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Toll-like Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342159/prediction-of-novel-target-genes-and-pathways-involved-in-bevacizumab-resistant-colorectal-cancer
#1
Precious Takondwa Makondi, Chia-Hwa Lee, Chien-Yu Huang, Chi-Ming Chu, Yu-Jia Chang, Po-Li Wei
Bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy is the backbone of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) therapy; however, its treatment efficacy is hampered by therapeutic resistance. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying bevacizumab resistance is crucial to increasing the therapeutic efficacy of bevacizumab. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (dataset, GSE86525) was used to identify the key genes and pathways involved in bevacizumab-resistant mCRC. The GEO2R web tool was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341193/impact-of-trans-fats-on-heat-shock-protein-expression-and-the-gut-microbiota-profile-of-mice
#2
Gessika Cristina Borges Castro Carvalho, Carolina Soares Moura, Aline Rissetti Roquetto, Daniel Barrera-Arellano, Aureo Tatsumi Yamada, Andrey Dos Santos, Mário José Abdalla Saad, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Partially hydrogenated oils are known to cause metabolic stress and dyslipidemia. This paper explores a new dimension about the interaction between dietary trans-fats and the defense heat-shock protein (HSP) system, inflammation, and the gut microbiota of mice consuming a hyperlipidic diet containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oil free of animal fat. Five diet groups were installed: control diet, 2 hyperlipidic-partially hydrogenated-oil diets, each containing either casein or whey-protein hydrolysate (WPH) as protein source, and 2 consuming hyperlipidic-unhydrogenated-oil diets containing either WPH or casein as a protein source...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339456/parp-inhibition-prevents-ethanol-induced-neuroinflammatory-signaling-and-neurodegeneration-in-adult-age-rat-brain-slice-cultures
#3
Nuzhath F Tajuddin, Hee-Yong Kim, Michael A Collins
Utilizing rat adult-age hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) slice cultures we examined the role of poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) in binge ethanol's brain inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms. Activated by DNA strand breaks, PARP (principally PARP1 in brain) promotes DNA repair via poly [ADP-ribose] (PAR) products, but PARP overactivation triggers regulated neuronal necrosis, e.g., parthanatos. Previously we found that brain PARP1 levels were upregulated by neurotoxic ethanol binges in adult rats and HEC slices, and PARP inhibitor PJ34 abrogated slice neurodegeneration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339104/region-specific-innate-antiviral-responses-of-the-human-epididymis
#4
James A Browne, Shih Hsing Leir, Scott Eggener, Ann Harris
Viral infections of the epididymis are associated with epididymitis, which damages the epithelium and impairs fertility. We showed previously that innate immune response genes were differentially expressed in the corpus and cauda region of the human epididymis in comparison to the caput. Here we investigate the antiviral defense response mechanisms of human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are enriched in HEE cells from the corpus and cauda region...
January 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338742/m2-polarized-tumor-associated-macrophages-facilitated-migration-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-hcc-cells-via-the-tlr4-stat3-signaling-pathway
#5
Rong-Rong Yao, Jing-Huan Li, Rui Zhang, Rong-Xin Chen, Yan-Hong Wang
BACKGROUND: M2-polarized macrophages are tumor-associated-macrophages (TAMs), which are important contents of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a molecular biomarker of tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have important roles in the immune system and M2-polarized macrophages. However, the effects of TLR4 on M2-polarized macrophages in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. Here, TLR4 expressed on HCC cells mediates the pro-tumor effects and mechanisms of M2-polarized macrophages...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338160/higher-activities-of-hepatic-versus-splenic-cd8-t-cells-in-responses-to-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-and-vaccination-of-b6-mice-with-mhc-class-1-binding-antigen
#6
Mohamed Labib Salem, Randa E El Naggar, Sabry A El Naggar, Maysa A Mobasher, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Gamal Badr
The liver has unique microenvironment which is known to induce tolerance of cytolytic CD8+ T cells to hepatic and extra hepatic antigens, resulting in persistence of infection of the liver by the hepatitis B and C viruses. However, under some conditions, functional immune responses can be elicited in the liver in particular to show preferential retention of activated CD8+ T cells. It is not clear whether this retention depends on the type of the exogenous immunostimulatory or the endogenous innate immune cells...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337856/interaction-between-hepatitis-b-virus-and-toll-like-receptors-current-status-and-potential-therapeutic-use-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#7
REVIEW
Zhiyong Ma, Qian Cao, Yong Xiong, Ejuan Zhang, Mengji Lu
Immune defense against infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is complex and involves both host innate and adaptive immune systems. It is well accepted that the development of sufficient HBV-specific T cell and B cell responses are required for controlling an HBV infection. However, the contribution of innate immunity to removing HBV has been explored in recent years. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are recognized as the first line of antiviral immunity because they initiate intracellular signaling pathways to induce antiviral mediators such as interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines...
