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Toll-like Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214954/association-of-toll-like-receptor-4-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-asp299gly-and-thr399ile-with-the-risk-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#1
Jose Navarro-Partida, Abril Bernardette Martinez-Rizo, Pedro Ramirez-Barrera, Jesus Bernardino Velazquez-Fernandez, Veronica A Mondragon-Jaimes, Arturo Santos-Garcia, Veronica Benites-Godinez
PURPOSE: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates immune responses to exogenous and endogenous ligands. Previously, non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR4 gene were related to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). This study was undertaken to investigate whether coding TLR4 Asp299Gly (rs4986790 A/G) and Thr399Ile (rs4986791 C/T) are associated with POAG in a Mexican population. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-seven unrelated Mexican patients with POAG (94 men and 95 women; mean age 66...
February 18, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214929/myeloid-cells-as-a-target-for-oligonucleotide-therapeutics-turning-obstacles-into-opportunities
#2
REVIEW
Marcin Kortylewski, Dayson Moreira
Immunotherapies emerged as an alternative for cancer treatment, yet their clinical efficacies are still limited, especially in case of solid tumors. Myeloid immune cells, such as macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), are often hijacked by tumors and become pivotal inhibitors of antitumor immunity. Immunosuppressive functions of tumor-associated myeloid cells result from the activity of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor with well-defined tumorigenic and tolerogenic roles in human cancers...
February 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214599/hctoll3-was-involved-in-anti-vibrio-defense-in-freshwater-pearl-mussel-hyriopsis-cumingii
#3
Hong-Wei Zhang, Ying Huang, Xin Man, Yue Wang, Kai-Min Hui, Shao-Wu Yin, Xiao-Wen Zhang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the activation of innate immune response but their functions in bivalves remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified a TLR from the freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (HcToll3) and investigated its functions in immunity. The full-length cDNA of HcToll3 is 3852 bp and includes an open reading frame (ORF) of 3228 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 1075 amino acids. The predicted HcToll3 protein shares similar structural characteristics with other known Toll family proteins...
February 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214377/reciprocal-translocation-of-small-numbers-of-inbred-individuals-rescues-immunogenetic-diversity
#4
Catherine E Grueber, Jolene T Sutton, Sol Heber, James V Briskie, Ian G Jamieson, Bruce C Robertson
Genetic rescue can reduce inbreeding depression and increase fitness of small populations, even when the donor populations are highly inbred. In a recent experiment involving two inbred island populations of the South Island robin, Petroica australis, reciprocal translocations improved microsatellite diversity and individual fitness. While microsatellite loci may reflect patterns of genome-wide diversity, they generally do not indicate the specific genetic regions responsible for increased fitness. We tested the effectiveness of this reciprocal translocation for rescuing diversity of two immunogenetic regions: toll-like receptor (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213571/mir-146a-b-a-family-with-shared-seeds-and-different-roots
#5
Mark Paterson, Alison J Kriegel
MicroRNAs are small, non-coding, RNAs known for their powerful modulation of molecular processes, making them a major focus for studying pathological mechanisms. The human miR-146 family of microRNAs consists of two member genes - MIR146A and MIR146B These two miRNAs are located on different chromosomes and exhibit differential regulation in many cases. However, they are nearly identical in sequence and share a seed sequence, thus they are predicted to target the same set of genes. A large proportion of the miR-146 literature focuses on its role in regulating the innate immune response in the context of various pathologies by modulating two widely studied target genes in the toll-like receptor signaling cascade...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213269/protective-effects-of-morin-on-lipopolysaccharide-d-galactosamine-induced-acute-liver-injury-by-inhibiting-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-activating-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathways
#6
Ye Tian, Zheng Li, Bingyu Shen, Qiaoling Zhang, Haihua Feng
Morin, a bioactive flavonoid extracted from the bark of Moraceae plants and many medicinal herbs, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. In this research, we explored the protective effects of morin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of morin before LPS and D-GalN treatment and the HepG2 cells were only given morin to investigate its effects. The results showed that morin markedly inhibited the production of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and hepatic TNF-α, IL-6, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) induced by LPS/D-GalN...
February 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213090/glycyrrhetinic-acid-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-fulminant-hepatic-failure-in-d-galactosamine-sensitized-mice-by-up-regulating-expression-of-interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-m
#7
Xinru Yin, Gong Xia, Li Zhang, Rong Jiang, Ge Kuang, Bin Wang, Xinyu Chen, Jingyuan Wan
Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main active ingredient of licorice, reportedly has anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties, but its molecular mechanisms remain be elusive. In the present study, Balb/c mice were pretreated with GA (10, 30, or 100mg/kg) 1h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-GalN) administration. In other in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were pretreated with GA before LPS exposure. The mortality, hepatic tissue histology, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed...
