Eisenberg, Tamir Gonen
Traditionally, crystallographic analysis of macromolecules has depended on large, well-ordered crystals, which often require significant effort to obtain. Even sizable crystals sometimes suffer from pathologies that render them inappropriate for high-resolution structure determination. Here we show that fragmentation of large, imperfect crystals into microcrystals or nanocrystals can provide a simple path for high-resolution structure determination by the cryoEM method MicroED and potentially by serial femtosecond crystallography...
February 13, 2017: Nature Methods
Adrián Riesco, Beatriz Santos-Buitrago, Javier De Las Rivas, Merrill Knapp, Gustavo Santos-García, Carolyn Talcott
In biological systems, pathways define complex interaction networks where multiple molecular elements are involved in a series of controlled reactions producing responses to specific biomolecular signals. These biosystems are dynamic and there is a need for mathematical and computational methods able to analyze the symbolic elements and the interactions between them and produce adequate readouts of such systems. In this work, we use rewriting logic to analyze the cellular signaling of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its cell surface receptor (EGFR) in order to induce cellular proliferation...
2017: BioMed Research International
J N Fleming, D J Taber, J McElligott, J W McGillicuddy, F Treiber
Despite being in existence for over 40 years, the application of telemedicine has lagged significantly in comparison to its generated interest. One detractor has been the immobile design of most historic telemedicine interventions and the relative deficiency of smartphones in the general populace. Recently, the exponential increase in smartphone ownership and familiarity have provided the potential for the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions that can realistically be mirrored in clinical applications...
February 11, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Ronald M Levy, Di Cui, Bin W Zhang, Nobuyuki Matubayasi
Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory (IST) and classical Density Functional Theory (DFT) each provide a framework for relating distribution functions of solutions to their thermodynamic properties. As reviewed in this work, both IST and DFT can be formulated in a way that use two "end point" simulations, one of the pure solvent and the other of the solution, to determine the solute chemical potential and other thermodynamic properties of the solution and of subvolumes in regions local to the solute containing hydrating waters...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Olivier Cometto, Majid Kabiri Samani, Bo Liu, Shuangxi Sun, Siu Hon Tsang, Johan Liu, Kun Zhou, Edwin Hang Tong Teo
High anisotropic thermal materials, which allow heat to dissipate in a preferential direction, are of interest in the prospect of electronics as an effective thermal management solution for hot spots. However, their drawback comes from their preferential heat propagation in the in-plane direction, thus spreading the heat laterally instead of vertically. This limitation makes these materials ineffective as the density of hot spots increases. Here, we produce a new dielectric thin film material at room temperature, named vertically ordered nanocrystalline h-BN (voBN)...
February 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Olivier T Picot, Victoria G Rocha, Claudio Ferraro, Na Ni, Eleonora D'Elia, Sylvain Meille, Jerome Chevalier, Theo Saunders, Ton Peijs, Mike J Reece, Eduardo Saiz
The properties of graphene open new opportunities for the fabrication of composites exhibiting unique structural and functional capabilities. However, to achieve this goal we should build materials with carefully designed architectures. Here, we describe the fabrication of ceramic-graphene composites by combining graphene foams with pre-ceramic polymers and spark plasma sintering. The result is a material containing an interconnected, microscopic network of very thin (20-30 nm), electrically conductive, carbon interfaces...
February 9, 2017: Nature Communications
Wai Hei Tse, Laszlo Gyenis, David W Litchfield, Jin Zhang
Theranostic applications of gelatin nanospheres require two major components, a method of detection and good biocompatibility. We characterized the response of UTA-6 human osteosarcoma cells to the introduction of functionalized 90 bloom-based gelatin nanospheres (158 ± 49 nm) modified with three elements in different order: (a) hybridization with cadmium-based quantum dots for optical detection, (b) bioconjugation with anti-human IgG FAB (anti-IgG) for cell targeting, with/without (c) capping with polyethylene glycol on the surface for enhanced biocompatibility...
February 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Love K H Pallon, Fritjof Nilsson, Shun Yu, Dongming Liu, Ana Diaz, Mirko Holler, Xiangrong R Chen, Stanislaw Gubanski, Mikael S Hedenqvist, Richard T Olsson, Ulf W Gedde
Electrical trees are one reason for the breakdown of insulating materials in electrical power systems. An understanding of the growth of electrical trees plays a crucial role in the development of reliable high voltage direct current (HVDC) power grid systems with transmission voltages up to 1 MV. A section which contained an electrical tree in low-density polyethylene (LDPE), has been visualized in three dimensions (3D) with a resolution of 92 nm by X-ray ptychographic tomography. The 3D imaging revealed pre-channel-formations with a lower density with the width of a couple of hundred nanometers formed around the main branch of the electrical tree...
February 8, 2017: Nano Letters
Alan M Rice, Aoife McLysaght
Human copy number variants (CNVs) account for genome variation an order of magnitude larger than single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Although much of this variation has no phenotypic consequences, some variants have been associated with disease, in particular neurodevelopmental disorders. Pathogenic CNVs are typically very large and contain multiple genes, and understanding the cause of the pathogenicity remains a major challenge. Here we show that pathogenic CNVs are significantly enriched for genes involved in development and genes that have greater evolutionary copy number conservation across mammals, indicative of functional constraints...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
Tan Young Kim, Eun Ho Song, Byung Hyun Kang, Se Jung Kim, Yun-Hi Lee, Byeong-Kwon Ju
A flexible thin gas barrier film formed by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly has been studied. We propose for the first time that hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) can be used in LBL assembly. When dispersed in water through sonication-assisted hydrolysis, h-BN develops hydroxyl groups that electrostatically couple with the cationic polymer polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA). This process produces hydroxyl-functional h-BN /PDDA nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibit well exfoliated and highly ordered h-BN nanosheets, which results in an extremely high visual clarity, with an average transmittance of 99% in the visible spectrum...
February 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
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