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Toll-like Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343193/role-of-genetic-mutations-in-development-of-immunological-and-clinical-disorders-in-children-with-chronic-pyelonephritis
#1
Vira P Harshman, Tetyana O Kryuchko, Iryna O Kolenko, Tetyana V Kushnereva, Olha Y Tkachenko
INTRODUCTION: At the present time, the study of mechanisms of recognition of foreign agents, which is realized by means of Toll-like receptors (TLR) of the innate immune system, has become one of the main tasks of clinical immunology. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 4 (Asp299Gly, Gly299Gly) among children with chronic pyelonephritis (CP) and determine the association of this TLR4 polymorphism with phenotypic features of chronic pyelonephritis and level of interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342978/a-new-benzenediamine-derivative-modulates-toll-like-receptors-induced-myeloid-dendritic-cells-activation-and-ameliorates-lupus-like-syndrome-in-mrllpr-lpr-mice
#2
Sheng Gao, Yongsheng Gong, Jianjian Ji, Linbo Yuan, Liping Han, Yimin Guo, Xiaofang Fan, Yayi Hou, Chunyan Hua
Modulators of the over-activation of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an advantage in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of FC-99, a novel benzenediamine derivative, on TLR-induced activation of mDCs, and to assess the efficacy of FC-99 in a murine model of SLE. In vitro, FC-99 inhibited the phenotypic (CD40 and MHC-II) and functional activation (IL-12 and CXCL10) of mDCs induced by TLR ligands. In vivo, MRLlpr/lpr mice displayed renal diseases associated with increased levels of proteinuria and immunoglobulin, which were ameliorated by FC-99...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342933/regulation-of-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-asthmatic-mice-by-tlr3-trif-signal-pathway
#3
Mei Yang, Hao-Ying Wang, Jian-Chang Chen, Jing Zhao
This paper aims to investigate the effect of Toll-like receptors 3 (TLR3)/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) signal pathway on the airway inflammation and remodeling in asthmatic mice. C57BL/6 and TLR3(-/-) mice were randomly divided into three groups (10 mice per group), including Control group (mice inhaled phosphate buffer saline (PBS)), Asthma group (mice inhaled ovalbumin (OVA)) and polyriboinosinic-ribocytidylic acid (poly (I: C)) group (asthmatic mice were injected intraperitoneally with TLR3 agonist poly (I: C))...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342908/intestinal-dendritic-cell-licensing-through-tlr4-is-required-for-oral-tolerance-in-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#4
Feriel Hacini-Rachinel, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Reem Kanjarawi, Ludovic Moro-Sibilot, Jean-Benoit Le Luduec, Claire Macari, Gilles Boschetti, Emilie Bardel, Philippe Langella, Bertrand Dubois, Dominique Kaiserlian
BACKGROUND: Induction of oral tolerance to haptens is an efficient way to prevent allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in mice. Toll-like receptor (TLRs)-mediated sensing of the microbiota contributes to gut homeostasis, yet whether it contributes to induction of oral tolerance has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether oral tolerance to the contact sensitizer DNFB depends on microbiota/TLRs and evaluated the role of TLR4 on the tolerogenic function of intestinal dendritic cells (DCs)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342734/integration-of-microbiome-and-epigenome-to-decipher-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Beidi Chen, Luxi Sun, Xuan Zhang
The interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors are of great significance in the pathogenesis and development of autoimmune diseases (AIDs). The human mucosa is the most frequent site that interacts with the exterior environment, and commensal microbiota at the gut and other human mucosal cavities play a crucial role in the regulation of immune system. Growing evidence has shown that the compositional and functional changes of mucosal microbiota are closely related to AIDs. Gut dysbiosis not only influence the expression level of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of antigen presenting cells, but also contribute to Th17/Treg imbalance...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340426/porcine-parvovirus-induces-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-pk-15-cells-mediated-by-toll-like-receptors
#6
Liyan Cao, Jianfei Chen, Yanwu Wei, Hongyan Shi, Xin Zhang, Jing Yuan, Da Shi, Jianbo Liu, Xiangdong Zhu, Xin Wang, Shangjin Cui, Li Feng
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a pathogenic factor that primarily induces severe reproductive failure of pregnant swine, which results in extensive losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, a potential mechanism of PPV-induced activation of the nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) by infection in porcine kidney cells (PK-15) was elucidated for the first time. The subcellular localization of p65 analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed that PPV infection induced p65 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340056/neutrophil-derived-mitochondrial-dna-promotes-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-its-ligand-signalling-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Anne Contis, Stéphane Mitrovic, Julie Lavie, Isabelle Douchet, Estibaliz Lazaro, Marie-Elise Truchetet, Cyril Goizet, Cécile Contin-Bordes, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Patrick Blanco, Rodrigue Rossignol, Benjamin Faustin, Christophe Richez, Pierre Duffau
Objectives.: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains sequestered damage-associated molecular patterns that might be involved in osteoimmunological pathogenesis of RA. Here, we aimed to investigate the cellular source of mtDNA and its role in RANK ligand (RANKL) expression by RA SF neutrophils. Methods.: The gene expression signature of SF neutrophils was examined by proteomic quantitative analysis. Levels of mtDNA in circulating and SF neutrophils from RA patients and OA control subjects were assessed by real-time PCR...