February 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213041/newly-identified-pctoll4-regulates-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-intestine-of-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#8
Ying Huang, Tingting Li, Min Jin, Shaowu Yin, Kai-Min Hui, Qian Ren
Tolls or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an essential role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. In this study, a novel Toll gene, PcToll4, was first identified from the intestinal transcriptome of the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. The PcToll4 cDNA is 4849bp long with a 3036bp open reading frame that encodes a 1011-amino acid protein. PcToll4 contains a signal peptide, 13 LRR domains, 3 LRR TYP domains, 2 LRR CT domains, an LRR NT domain, a transmembrane region, and a TIR domain...
February 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212561/the-tlr7-agonist-imiquimod-induces-anti-cancer-effects-via-autophagic-cell-death-and-enhances-anti-tumoral-and-systemic-immunity-during-radiotherapy-for-melanoma
#9
Jeong Hyun Cho, Hyo-Ji Lee, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Byung-Il Yoon, Jongseon Choe, Keun-Cheol Kim, Tae-Wook Hahn, Jeong A Han, Sun Shim Choi, Young Mee Jung, Kee-Ho Lee, Yun-Sil Lee, Yu-Jin Jung
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are strongly considered immune-adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy and have been shown to exert direct anti-cancer effects. This study was performed to evaluate the synergistic anti-cancer and anti-metastatic effects of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) during radiotherapy for melanoma. The pretreatment of B16F10 or B16F1 cells with IMQ combined with γ-ionizing radiation (IR) led to enhanced cell death via autophagy, as demonstrated by increased expression levels of autophagy-related genes, and an increased number of autophagosomes in both cell lines...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212352/rta-occupancy-of-the-origin-of-lytic-replication-during-murine-gammaherpesvirus-68-reactivation-from-b-cell-latency
#10
Alexis L Santana, Darby G Oldenburg, Varvara Kirillov, Laraib Malik, Qiwen Dong, Roman Sinayev, Kenneth B Marcu, Douglas W White, Laurie T Krug
RTA, the viral Replication and Transcription Activator, is essential for rhadinovirus lytic gene expression upon de novo infection and reactivation from latency. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/toll-like receptor (TLR)4 engagement enhances rhadinovirus reactivation. We developed two new systems to examine the interaction of RTA with host NF-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling during murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection: a latent B cell line (HE-RIT) inducible for RTA-Flag expression and virus reactivation; and a recombinant virus (MHV68-RTA-Bio) that enabled in vivo biotinylation of RTA in BirA transgenic mice...
February 16, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211536/expression-profiling-of-trim-protein-family-in-thp1-derived-macrophages-following-tlr-stimulation
#11
Mei-Xiu Jiang, Xuan Hong, Bin-Bin Liao, Shui-Zhen Shi, Xiao-Fang Lai, Huai-Yu Zheng, Lin Xie, Yuan Wang, Xiao-Lei Wang, Hong-Bo Xin, Mingui Fu, Ke-Yu Deng
Activated macrophages play an important role in many inflammatory diseases including septic shock and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms limiting macrophage activation are not completely understood. Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family have recently emerged as important players in innate immunity and antivirus. Here, we systematically analyzed mRNA expressions of representative TRIM molecules in human THP1-derived macrophages activated by different toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Twenty-nine TRIM members were highly induced (>3 fold) by one or more TLR ligands, among which 19 of them belong to TRIM C-IV subgroup...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211533/integration-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profiles-in-the-skin-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#12
Bin Zhou, Xiao Xia Zuo, Yi Sha Li, Si Ming Gao, Xiao Dan Dai, Hong Lin Zhu, Hui Luo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the fibrosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the underlying miRNA-mRNA regulatory network is not fully understood. A systemic investigation of the role of miRNAs would be very valuable for increasing our knowledge of the pathogenesis of SSc. Here, we combined miRNA and mRNA expression profiles and bioinformatics analyses and then performed validation experiments. we identified 21 miRNAs and 2698 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in SSc. Among these, 17 miRNAs and their 33 target mRNAs (55 miRNA-mRNA pairs) were involved in Toll-like receptor, transforming growth factor β and Wnt signalling pathways...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210837/toll-like-receptor-3-tlr-3-tlr-4-and-cd80-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-urinary-cd80-levels-in-children-with-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#13
Om P Mishra, Ravindra Kumar, Gopeshwar Narayan, Pradeep Srivastava, Abhishek Abhinay, Rajniti Prasad, Ankur Singh, Vineeta V Batra
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were (1) to detect toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-4 and CD80 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and estimate urinary CD80 levels in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and (2) to investigate the utility of these markers to differentiate between biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomeruloscelerosis (FSGS). METHODS: The study included 70 patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS), of whom 40 had steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS; 25 with active NS, 15 in remission) and 30 had steroid-resistant NS (SRNS) patients, and 23 healthy controls...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#14
