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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770701/mk2-mediates-macrophage-activation-and-acute-lung-injury-by-regulating-let-7e-mirna
#1
Yaxian Wu, Huiqiong He, Yunhe Ding, Sirui Liu, Depeng Zhang, Jun Wang, Hongchao Jiang, Dan Zhang, Lei Sun, Richard D Ye, Feng Qian
MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) plays a critical role in the development of inflammation. However, the modulatory mechanisms in macrophage activation and acute lung injury (ALI) haven't been completely defined. Here, we reported that MK2 deficient mice (MK2-/-) protected against sepsis-induced ALI. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, MK2-/- mice and myeloid cell-specific MK2 conditional knockout mice (MK2Lyz2-KO) exhibited attenuated inflammatory response, especially producing fewer amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766446/prognostic-significance-of-post-operative-morbidity-severity-score-after-potentially-curative-d2-gastrectomy-for-carcinoma
#2
Arfon Powell, Alexandra Harriet Coxon, Neil Patel, David Chan, Adam Christian, Wyn Lewis
BACKGROUND: Survival and relapse after gastric cancer surgery are largely attributed to tumor biology and surgical radicality; yet, other prognostic factors have been reported, including respiratory sepsis and anastomotic leakage, but not global morbidity severity score (MSS). The hypothesis tested was that MSS would be associated with both disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). METHODS: Consecutive 373 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma between 2004 and 2016 in a UK cancer network were studied...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760707/the-yin-and-yang-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-during-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#3
Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Ina Rohwedder, Adriana Ribeiro Silva, Alessandra Silveira Ferreira, Angela R M Kurz, Céline Cougoule, Sarah Klapproth, Tanja Eggersmann, Johnatas D Silva, Gisele Pena de Oliveira, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Gabriel Gutfilen Schlesinger, Edlaine Rijo Costa, Rita de Cassia Elias Estrela Marins, Attila Mócsai, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini, Barbara Walzog, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco, Markus Sperandio, Hugo Caire de Castro-Faria-Neto
Neutrophils are the first cells of our immune system to arrive at the site of inflammation. They release cytokines, e.g., chemokines, to attract further immune cells, but also actively start to phagocytose and kill pathogens. In the case of sepsis, this tightly regulated host defense mechanism can become uncontrolled and hyperactive resulting in severe organ damage. Currently, no effective therapy is available to fight sepsis; therefore, novel treatment targets that could prevent excessive inflammatory responses are warranted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751683/a-new-venue-of-tnf-targeting
#4
REVIEW
Sophie Steeland, Claude Libert, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
The first Food and Drug Administration-(FDA)-approved drugs were small, chemically-manufactured and highly active molecules with possible off-target effects, followed by protein-based medicines such as antibodies. Conventional antibodies bind a specific protein and are becoming increasingly important in the therapeutic landscape. A very prominent class of biologicals are the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs that are applied in several inflammatory diseases that are characterized by dysregulated TNF levels...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750914/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-on-immune-and-endothelial-cells
#5
Meng Li, Betty C A M van Esch, Gerry T M Wagenaar, Johan Garssen, Gert Folkerts, Paul A J Henricks
In the gastro-intestinal tract, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have protective effects on epithelial cells. However, their effects on inflammatory cytokine production by endothelial and immune cells and the recruitment of immune cells and their trans-migration across the endothelial layer remain controversial. Both cell types are associated with the initiation and development of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and sepsis. SCFAs modulate immune and inflammatory responses via activation of free fatty acid (FFA) receptors type 2 and 3 (FFA2 and FFA3 receptors), G protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) and inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750745/successful-treatment-of-osteosarcoma-without-methotrexate-in-a-13-year-old-boy-with-down-syndrome
#6
Emma Sims, Audrey Nath, Aaron Sugalski
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in children, and only 1 article in the literature describes a case of osteosarcoma in a patient with Down syndrome. Although osteosarcoma is generally treated with chemotherapy regimens that include high-dose methotrexate, patients with Down syndrome have heightened sensitivity to the toxicities of methotrexate. The patient from the aforementioned case study died from sepsis soon after treatment with high-dose methotrexate. This case report describes the successful treatment of osteosarcoma in a pediatric patient with Down syndrome without methotrexate...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750040/a-phase-ib-study-of-ruxolitinib-gemcitabine-%C3%A2-nab-paclitaxel-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#7
Todd M Bauer, Manish R Patel, Andres Forero-Torres, Thomas J George, Albert Assad, Yining Du, Herbert Hurwitz
