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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816865/liquid-crystal-spatial-light-modulators-for-simulating-zonal-multifocal-lenses
#1
Yiyu Li, Arthur Bradley, Renfeng Xu, Pete S Kollbaum
SIGNIFICANCE: To maximize efficiency of the normally lengthy and costly multizone lens design and testing process, it is advantageous to evaluate the potential efficacy of a design as thoroughly as possible prior to lens fabrication and on-eye testing. The current work describes an ex vivo approach of optical design testing. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe a system capable of examining the optical characteristics of multizone bifocal and multifocal optics by subaperture stitching using liquid crystal technologies...
August 14, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809714/avoiding-congestion-in-cluster-consensus-of-the-second-order-nonlinear-multiagent-systems
#2
Yi Wang, Zhongjun Ma, Guanrong Chen
In order to avoid congestion in the second-order nonlinear leader-following multiagent systems over capacity-limited paths, an approach called cluster lag consensus is proposed, which means that the agents in different clusters will pass through the same positions with the same velocities but lag behind the leader at different times. Lyapunov functionals and matrix theory are applied to analyze such cluster lag consensus. It is shown that when the graphic roots of clusters are influenced by the leader and the intracoupling of cluster agents is larger than a threshold, the cluster lag consensus can be achieved...
August 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808031/changes-in-aggregation-states-of-light-harvesting-complexes-as-a-mechanism-for-modulating-energy-transfer-in-desert-crust-cyanobacteria
#3
Leeat Bar Eyal, Reza Ranjbar Choubeh, Eyal Cohen, Ido Eisenberg, Carmen Tamburu, Márta Dorogi, Renata Ünnep, Marie-Sousai Appavou, Reinat Nevo, Uri Raviv, Ziv Reich, Győző Garab, Herbert van Amerongen, Yossi Paltiel, Nir Keren
In this paper we propose an energy dissipation mechanism that is completely reliant on changes in the aggregation state of the phycobilisome light-harvesting antenna components. All photosynthetic organisms regulate the efficiency of excitation energy transfer (EET) to fit light energy supply to biochemical demands. Not many do this to the extent required of desert crust cyanobacteria. Following predawn dew deposition, they harvest light energy with maximum efficiency until desiccating in the early morning hours...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807567/a-new-promoter-allows-optogenetic-vision-restoration-with-enhanced-sensitivity-in-macaque-retina
#4
Antoine Chaffiol, Romain Caplette, Céline Jaillard, Elena Brazhnikova, Mélissa Desrosiers, Elisabeth Dubus, Laëtitia Duhamel, Emilie Macé, Olivier Marre, Patrick Benoit, Philippe Hantraye, Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans, Ernst Bamberg, Jens Duebel, José-Alain Sahel, Serge Picaud, Deniz Dalkara
The majority of inherited retinal degenerations converge on the phenotype of photoreceptor cell death. Second- and third-order neurons are spared in these diseases, making it possible to restore retinal light responses using optogenetics. Viral expression of channelrhodopsin in the third-order neurons under ubiquitous promoters was previously shown to restore visual function, albeit at light intensities above illumination safety thresholds. Here, we report (to our knowledge, for the first time) activation of macaque retinas, up to 6 months post-injection, using channelrhodopsin-Ca(2+)-permeable channelrhodopsin (CatCh) at safe light intensities...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805401/the-common-sense-model-of-self-regulation-meta-analysis-and-test-of-a-process-model
#5
Martin S Hagger, Severine Koch, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis, Sheina Orbell
According to the common-sense model of self-regulation, individuals form lay representations of illnesses that guide coping procedures to manage illness threat. We meta-analyzed studies adopting the model to (a) examine the intercorrelations among illness representation dimensions, coping strategies, and illness outcomes; (b) test the sufficiency of a process model in which relations between illness representations and outcomes were mediated by coping strategies; and (c) test effects of moderators on model relations...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804926/van-der-waals-epitaxial-growth-of-2d-metallic-vanadium-diselenide-single-crystals-and-their-extra-high-electrical-conductivity
#6
Zhepeng Zhang, Jingjing Niu, Pengfei Yang, Yue Gong, Qingqing Ji, Jianping Shi, Qiyi Fang, Shaolong Jiang, He Li, Xiebo Zhou, Lin Gu, Xiaosong Wu, Yanfeng Zhang
2D metallic transition-metal dichalcogenides (MTMDs) have recently emerged as a new class of materials for the engineering of novel electronic phases, 2D superconductors, magnets, as well as novel electronic applications. However, the mechanical exfoliation route is predominantly used to obtain such metallic 2D flakes, but the batch production remains challenging. Herein, the van der Waals epitaxial growth of monocrystalline, 1T-phase, few-layer metallic VSe2 nanosheets on an atomically flat mica substrate via a "one-step" chemical vapor deposition method is reported...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799380/a-force-level-theory-of-the-rheology-of-entangled-rod-and-chain-polymer-liquids-i-tube-deformation-microscopic-yielding-and-the-nonlinear-elastic-limit
#7
Kenneth S Schweizer, Daniel M Sussman
We employ a first-principles-based, force-level approach to construct the anharmonic tube confinement field for entangled fluids of rigid needles, and also for chains described at the primitive-path (PP) level in two limiting situations where chain stretch is assumed to either be completely equilibrated or unrelaxed. The influence of shear and extensional deformation and polymer orientation is determined in a nonlinear elastic limit where dissipative relaxation processes are intentionally neglected. For needles and PP-level chains, a self-consistent analysis of transverse polymer harmonic dynamical fluctuations predicts that deformation-induced orientation leads to tube weakening or widening...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799378/heterogeneous-nucleation-from-a-supercooled-ionic-liquid-on-a-carbon-surface
