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Toll-like Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905994/the-role-of-il-10-in-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-infection
#1
REVIEW
Tariq Hussain, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Srinand Sreevatsan, Xiangmei Zhou
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of Johne's disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Johne's disease is characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis leading to substantial economic losses to the livestock sector across the world. MAP persistently survives in phagocytic cells, most commonly in macrophages by disrupting its early antibacterial activity. MAP triggers several signaling pathways after attachment to pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytic cells...
December 1, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905985/tlr7-8-agonist-induces-a-post-entry-samhd1-independent-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-monocytes
#2
Henning Hofmann, Bénédicte Vanwalscappel, Nicolin Bloch, Nathaniel R Landau
BACKGROUND: Monocytes, the primary myeloid cell-type in peripheral blood, are resistant to HIV-1 infection as a result of the lentiviral restriction factor SAMHD1. Toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogen components, inducing the expression of antiviral host proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. TLR agonists that mimic microbial ligands have been found to have activity against HIV-1 in macrophages. The induction of restriction factors in monocytes by TLR agonist activation has not been well studied...
December 1, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903721/cross-talk-between-brain-innate-immunity-and-serotonin-signaling-underlies-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-alzheimer-s-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-in-mice
#3
Jose Henrique Ledo, Estefania P Azevedo, Danielle Beckman, Felipe C Ribeiro, Luis E Santos, Daniela S Razolli, Grasielle C Kincheski, Helen M Melo, Maria Bellio, Antonio L Teixeira, Licio A Velloso, Debora Foguel, Fernanda G De Felice, Sergio T Ferreira
: Considerable clinical and epidemiological evidence links Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection are largely unknown. We reported recently that soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs), toxins that accumulate in AD brains and are thought to instigate synapse damage and memory loss, induce depressive-like behavior in mice. Here, we report that the mechanism underlying this action involves AβO-induced microglial activation, aberrant TNF-α signaling, and decreased brain serotonin levels...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902922/the-extent-to-which-immunity-apoptosis-and-detoxification-gene-expression-interact-with-17-alpha-methyltestosterone
#4
Haitham G Abo-Al-Ela, Abeer F El-Nahas, Shawky Mahmoud, Essam M Ibrahim
Innate immunity is the first line of defence against invasion by foreign pathogens. One widely used synthetic androgen for the production of all-male fish, particularly commercially valuable Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT). The present study investigates the effect of MT on innate immunity, cellular apoptosis and detoxification and the mortality rate, during and after the feeding of fry with 0-, 40-and 60-mg MT/kg. Expression analysis was completed on interleukin 1 beta (il1β), interleukin 8 (il8), tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnfα), CXC2- and CC-chemokines, interferon (ifn), myxovirus resistance (mx), toll-like receptor 7 (tlr7), immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IgM heavy chain), vitellogenin (vtg), cellular apoptosis susceptibility (cas) and glutathione S-transferase α1 (gstα1)...
November 27, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902761/tlr-2-recognizes-propionibacterium-acnes-camp-factor-1-from-highly-inflammatory-strains
#5
Coralie Lheure, Philippe Alain Grange, Guillaume Ollagnier, Philippe Morand, Nathalie Désiré, Sophie Sayon, Stéphane Corvec, Jöel Raingeaud, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Vincent Calvez, Amir Khammari, Frédéric Batteux, Brigitte Dréno, Nicolas Dupin
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria encountered in inflammatory acne lesions, particularly in the pilosebaceous follicle. P. acnes triggers a strong immune response involving keratinocytes, sebocytes and monocytes, the target cells during acne development. Lipoteicoic acid and peptidoglycan induce the inflammatory reaction, but no P. acnes surface protein interacting with Toll-like receptors has been identified. P. acnes surface proteins have been extracted by lithium stripping and shown to induce CXCL8 production by keratinocytes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902567/dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-become-hyperexcitable-and-increase-expression-of-voltage-gated-t-type-calcium-channels-cav3-2-in-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#6
Yan Li, Claudio Esteves Tatsui, Laurence D Rhines, Robert Y North, Daniel S Harrison, Ryan M Cassidy, Caj A Johansson, Alyssa K Kosturakis, Denaya D Edwards, Hongmei Zhang, Patrick M Dougherty
Here it is shown that paclitaxel induced neuropathy is associated with the development of spontaneous activity (SA) and hyperexcitability in DRG neurons that is paralleled by increased expression of low-voltage-activated calcium channels (T-type; Cav3.2). The percentage of DRG neurons showing SA and the overall mean rate of SA were significantly higher at day 7 of paclitaxel treatment than in rats receiving vehicle. Cav3.2 expression was increased in L4-6 DRG and spinal cord segments in paclitaxel-treated rats, localized to small calcitonin gene-related peptide expressing and isolectin B4 expressing DRG neurons and to glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive spinal cord cells...
