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Tumor and sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742154/lipopolysaccharide-inhibits-myogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts-through-the-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-myoblast-derived-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE
#1
Yuko Ono, Kazuho Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: Circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations are often elevated in patients with sepsis or with various endogenous diseases that are associated with metabolic endotoxemia. Involuntary loss of skeletal muscle, termed muscle wasting, is commonly observed in these conditions, suggesting that circulating LPS might play an essential role in its development. Although impairment of muscle regeneration is an important determinant of skeletal muscle wasting, it is unclear whether LPS affects this process and, if so, by what mechanism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733741/tips-and-tricks-of-splenic-vessel-preservation-during-laparoscopic-distal-pancreatectomy
#2
Claire Goumard, Satoshi Ogiso, Masayuki Okuno, Jason B Fleming, Michael Kim, Ching-Wei D Tzeng, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Jeffrey E Lee, Claudius Conrad
BACKGROUND: While a laparoscopic approach can minimize postoperative morbidity in splenic vessel preserving (SVP) distal pancreatectomy (DP), this procedure can be technically challenging. A systematic approach to SVP minimizes the chances of vascular injury and maximizes the chances of successful splenic preservation. This video demonstrates a laparoscopic DP with SVP, highlighting technical tips and tricks that optimize the chances for SVP. PATIENT: The patient is a 14-year-old male with an incidentally discovered pancreatic tail mass...
July 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728751/a-phase-ii-evaluation-of-brivanib-in-the-treatment-of-persistent-or-recurrent-carcinoma-of-the-cervix-an-nrg-oncology-gynecologic-oncology-group-study
#3
John K Chan, Wei Deng, Robert V Higgins, Krishnansu S Tewari, Albert J Bonebrake, Michael Hicks, Stephanie Gaillard, Pedro T Ramirez, Weldon Chafe, Bradley J Monk, Carol Aghajanian
BACKGROUND: Brivanib is an oral, tyrosine kinase inhibitor against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). We studied its efficacy and tolerability in persistent or recurrent cervical cancer patients. METHODS: Eligible patients had at least one prior cytotoxic regimen for recurrence and with measurable disease. Brivanib 800mg was administered orally every day (1cycle=28days) until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity...
July 17, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715505/the-clinical-and-immunological-performance-of-28-days-survival-model-of-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-in-humanized-mice
#4
Krzysztof Laudanski, Natalia Lapko, Mateusz Zawadka, Benjamin X Zhou, Gwenn Danet-Desnoyers, George S Worthen
Sepsis triggers a coordinated and thorough immune system response with long-term unfavorable sequelae after the initial insult. Long-term recovery from sepsis has garnered increasing attention recently, but a lack of suitable animal models impairs progress in this area. Our study, therefore, aimed to address the performance of the immune system in a survivable model of sepsis (cecal ligation and sepsis; CLP) for up to 28 d after the initial injury in humanized mice. Our model mimics human sepsis with weight loss and post-sepsis hypothermia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714876/sustained-low-serum-substance-p-levels-in-non-surviving-septic-patients
#5
Leonardo Lorente, María M Martín, Antonia Pérez-Cejas, José Ferreres, Jordi Solé-Violán, Lorenzo Labarta, César Díaz, Alejandro Jiménez
Previously, researchers found higher serum substance P (SP) concentrations in survivors of severe sepsis than in non-survivors at the time of severe sepsis diagnosis. The objectives of our current study were to determine whether there is an association between serum SP levels during the first week and sepsis mortality, sepsis severity, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, and whether serum SP levels during the first week could be used as a biomarker of sepsis mortality. We determined serum concentration of SP, TNF-α, and IL-10 at days 1, 4, and 8...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714002/identification-of-key-genes-in-gram%C3%A2-positive-and-gram%C3%A2-negative-sepsis-using-stochastic-perturbation
#6
Zhenliang Li, Ying Zhang, Yaling Liu, Yanchun Liu, Youyi Li
Sepsis is an inflammatory response to pathogens (such as Gram‑positive and Gram‑negative bacteria), which has high morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. The present study aimed to identify the key genes in Gram‑positive and Gram‑negative sepsis. GSE6535 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, containing 17 control samples, 18 Gram‑positive samples and 25 Gram‑negative samples. Subsequently, the limma package in R was used to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Hierarchical clustering was conducted for the specific DEGs in Gram‑negative and Gram‑negative samples using cluster software and the TreeView software...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713932/human-trypsin-inhibitor-reduces-the-apoptosis-of-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-human-kidney%C3%A2-2-cells-by-promoting-mitochondrial-fusion
#7
Ning Liu, Zhiyi Jiang, Yongjun Liu, Yao Nie, Juan Chen, Bin Ouyang, Xiangdong Guan, Minying Chen
Imbalance in mitochondrial fusion/fission is one of the mechanisms leading to sepsis‑induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis. The present study examined the effects of human trypsin inhibitor (UTI), a well‑known antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory substance, on mitochondrial dynamics and cell apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced human kidney‑2 (HK‑2) cells. The HK‑2 cells were incubated for 24 h either with LPS (800 ng/ml) or LPS (800 ng/ml) mixed with UTI (250 U/ml). Cell viability was assessed using a3‑(4,5‑dimethyl‑2‑thiazolyl)‑2, 5‑diphenyl‑2‑H‑tetrazolium bromide assay...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690060/genetically-modified-lactococcus-lactis-producing-a-green-fluorescence-protein-bovine-lactoferrin-fusion-protein-suppresses-proinflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-raw-264-7-cells