March 13, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339850/allelic-variation-in-tlr4-is-linked-to-resistance-to-salmonella-enteritidis-infection-in-chickens
#8
Peng Li, Huihua Wang, Xingwang Zhao, Zhongyong Gou, Ranran Liu, Yongmei Song, Qinghe Li, Maiqing Zheng, Huanxian Cui, Nadia Everaert, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a foodborne pathogen that negatively affects both animal and human health. Polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene may affect recognition by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to differences in host resistance to pathogenic infections. The present study has investigated polymorphic loci of chicken TLR4 (ChTLR4) in ten chicken breeds, electrostatic potentials of mutant structures of TLR4, and a linkage analysis between allelic variation and survival ratio to infection with SE in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorns...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339054/overexpression-of-tim-3-reduces-helicobacter-pylori-associated-inflammation-through-tlr4-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in%C3%A2-vitro
#9
Fucai Wang, Zhirong Mao, Dongsheng Liu, Jing Yu, Youhua Wang, Wen Ye, Dongjia Lin, Nanjin Zhou, Yong Xie
The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB) signaling in Helicobacter pylori-infected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. RAW264.7 cells were co‑cultured with H. pylori SS1 at different bacteria/cell ratios, and subsequently the mRNA expression of Tim‑3, TLR4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR)...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339016/paeonol-ameliorates-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-skin-lesions-in-balb-c-mice-by-inhibiting-the-maturation-and-activation-of-dendritic-cells
#10
Yujiao Meng, Mingxing Wang, Xiangjiang Xie, Tingting Di, Jingxia Zhao, Yan Lin, Xiaolong Xu, Ningfei Li, Yating Zhai, Yan Wang, Ping Li
Paeonol, an active component derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Moutan, possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anti-allergic properties. Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory dermatosis accompanied by excessive activation of Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) in dendritic cells (DCs), which are primarily responsible for initiating an immune response. We investigated the effect of paeonol on inflammation in an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated by R848...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338767/decreased-cd1d-level-is-associated-with-cd86-over-expression-in-b-cells-from-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#11
Fei Liu, Jianjian Ji, Xiujun Li, Xiaojing Li, Jingjing Xu, Huimin Yue, Shuli Zhao, Hongye Fan, Yayi Hou
The disorder of B cells is one of the hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The activation state indicated by CD86 of B cells from SLE is well known, while the defect of regulatory B cells mediated by CD1d is also responsible for the process of SLE. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between B cell activation mediated by CD86 and B cell regulatory function mediated by CD1d. Our results showed that the level of CD1d in B cells was decreased during the early stages of B6.MRLlpr SLE mice and imiquimod-treated (IMQ-treated) mice, while the level of CD86 was significantly increased at the late stage...
March 3, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338748/role-of-scavenger-receptors-as-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-receptors-in-toll-like-receptor-activation
#12
Kyoko Komai, Takashi Shichita, Minako Ito, Mitsuhiro Kanamori, Shunsuke Chikuma, Akihiko Yoshimura
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) have been implicated in sterile inflammation in various tissue injuries. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a representative DAMP, and has been shown to transmit signals through receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) and TLRs, including TLR2 and TLR4. HMGB1 does not, however, bind to TLRs with high affinity; therefore, the mechanism of HMGB1-mediated TLR activation remains unclear. In this study, we found that fluorescently labeled HMGB1 was efficiently internalized into macrophages through class A scavenger receptors...