Purpose: Aberrant activation of the Janus-associated kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is associated with increased malignant cell proliferation and survival. This Phase Ib study evaluated ruxolitinib, a potent JAK1/2 inhibitor, in combination with gemcitabine with or without nab-paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients and methods: Patients received ruxolitinib + gemcitabine (regimen A) or ruxolitinib + gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel (regimen B)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743444/protective-effects-of-rutin-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-heart-injury-in-mice
#8
Liu Xianchu, Zheng Lan, Liu Ming, Mo Yanzhi
Rutin has a wide range of beneficial health properties in the amelioration of multi-organ injury owing to its various biological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rutin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced heart injury and clarify its potential cardioprotective mechanism. The mouse model of heart injury was intraperitoneal infection with LPS, and rutin was orally administered for 8 consecutive days. One day after LPS injection, heart histopathology, cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac fibrosis related genes were determined to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of rutin...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740793/immune-checkpoint-receptors-homeostatic-regulators-of-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Antonio Riva, Shilpa Chokshi
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an escalating global problem accounting for more than 3 million deaths annually. Bacterial infections are diagnosed in 25-47% of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and represent the most important trigger for acute decompensation, multi-organ failure, septic shock and death. Current guidelines recommend intensive antibiotic therapy, but this has led to the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. As such, there is a pressing need to explore new paradigms for anti-infective therapy and host-directed immunomodulatory therapies are a promising approach...
May 8, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740711/new-avenues-for-nanoparticle-related-therapies
#10
Michael Zhao, Mingyao Liu
Development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems has been attempted for the treatment of cancer over the past decade. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is the major mechanism to passively deliver nanodrugs to tumor tissue. However, a recent systematic review demonstrated limited success of these studies, with the clearance of nanoparticles by the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) being a major hurdle. Herein, we propose that nanotechnologists should reconsider their research focuses, aiming for therapeutic targets other than cancer...
May 8, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731819/cytoprotective-effect-of-aquaporin-1-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-apoptosis-and-inflammation-of-renal-epithelial-hk-2-cells
#11
Yiduo Wang, Wenzheng Zhang, Guangzhe Yu, Qian Liu, Yingyu Jin
Sepsis is the most common underlying disease of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Acute kidney injury is a common and serious complications of sepsis. In the present study, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells) was selected as an in vitro model of septic acute kidney injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) has a cytoprotective role in LPS-induced HK-2 cells. HK-2 cells were treated with 0-16 µg/ml LPS for 0-24 h to establish the in vitro model of sepsis...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725382/effects-of-cisatracurium-in-combination-with-ventilation-on-inflammatory-factors-and-immune-variations-in-sepsis-rats
#12
Tongyun He, Jianmei Tao, Xinqiang Wang, Xuena Wang
The effects of cisatracurium in combination with ventilation on inflammatory factors and immune variations in sepsis rats were investigated. A total of 54 male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and divided randomly into three groups: Sham group (n=6), model group (n=24) and experiment group (n=24). Rats in the model and experiment groups underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) for establishment of sepsis model. Rats in experiment group additionally received cisatracurium medication in combination with ventilation for treatment...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723248/activation-of-m1-macrophages-in-sepsis-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-response-to-heparin-binding-protein
#13
Li Xing, Lu Zhongqian, Song Chunmei, Chen Pingfa, He Lei, Jin Qin, Mu Genhua, Deng Yijun
BACKGROUND: In the early stage of sepsis, M1 macrophages result in the production of inflammatory mediators and AKI. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) have been shown to play important roles in sepsis-induced AKI. In this study, we investigate the association of HBP with M1 macrophages in sepsis-induced AKI. METHODS: Male C57BL6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery. Biochemical and histological renal damage was assessed. Macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705804/removal-of-procalcitonin-and-selected-cytokines-during-continuous-veno-venous-hemodialysis-using-high-cutoff-hemofilters-in-patients-with-sepsis-and-acute-kidney-injury
#14
Grzegorz Kade, Sławomir Literacki, Agnieszka Rzeszotarska, Stanisław Niemczyk, Arkadiusz Lubas
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) using high cutoff (HCO) hemofilters on the removal of procalcitonin (PCT), and other inflammatory markers in the treatment of patients during septic shock with acute kidney injury (AKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with septic shock and AKI were included in the study. Before and after the 24-h HCO-CVVHD, PCT, native C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-12, interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor-α) in serum and effluent were assessed...