January 16, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337391/time-dependent-distinct-roles-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-a-house-dust-mite-induced-asthma-mouse-model
#8
Takashi Ishii, Yuichi Niikura, Keigo Kurata, Masashi Muroi, Ken-Ichi Tanamoto, Takahide Nagase, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Naomi Yamashita
House dust mites (HDMs) are a common source of allergens that trigger both allergen-specific and innate immune responses in humans. Here we examined the effect of allergen concentration and the involvement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the process of sensitization to house dust mite allergens in an HDM-extract-induced asthma mouse model. Intranasal administration of HDM extract induced an immunoglobulin E response and eosinophilic inflammation in a dose-dependent manner from 2.5 to 30 μg/dose. In TLR4-knockout mice, the infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils into the lung was decreased compared with that in wild-type mice in the early phase of inflammation (total of three doses)...
January 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337248/immunohistochemical-characterization-of-epidermal-dendritic-like-cells-in-giant-mudskipper-periophthalmodon-schlosseri
#9
E R Lauriano, C Faggio, G Capillo, N Spanò, M Kuciel, M Aragona, S Pergolizzi
Giant Mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri (Pallas, 1770), is euryhaline, amphibious, and air-breathing fish. These fishes live in close association to mangrove forests and often spend over 90% of time out of water, in adjacent mudflats. They have developed morphological and physiological adaptations to satisfy their unique lifestyles. The skin is the primary interface between the body and the environment, and has a central role in host defence. The initiation of immune responses to antigens in the vertebrate skin has often been attributed to epidermal Langerhans'cells (LC) that are dendritic cells (DC), antigen-presenting cells (APC) which reside in the epidermis...
January 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337246/tlr3-gene-in-japanese-sea-perch-lateolabrax-japonicus-molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-after-bacterial-infection
#10
Pengfei Wang, Chao Zhao, Chengyang Wang, Sigang Fan, Lulu Yan, Lihua Qiu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in fish innate immune and are involved in the defense process of bacteria invasion. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of TLR3 from the sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus, was cloned and characterized. The full length of LjTLR3 cDNA was 3265 bp including an open reading frame of 2679 bp encoding a peptide of 922 amino acids. Tissues distribution analysis indicated that LjTLR3 showed a tissue-specific variation with high expression in spleen, head-kidney and liver...
January 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337240/prevention-of-the-severity-of-post-ischemic-inflammation-and-brain-damage-by-simultaneous-knockdown-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#11
Koteswara Rao Nalamolu, Nathan J Smith, Bharath Chelluboina, Jeffrey D Klopfenstein, David M Pinson, David Z Wang, Raghu Vemuganti, Krishna Kumar Veeravalli
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 belong to a family of highly conserved pattern recognition receptors and are well-known upstream sensors of signaling pathways of innate immunity. TLR2 and TLR4 upregulation is thought to be associated with poor outcome in stroke patients. We currently show that transient focal ischemia in adult rats induces TLR2 and TLR4 expression within hours and shRNA-mediated knockdown of TLR2 and TLR4 alone and in combination decreases the infarct size and swelling. We further show that TLR2 and TLR4 knockdown also prevented the induction of their downstream signaling molecules MyD88, IRAK1, and NFκB p65 as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335857/effect-of-soothing-gan-liver-and-invigorating-pi-spleen-recipes-on-tlr4-p38-mapk-pathway-in-kupffer-cells-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-rats
#12
Xiang-Wen Gong, Yong-Jian Xu, Qin-He Yang, Yin-Ji Liang, Yu-Pei Zhang, Guan-Long Wang, Yuan-Yuan Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of inflammatory-mediated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway in Kupffer cells (KCs) of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rats and the intervention effect of soothing Gan (Liver) and invigorating Pi (Spleen) recipes on this pathway. METHODS: After 1 week of acclimatization, 120 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups using a random number table (n=15 per group): normal group, model group, low-dose Chaihu Shugan Powder (, CHSG) group (3...