February 24, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337297/protective-effect-of-a-novel-antibody-against-tlr2-on-zymosan-induced-acute-peritonitis-in-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transgenic-mice
#13
Qingjun Pan, Jun Cai, Yanxia Peng, Haiyan Xiao, Lifang Zhang, Jinying Chen, Huafeng Liu
In addition to antibiotic therapy for treatment of peritonitis, biologics have also been found to exhibit both anti-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving properties. Here, we first developed NF-κB transgenic mice with zymosan-induced acute peritonitis to investigate the effects of a novel anti-Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 antibody (anti-T20). In this mouse model, anti-T20 treatment significantly attenuated the increase of peritoneal NF-κB activity and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in a dose-dependent manner compared to mice treated with isotype control antibody...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337207/gastrointestinal-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-infant-mice-alters-peripheral-cd8-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#14
Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Esi S N Lamousé-Smith
We recently reported that maternal antibiotic treatment (MAT) of mice in the last days of pregnancy and during lactation dramatically alters the density and composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota of their infants. MAT infants also exhibited enhanced susceptibility to a systemic viral infection and altered adaptive immune cell activation phenotype and function. CD8(+) effector T cells from MAT infants consistently demonstrate an inability to sustain interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in vivo following vaccinia virus infection and in vitro upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337196/salmonella-typhi-porins-ompc-and-ompf-are-potent-adjuvants-for-t-dependent-and-t-independent-antigens
#15
Marisol Pérez-Toledo, Nuriban Valero-Pacheco, Rodolfo Pastelin-Palacios, Cristina Gil-Cruz, Christian Perez-Shibayama, Mario A Moreno-Eutimio, Ingeborg Becker, Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Adam F Cunningham, Armando Isibasi, Laura C Bonifaz, Constantino López-Macías
Several microbial components, such as bacterial DNA and flagellin, have been used as experimental vaccine adjuvants because of their inherent capacity to efficiently activate innate immune responses. Likewise, our previous work has shown that the major Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) outer membrane proteins OmpC and OmpF (porins) are highly immunogenic protective antigens that efficiently stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses in the absence of exogenous adjuvants. Moreover, S. Typhi porins induce the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells through toll-like receptor canonical signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336553/tlr2-knockout-protects-against-diabetes-mediated-changes-in-cerebral-perfusion-and-cognitive-deficits
#16
Trevor Hardigan, Caterina Hernandez, Rebecca Ward, M Nasrul Hoda, Adviye Ergul
The risk of cognitive decline in diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) is significantly greater compared to normoglycemic patients, and the risk of developing dementia in diabetic patients is doubled. The etiology for this is likely multifactorial, but one mechanism that has gained increasing attention is decreased cerebral perfusion as a result of cerebrovascular dysfunction. The innate immune system has been shown to play a role in diabetic vascular complications, notably through Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that leads to vascular damage...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336489/current-applications-selection-and-possible-mechanisms-of-actions-of-synbiotics-in-improving-the-growth-and-health-status-in-aquaculture-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Truong-Giang Huynh, Ya-Li Shiu, Thanh-Phuong Nguyen, Quoc-Phu Truong, Jiann-Chu Chen, Chun-Hung Liu
Synbiotics, a conjunction between prebiotics and probiotics, have been used in aquaculture for over 10 years. However, the mechanisms of how synbiotics work as growth and immunity promoters are far from being unraveled. Here, we show that a prebiotic as part of a synbiotic is hydrolyzed to mono- or disaccharides as the sole carbon source with diverse mechanisms, thereby increasing biomass and colonization that is established by specific crosstalk between probiotic bacteria and the surface of intestinal epithelial cells of the host...
March 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#18
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334203/innate-immune-recognition-and-inflammation-in-neisseria-meningitidis-infection
#19
Kay Johswich
N. meningitidis (Nme) can cause meningitis and sepsis, diseases which are characterized by an overwhelming inflammatory response. Inflammation is triggered by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which are activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Nme contains multiple PAMPs including lipooligosaccharide, peptidoglycan, proteins and metabolites. Various classes of PRRs including Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, C-type lectins, scavenger receptors, pentraxins and others are expressed by the host to respond to any given microbe...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#20
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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