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210435/role-of-thr399ile-and-asp299gly-polymorphisms-of-toll-like-receptor-4-gene-in-acute-dental-abscess
#15
Ebrahim Miri-Moghaddam, Narges Farhad-Mollashahi, Elnaz Baghaee, Ali Bazi, Yasaman Garme
BACKGROUND: Apical Periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease that affects the tissues surrounding the root end of a tooth. The disease which is caused by endodontic infections presents in different clinical ways including development of an acute abscess. Recent studies have provided information suggesting role of a multitude of factors in pathogenesis of acute apical abscess (AAA). In this case-control study, our goal was to evaluate the frequency and potential role of two common polymorphisms of toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene; Thr399Ile (1196 C>T) and Asp299Gly (+896 A>G), in 50 patients with AAA as cases and 50 patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) as controls...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209713/mir-718-represses-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-through-targeting-pten
#16
Parisa Kalantari, Omid F Harandi, Sarika Agarwal, Florentina Rus, Evelyn A Kurt-Jones, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Daniel R Caffrey, Douglas T Golenbock
Bacterial sepsis involves a complex interaction between the host immune response and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS binds Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, which leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are essential for a potent innate immune response against pathogens. The innate immune system is tightly regulated as excessive inflammation can lead to organ failure and death. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as important regulators of the innate immune system. Here, we determined the function of miR-718, which is conserved across mammals and overlaps with the 5 UTR of the Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase (IRAK1) gene...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209121/evolution-of-toll-like-receptors-in-the-context-of-terrestrial-ungulates-and-cetaceans-diversification
#17
Edson Ishengoma, Morris Agaba
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the frontline actors in the innate immune response to various pathogens and are expected to be targets of natural selection in species adapted to habitats with contrasting pathogen burdens. The recent publication of genome sequences of giraffe and okapi together afforded the opportunity to examine the evolution of selected TLRs in broad range of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans during their complex habitat diversification. Through direct sequence comparisons and standard evolutionary approaches, the extent of nucleotide and protein sequence diversity in seven Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10) between giraffe and closely related species was determined...
February 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208028/early-life-wildfire-smoke-exposure-is-associated-with-immune-dysregulation-and-lung-function-decrements-in-adolescence
#18
Carolyn Black, Joan E Gerriets, Justin H Fontaine, Richart W Harper, Nicholas J Kenyon, Fern Tablin, Edward S Schelegle, Lisa A Miller
RATIONALE: The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airways physiology that are detectable with maturity. METHODS: We studied a mixed gender cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207326/micro-rna-146a-but-not-irak1-is-associated-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-the-tunisian-population
#19
Hana Ben Hassine, Asma Boumiza, Rim Sghiri, Khadija Baccouche, Imen Boussaid, Ahlem Atig, Zahid Shakoor, Elyes Bouajina, Ramzi Zemni
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by the production of an array of proinflammatory cytokines through the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and Toll-like receptors contain a common cytoplasmic motif the Toll/IL-1R (TIR) homology domain. This motif is required for NF-κB activation. IL-1R-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is a key adapter molecule recruited during the signaling cascade of the TIR...
February 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205610/cr-laao-an-l-amino-acid-oxidase-from-calloselasma-rhodostoma-venom-as-a-potential-tool-for-developing-novel-immunotherapeutic-strategies-against-cancer
#20
Tássia R Costa, Danilo L Menaldo, Karina F Zoccal, Sandra M Burin, Alexandre F Aissa, Fabíola A de Castro, Lúcia H Faccioli, Lusânia M Greggi Antunes, Suely V Sampaio
L-amino acid oxidases from snake venoms have been described to possess various biological functions. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses induced in vivo and in vitro by CR-LAAO, an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Calloselasma rhodostoma venom, and its antitumor potential. CR-LAAO induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo, with recruitment of neutrophils and release of IL-6, IL-1β, LTB4 and PGE2. In vitro, IL-6 and IL-1β production by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with CR-LAAO was dependent of the activation of the Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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