#8
Xiaoxia He, Yan Shen, Francisco R Hung, Erik E Santiso
Classical molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the nucleation of the crystal phase of the ionic liquid [dmim(+)][Cl(-)] from its supercooled liquid phase, both in the bulk and in contact with a graphitic surface of D = 3 nm. By combining the string method in collective variables [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)], with Markovian milestoning with Voronoi tessellations [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 2589-2594 (2009)] and order parameters for molecular crystals [Santiso and Trout, J...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791029/influence-of-root-diameter-and-soil-depth-on-the-xylem-anatomy-of-fine-to-medium-sized-roots-of-mature-beech-trees-in-the-top-and-subsoil
#9
Kristina Kirfel, Christoph Leuschner, Dietrich Hertel, Bernhard Schuldt
Despite their importance for water uptake and transport, the xylem anatomical and hydraulic properties of tree roots have only rarely been studied in the field. We measured mean vessel diameter (D), vessel density (VD), relative vessel lumen area (lumen area per xylem area) and derived potential hydraulic conductivity (Kp) in the xylem of 197 fine- to medium-diameter roots (1-10 mm) in the topsoil and subsoil (0-200 cm) of a mature European beech forest on sandy soil for examining the influence of root diameter and soil depth on xylem anatomical and derived hydraulic traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790920/effect-of-cognitive-style-on-learning-and-retrieval-of-navigational-environments
#10
Maddalena Boccia, Francesca Vecchione, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia
Field independence (FI) has been found to correlate with a wide range of cognitive processes requiring cognitive restructuring. Cognitive restructuring, that is going beyond the information given by the setting, is pivotal in creating stable mental representations of the environment, the so-called "cognitive maps," and it affects visuo-spatial abilities underpinning environmental navigation. Here we evaluated whether FI, by fostering cognitive restructuring of environmental cues on the basis of an internal frame of reference, affects the learning and retrieval of a novel environment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790544/factors-associated-with-hemodialysis-machine-dependency
#11
Maria Polikandrioti, Ioannis Koutelekos, Georgia Gerogianni, Spyridoula Stefanidou, Vasilis Kyriakopoulos, Eirini Floraki, Fotoula Babatsikou
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis is one of major stresses in patients' daily lives since there is no other path for life maintenance but to accept the machine and its' related rules. PURPOSE: of this study was to explore factors associated with dependency on dialysis machine as reported by the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample of the study included 250 patients undergoing hemodialysis. For data collection a questionnaire specially designed for the needs of the research was used...
April 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790399/gender-difference-in-spontaneous-deception-a-hyperscanning-study-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#12
Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Dongchuan Yu
Previous studies have demonstrated that the neural basis of deception involves a network of regions including the medial frontal cortex (MFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), etc. However, to test the actual activity of the brain in the act of deceptive practice itself, existing studies have mainly adopted paradigms of passive deception, where participants are told to lie in certain conditions, and have focused on intra-brain mechanisms in single participants. In order to examine the neural substrates underlying more natural, spontaneous deception in real social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a two-person gambling card-game...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790205/comparative-genomics-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-reveals-a-path-to-specialized-exploitation-of-multiple-invertebrate-hosts
#13
Jinshui Zheng, Qiuling Gao, Linlin Liu, Hualin Liu, Yueying Wang, Donghai Peng, Lifang Ruan, Ben Raymond, Ming Sun
Understanding the genetic basis of host shifts is a key genomic question for pathogen and parasite biology. The Bacillus cereus group, which encompasses Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis, contains pathogens that can infect insects, nematodes, and vertebrates. Since the target range of the essential virulence factors (Cry toxins) and many isolates is well known, this group presents a powerful system for investigating how pathogens can diversify and adapt to phylogenetically distant hosts. Specialization to exploit insects occurs at the level of the major clade and is associated with substantial changes in the core genome, and host switching between insect orders has occurred repeatedly within subclades...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765466/estimating-the-number-of-dentists-needed-in-2040
#14
Stephen A Eklund, Howard L Bailit
Numerous factors that underlie the need for dentists are undergoing significant changes. Three factors are especially important: 1) improvements in oral health; 2) lower expenditures per patient per year, giving dentists the incentive to treat more patients to maintain incomes that justify their investment in dental education and practice; and 3) dental schools' producing new dentists at a faster rate than the growth in the population. If these trends continue, there is likely to be a dentist surplus of between 32% and 110% by 2040...