January 9, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333376/anti-inflammatory-and-anti-obesity-properties-of-food-bioactive-components-effects-on-adipose-tissue
#13
REVIEW
Shasika Jayarathne, Iurii Koboziev, Oak-Hee Park, Wilna Oldewage-Theron, Chwan-Li Shen, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Obesity is an epidemic and costly disease affecting 13% of the adult population worldwide. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as pathologic endocrine alterations of adipose tissue including local and chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, this inflammation is a risk factor for both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance. Basic and clinical studies demonstrate that foods containing bioactive compounds are capable of preventing both obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, improving obesity-associated MetS in human subjects and animal models of obesity...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331804/toll-like-receptor-9-antagonist-suppresses-humoral-immunity-in-experimental-autoimmune-myasthenia-gravis
#14
Peng Zhang, Chun-Lin Yang, Ru-Tao Liu, Heng Li, Min Zhang, Na Zhang, Long-Tao Yue, Cong-Cong Wang, Ying-Chun Dou, Rui-Sheng Duan
Recent studies have demonstrated the important role of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signalling in autoimmune diseases, but its role in myasthenia gravis (MG) has not been fully established. We show herein that blocking TLR9 signalling via the suppressive oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) H154 alleviated the symptoms of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). With the downregulation of dendritic cells (DCs), TLR9 interruption reduced follicular helper T cells (Tfh) and germinal centre (GC) B cells, leading to decreased antibody production...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331619/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-and-toll-like-receptors-a-mutual-avenue
#15
REVIEW
M Naghib, M Hatam-Jahromi, M Niktab, R Ahmadi, A Kariminik
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an intracellular bacterium leading to several complications in humans. M. pneumoniae is cleared in some cases and induces complications in others. The main responsible mechanisms regarding the controversy are yet to be cleared. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the important cell membrane and intracellular receptors which recognize a wide range of microbial macromolecules. The roles of TLRs in the eradication of several pathogens and also induction of their related complications have been demonstrated...
January 10, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331341/effects-of-the-gut-liver-axis-on-ischemia-mediated-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-in-the-mouse-liver
#16
Lorenzo A Orci, Stéphanie Lacotte, Vaihere Delaune, Florence Slits, Graziano Oldani, Vladimir Lazarevic, Carlo Rossetti, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Philippe Morel, Christian Toso
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is growing evidence that liver graft ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, but the involved mechanisms are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mesenteric congestion due to portal blood flow interruption induces endotoxin-mediated Toll-Like Receptor 4 (Tlr4) engagement, resulting in elevated liver cancer burden. We also assessed the role of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in this context. METHODS: C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to standardized models of liver I/R injury and RIPC, by occluding hepatic and femoral blood vessels...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331320/zika-dengue-and-yellow-fever-viruses-induce-differential-anti-viral-immune-responses-in-human-monocytic-and-first-trimester-trophoblast-cells
#17
Huanle Luo, Evandro R Winkelmann, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Li Li, Sandra V Mayer, Rogelio Daniz-Lozano, Rosa Ma Sanchez-Casas, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert Tesh, Alan D Barrett, Scott C Weaver, Tian Wang
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neonatal birth defects, but the causative mechanism is incompletely understood. ZIKV shares sequence homology and early clinical manifestations with yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus (DENV) and are all transmitted in urban cycles by the same species of mosquitoes. However, YFV and DENV have been rarely reported to cause congenital diseases. Here, we compared infection with a contemporary ZIKV strain (FSS13025) to YFV17D and DENV-4 in human monocytic cells (THP-1) and first-trimester trophoblasts (HTR-8)...
January 10, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#18
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
January 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330632/inate-immunity-in-rosacea-langerhans-cells-plasmacytoid-dentritic-cells-toll-like-receptors-and-inducible-oxide-nitric-synthase-inos-expression-in-skin-specimens-case-control-study
#19
Ana Karina Alves Moura, Fernanda Guedes, Maria Cecília Rivitti-Machado, Mirian N Sotto
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition with predominant facial involvement. Because of that, many patients sense that rosacea affects quality of life. The etiology of rosacea remains unknown. Recent studies have suggested that aberrant innate immunity is central to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of Langerhans cells, plasmacytoid dentritic cells (PDC), the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and inducible oxide nitric synthase (iNOS) in skin of patients with rosacea, to highlight the participation of innate immunity in its pathogenesis...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330557/linear-doggybone-dna-vaccine-induces-similar-immunological-responses-to-conventional-plasmid-dna-independently-of-immune-recognition-by-tlr9-in-a-pre-clinical-model
#20
Alex Allen, Chuan Wang, Lisa J Caproni, Gessa Sugiyarto, Elena Harden, Leon R Douglas, Patrick J Duriez, Kinga Karbowniczek, Jon Extance, Paul J Rothwell, Ifeayinwa Orefo, John P Tite, Freda K Stevenson, Christian H Ottensmeier, Natalia Savelyeva
Vaccination with DNA that encodes cancer antigens is a simple and convenient way to raise immunity against cancer and has already shown promise in the clinical setting. Conventional plasmid DNA is commonly used which together with the encoded antigen also includes bacterial immunostimulatory CpG motifs to target the DNA sensor Toll-like receptor 9. Recently DNA vaccines using doggybone DNA (dbDNA™), have been developed without the use of bacteria. The cell-free process relies on the use of Phi29 DNA polymerase to amplify the template followed by protelomerase TelN to complete individual closed linear DNA...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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