April 27, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703488/clinical-characteristics-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-patients-with-solid-and-hematological-cancers
#15
Marcel Levi
Malignant disease can be complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). DIC is defined as systemic intravascular triggering of coagulation (resulting in intravascular fibrin clot formation) and concurrent depletion of clotting factors and platelets (increasing the risk of hemorrhage). The clinical presentation of DIC in patients with cancer has usually a less fulminant presentation than DIC that may accompany other underlying disorders, such as sepsis and trauma. A more insidious, but also more protracted, diffuse activation of coagulation can proceed without any symptom...
April 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703467/morbidity-mortality-and-costs-associated-with-venous-thromboembolism-in-hospitalized-patients-with-cancer
#16
Gary H Lyman, Eva Culakova, Marek S Poniewierski, Nicole M Kuderer
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with cancer. METHODS: Hospitalization data reported on adult cancer patients at US medical centers between 1995 and 2012 were analyzed. Cancer diagnosis, presence of VTE, comorbidities, and infectious complications were based on ICD-9-CM codes. RESULTS: Nearly six million hospitalizations of 3,146,388 individual patients with cancer were reported with VTE observed in 8...
April 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702147/adenosine-signalling-and-the-immune-system-when-a-lot-could-be-too-much
#17
REVIEW
Luca Antonioli, Matteo Fornai, Corrado Blandizzi, Pál Pacher, György Haskó
Adenosine is increasingly recognized as a key mediator of the immune response. Signals delivered by extracellular adenosine are detected and transduced by G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptors, classified into four subtypes: A1 , A2A , A2B and A3 . These receptors, expressed virtually on all immune cells, modulate all aspects of immune/inflammatory responses. These immunoregulatory effects, which are mostly anti-inflammatory, contribute to the general tissue protective effects of adenosine and its receptors...
April 24, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689269/mir-150-predicts-survival-in-patients-with-sepsis-and-inhibits-lps-induced-inflammatory-factors-and-apoptosis-by-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb1-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#18
Yuezhen Ma, Yanni Liu, Huihui Hou, Yanfen Yao, Hua Meng
MiR-150 is involved into some pathological processes, such as tumorigenesis and autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about the involvement of miR-150 in human sepsis. In this study, plasma miR-150 level had a diagnostic and independent prognostic value in patients with sepsis, and negatively correlated with renal dysfunction and 28-day survival as well as plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). MiR-150 expression was also significantly decreased in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and C57BL/6 mice with sepsis after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) treatment...
April 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687346/long-term-cognitive-outcomes-after-sepsis-a-translational-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Tatiana Barichello, Pavani Sayana, Vijayasree V Giridharan, Anithachristy S Arumanayagam, Boomadevi Narendran, Amanda Della Giustina, Fabricia Petronilho, João Quevedo, Felipe Dal-Pizzol
Sepsis is systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a life-threatening organ dysfunction that is caused by an unbalanced host immune response in an attempt to eliminate invasive microorganisms. We posed questions, "Does sepsis survivor patients have increased risk of neuropsychiatric manifestations?" and "What is the mechanism by which sepsis induces long-term neurological sequelae, particularly substantial cognitive function decline in survivor patients and in pre-clinical sepsis models?" The studies were identified by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), PsycINFO, EMBASE (Ovid), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), IBECS (Bibliographical Index in Spanish in Health Sciences), and Web of Science databases for peer-reviewed journals that were published until January 2018...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681903/inflammatory-mediator-profiles-differ-in-sepsis-patients-with-and-without-bacteremia
#20
Knut Anders Mosevoll, Steinar Skrede, Dagfinn Lunde Markussen, Hans Rune Fanebust, Hans Kristian Flaatten, Jörg Aßmus, Håkon Reikvam, Øystein Bruserud
Systemic levels of cytokines are altered during infection and sepsis. This prospective observational study aimed to investigate whether plasma levels of multiple inflammatory mediators differed between sepsis patients with and those without bacteremia during the initial phase of hospitalization. A total of 80 sepsis patients with proven bacterial infection and no immunosuppression were included in the study. Plasma samples were collected within 24 h of hospitalization, and Luminex® analysis was performed on 35 mediators: 16 cytokines, six growth factors, four adhesion molecules, and nine matrix metalloproteases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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