November 24, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900601/rna-seq-expression-analysis-of-enteric-neuron-cells-with-rotenone-treatment-and-prediction-of-regulated-pathways
#7
Qiang Guan, Xijin Wang, Yanyan Jiang, Lijuan Zhao, Zhiyu Nie, Lingjing Jin
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is involved in the initiation and development of the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD). The effect of rotenone on the ENS may trigger the progression of PD through the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to examine differential expression genes (DEGs) and pathways induced by in vitro treatment of rotenone in the enteric nervous cells isolated from rats. We identified 45 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated genes...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900425/erratum-to-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-modifies-toll-like-receptor-regulated-responses-in-human-dendritic-cells
#8
Sarah Kado, W L William Chang, Aimy Nguyen Chi, Monika Wolny, David M Shepherd, Christoph F A Vogel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900049/toll-like-receptors-and-cutaneous-melanoma
#9
Ilaria Coati, Serena Miotto, Irene Zanetti, Mauro Alaibac
Innate immune cells recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that PRRs also recognize endogenous molecules, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are derived from damaged cells. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), scavenger receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors. To date, 10 TLRs have been identified in humans and each receptor responds to a different ligand...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898411/radioprotective-effects-of-heat-killed-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-cultured-cells-and-radiosensitive-tissues
#10
Yuanyuan Chen, Yang Xu, Jicong Du, Jiaming Guo, Xiao Lei, Jianguo Cui, Cong Liu, Ying Cheng, Bailong Li, Fu Gao, Jintao Ju, Jianming Cai, Yanyong Yang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) often causes severe damage to radiosensitive tissues, which limits the use of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Novel safe and effective radioprotectant is urgently required. It has been reported toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a critical role in radioresistance. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of Heat-Killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (HKMT), a potent TLR2 agonist, against IR. METHODS: Cell survival and apoptosis were determined by CCK-8 assay and Annexin V assay, respectively...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897392/toll-like-receptor-4-signalling-mediates-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Daniela Verzola, Alice Bonanni, Antonella Sofia, Fabrizio Montecucco, Elena D'Amato, Valeria Cademartori, Emanuele Luigi Parodi, Francesca Viazzi, Chiara Venturelli, Giuliano Brunori, Giacomo Garibotto
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in skeletal muscle is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cachexia but why uremia up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate locally the innate immune responses, but it is unknown whether in chronic kidney disease (CKD) TLR4 muscle signalling is altered. The aim of the study is to investigate whether in CKD muscle, TLRs had abnormal function and may be involved in transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897273/a-novel-therapeutic-peptide-as-a-partial-agonist-of-rankl-in-ischemic-stroke
#12
Hitomi Kurinami, Munehisa Shimamura, Hironori Nakagami, Hideo Shimizu, Hiroshi Koriyama, Tomohiro Kawano, Kouji Wakayama, Hideki Mochizuki, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita
The enhanced receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) ligand (RANKL) and its receptor (RANK) signal have been reported to attenuate ischemic brain injury through inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated inflammation. However, augmentation of the RANKL/RANK signal also accelerates osteoporosis, which is a potential problem in clinical use of RANKL. Therefore, we developed novel peptides, microglial healing peptides (MHPs), which were based on the DE and/or EF loop of RANKL. Among them, MHP1 was the most effective inhibitor of TLR4-induced inflammations in microglia/macrophages...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895422/genetic-polymorphism-in-cd14-gene-a-co-receptor-of-tlr4-associated-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Shweta Kapil, Ajay Duseja, Bal Krishan Sharma, Bhupesh Singla, Anuradha Chakraborti, Ashim Das, Pallab Ray, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
AIM: To evaluate the pathogenic role of toll-like receptor (TLR) gene polymorphisms in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Two hundred and fifty subjects (NAFLD = 200, healthy volunteers = 50) underwent polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism to assess one polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene (A753G), two polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene (TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile allele), and two polymorphisms in the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) (C-159T and C-550T) gene, a co-receptor of TLR4...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895415/factoring-the-intestinal-microbiome-into-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#14
EDITORIAL
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895398/dysregulation-of-innate-immunity-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-who-fail-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#15
Angela C Baird, Dominic Mallon, Graham Radford-Smith, Julien Boyer, Thierry Piche, Susan L Prescott, Ian C Lawrance, Meri K Tulic