August 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764359/the-dissociation-and-recombination-rates-of-ch4-through-the-ni-111-surface-the-effect-of-lattice-motion
#15
Wenji Wang, Yi Zhao
Methane dissociation is a prototypical system for the study of surface reaction dynamics. The dissociation and recombination rates of CH4 through the Ni(111) surface are calculated by using the quantum instanton method with an analytical potential energy surface. The Ni(111) lattice is treated rigidly, classically, and quantum mechanically so as to reveal the effect of lattice motion. The results demonstrate that it is the lateral displacements rather than the upward and downward movements of the surface nickel atoms that affect the rates a lot...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763767/zero-valent-iron-nanoparticles-embedded-into-reduced-graphene-oxide-alginate-beads-for-efficient-chromium-vi-removal
#16
Xiaoshu Lv, Yuling Zhang, Wenyang Fu, Jiazhen Cao, Jiao Zhang, Hanbo Ma, Guangming Jiang
Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe(0) NPs) technologies are often challenged by poor dispersibility, chemical instability to oxidation, and mobility during processing, storage and use. This work reports a facile approach to synthesize Fe(0) NPs embedded reduced graphene oxide-alginate beads (Fe@GA beads) via the immobilization of pre-synthesized Fe(0) NPs into graphene oxide modified alginate gel followed by a modelling and in-situ reduction process. The structure/composition characterization of the beads finds that the graphene sheets and the Fe(0) NPs (a shape of ellipsoid and a size of <100nm) are uniformly dispersed within the alginate beads...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763664/coastal-stormwater-wet-pond-sediment-nitrogen-dynamics
#17
A C Gold, S P Thompson, M F Piehler
Wet ponds are a common type of stormwater control measure (SCM) in coastal areas of the southeastern US, but their internal nitrogen dynamics have not been extensively studied. Using flow-through intact sediment core incubations, net sediment N2 fluxes before and after a nitrate addition from five wet ponds spanning a range of ages (3.25-10years old) were quantified through membrane inlet mass spectrometry during early summer. Multiple locations within a single wet pond (6.16years old) were also sampled during ambient conditions in late summer to determine the combined effects of depth, vegetation, and flow path position on net N2 fluxes at the sediment-water interface...
July 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759243/telecom-wavelength-bottom-up-nanobeam-lasers-on-silicon-on-insulator
#18
Hyunseok Kim, Wook-Jae Lee, Alan C Farrell, Akshay Balgarkashi, Diana L Huffaker
Semiconductor nanowire lasers are considered promising ultracompact and energy-efficient light sources in the field of nanophotonics. Although the integration of nanowire lasers onto silicon photonic platforms is an innovative path toward chip-scale optical communications and photonic integrated circuits, operating nanowire lasers at telecom-wavelengths remains challenging. Here, we report on InGaAs nanowire array lasers on a silicon-on-insulator platform operating up to 1440 nm at room temperature. Bottom-up photonic crystal nanobeam cavities are formed by growing nanowires as ordered arrays using selective-area epitaxy, and single-mode lasing by optical pumping is demonstrated...
August 2, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758121/metabolomics-and-cardiology-toward-the-path-of-perinatal-programming-and-personalized-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Roberta Pintus, Pier Paolo Bassareo, Angelica Dessì, Martino Deidda, Giuseppe Mercuro, Vassilios Fanos
Heart diseases are one of the leading causes of death in Western Countries and tend to become chronic, lowering the quality of life of the patients and ending up in a massive cost for the Health Systems and the society. Thus, there is a growing interest in finding new technologies that would allow the physician to effectively treat and prevent cardiac illnesses. Metabolomics is one of the new "omics" sciences enabling creation of a photograph of the metabolic state of an individual exposed to different environmental factors and pathologies...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757429/women-s-career-choices-in-radiology-in-france
#20
N Pyatigorskaya, M Madson, L Di Marco
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effects of gender on residents' and fellows' motivations in choosing radiology as a career in France, and on choosing a practice setting later on. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online survey was sent to French residents and fellows in order to access their radiology practice and career aspirations, as well as the potential influence of their gender. Influence of being a woman on initial professional expectations, professional choices, and the evolution of career paths was investigated using the chi-square test...
July 27, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
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