AIM: To study the innate immune function in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who fail to respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. METHODS: Effects of anti-TNF therapy, inflammation and medications on innate immune function were assessed by measuring peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine expression from 18 inflammatory bowel disease patients pre- and 3 mo post-anti-TNF therapy. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and cytokine production post TLR stimulation was assessed in UC "responders" (n = 12) and "non-responders" (n = 12) and compared to healthy controls (n = 12)...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895126/versican-deficiency-significantly-reduces-lung-inflammatory-response-induced-by-polyinosine-polycytidylic-acid-stimulation
#16
Inkyung Kang, Ingrid A Harten, Mary Y Chang, Kathleen R Braun, Alyssa Sheih, Mary P Nivison, Pamela Y Johnson, Gail Workman, Gernot Kaber, Stephen P Evanko, Christina K Chan, Mervyn J Merrilees, Steven F Ziegler, Michael G Kinsella, Charles W Frevert, Thomas N Wight
Viral infection is an exacerbating factor contributing to chronic airway diseases such as asthma via mechanisms which are still unclear. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist used as a mimetic to study viral infection, has been shown to elicit inflammatory responses in lungs and to exacerbate pulmonary allergic reactions in animal models. Previously, we have shown that poly I:C stimulates lung fibroblasts to accumulate an extracellular matrix (ECM), enriched in hyaluronan (HA) and its binding partner versican, which promotes monocyte adhesion...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895089/oxidized-high-density-lipoprotein-induces-macrophage-apoptosis-via-toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-chop-pathway
#17
Shutong Yao, Hua Tian, Li Zhao, Jinguo Li, Libo Yang, Feng Yue, Yanyan Li, Peng Jiao, Nana Yang, Yiwei Wang, Xiangjian Zhang, Shucun Qin
Oxidized high-density lipoprotein (ox-HDL), unlike native HDL that exerts antiatherogenic effects, plays a proatherogenic role. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. This study was designed to explore the inductive effect of ox-HDL on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)-mediated macrophage apoptosis and its upstream mechanisms. Our results showed that ox-HDL could be ingested by macrophages, causing intracellular lipid accumulation. Like tunicamycin (an ER stress inducer), ox-HDL induced macrophage apoptosis with concomitant activation of ER stress pathway, including nuclear translocation of activating transcription factor 6, phosphorylation of protein kinase-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, and upregulation of glucose regulated protein 78 and CHOP, which were inhibited by 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA, an ER stress inhibitor) and CHOP gene silencing...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894923/therapeutic-implications-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#18
REVIEW
Krishan K Thakur, Jyoti Saini, Kanika Mahajan, Dhyanendra Singh, Dinkar P Jaiswal, Srishti Mishra, Anupam Bishyaee, Gautam Sethi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Neuropathic pain is a state of chronic pain arising after peripheral or central nerve injury. These injuries can be mediated through the activation of various cells (astrocytes, microglia and Schwann cells), as well as the dissolution of distal axons. Recent studies have suggested that after nerve injury, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in Wallerian degeneration and generation of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these TLRs are responsible for the stimulation of astrocytes and microglia that can cause induction of the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in the spinal cord, thereby leading to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894811/critical-role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-pathophysiology-of-allergic-asthma
#19
Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Seyyede Masoume Athari, Fateme Beyzay, Masoud Movassaghi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mehdi Taghavi
Allergic asthma is an airway disease, characterized by reversible bronchoconstriction, chronic inflammation of the airway, and thickness of smooth muscle in the respiratory tract. Asthma is orchestrated by an excessive Th2-adaptive immune response, in which innate immunity plays a key role. Recently TLRs have received more and more attention as they are central to orchestrate the innate immune responses. TLRs are localized as integral membrane or intracellular glycoproteins with those on the cell surface sensing microbial antigens and the ones, localized in intracellular vesicles, sensing microbial nucleic acid species...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893701/the-signaling-adaptor-traf1-negatively-regulates-toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-this-underlies-its-role-in-rheumatic-disease
#20
Ali A Abdul-Sater, Maria I Edilova, Derek L Clouthier, Achire Mbanwi, Elisabeth Kremmer, Tania H Watts
TRAF1 is a signaling adaptor known for its role in tumor necrosis factor receptor-induced cell survival. Here we show that monocytes from healthy human subjects with a rheumatoid arthritis-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the TRAF1 gene express less TRAF1 protein but greater amounts of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The TRAF1 MATH domain binds directly to three components of the linear ubiquitination (LUBAC) complex, SHARPIN, HOIP and HOIL-1, to interfere with the recruitment and linear ubiquitination of NEMO...
November 28, 2016: Nature Immunology
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