#8
S Shigemori, F Namai, Y Yamamoto, S Nigar, T Sato, T Ogita, T Shimosato
Lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding glycoprotein distributed widely in the biological fluids of mammals, is believed to play an important role in host defenses against infection. Previous studies in animal models and humans demonstrated that combined administration of LF and probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can prevent sepsis. In this study, we genetically engineered a probiotic LAB strain, Lactococcus lactis, to produce recombinant bovine LF based on the green fluorescence protein (GFP)-fused expression system...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688124/impact-of-the-pretreatment-glasgow-prognostic-score-on-treatment-tolerance-toxicities-and-survival-in-patients-with-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-undergoing-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy
#9
Pei-Hung Chang, Kun-Yun Yeh, Cheng-Hsu Wang, Eric Yen-Chao Chen, Shih-Wei Yang, Jen-Seng Huang, Wen-Chi Chou, Jason Chia-Hsun Hsieh
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the pretreatment Glasgow prognostic score on treatment-related toxicities, tolerance, and survival in patients with advanced head and neck cancers undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical characteristics, toxicities, and survival of 143 patients with stages III, IVA, and IVB head and neck cancer treated with concurrent CRT according to their Glasgow prognostic score between 2007 and 2010...
July 7, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685422/chronic-diseases-as-barriers-to-oxygen-delivery-a-unifying-hypothesis-of-tissue-reoxygenation-therapy
#10
G A Perdrizet
Modern medical practice has resulted in the accumulation of a growing number of incurable chronic diseases, many of which are inflammatory in nature. Inflammation establishes a hypoxic microenvironment within tissues, a condition of inflammatory hypoxia (IH). Tissues thus affected become severely compromised, are unable to elicit adaptive responses and eventually develop fibrosis and fixed microvascular deficits. Previous work has demonstrated that tissue hypoxia exits even within the simple human model of self-resolving inflammation, the tuberculin reaction...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679406/the-common-promoter-polymorphism-rs11666254-downregulates-fpr2-alx-expression-and-increases-risk-of-sepsis-in-patients-with-severe-trauma
#11
Han Zhang, Yao Lu, Guixiang Sun, Fang Teng, Nian Luo, Jianxin Jiang, Aiqing Wen
BACKGROUND: Formyl peptide receptor 2-lipoxin receptor (FPR2/ALX) modulates the anti-inflammatory response and therefore may be a target for treating sepsis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between genetic variants of the FPR2/ALX gene and sepsis after severe trauma as well as to further analyze the functions of sepsis-related genetic polymorphisms. METHODS: Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) that captured all common alleles across the FPR2/ALX genomic region were genotyped using pyrosequencing in an initial sample consisting of 275 patients with severe trauma...
July 6, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673381/biomarkers-of-necrotising-soft-tissue-infections-aspects-of-the-innate-immune-response
#12
Marco Bo Hansen
Necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI) is a life-threatening and rapidly progressing bacterial infection involving one or more layers of the soft tissue compartments causing necrosis. The amputation and mortality rates remain high despite increased focus on the patients. Timely treatment, including surgical intervention, reduces the risk of severe disability and death. However, the lack of pathognomonic signs impedes early diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, the rarity of the disease makes it difficult to conduct large prospective studies, thus prospective research is almost non-existent in this group of patients...
July 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673010/rhubarb-vs-glycerin-enema-for-treatment-of-critically-ill-patients-with-intra-abdominal-hypertension
#13
Bing Wan, Hao Zhang, Jiangtao Yin, Haiyan Fu, Yikun Chen, Liping Yang, Dadong Liu, Tangfeng Lv, Yong Song
Rhubarb has been used as an evacuant for thousands of years. However, recent research has indicated that rhubarb inhibits inflammation and protects organ function. In the current study, the use of rhubarb was investigated in patients with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). Specifically, its dual role in attenuating lung and bowel injury by catharsis and inhibiting inflammation was evaluated. Patients in the glycerin group (n=56) received 110 ml of glycerin enema by coloclysis once daily for 7 to 9 days. Patients in the rhubarb group (n=56) were treated with a mixture of 0...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665194/the-impact-of-pretreatment-with-simvastatin-on-kidney-tissue-of-rats-with-acute-sepsis
#14
E Özkök, H Yorulmaz, G Ateş, I Aydın, M Ergüven, Ş Tamer
It has been reported that changes in cytokine levels affect mitochondrial functions, levels of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-1α), and tissue damage during sepsis. We aimed to investigate the effects of simvastatin pretreatment on mitochondrial enzyme activities, and on levels of ghrelin, HIF-1α, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in kidney tissue during sepsis. Rats were separated into four groups, namely, control, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (20 mg/kg), simvastatin (20 mg/kg), and simvastatin + LPS...
June 1, 2017: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661460/the-novel-hdac8-inhibitor-wk2-16-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-activated-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-expression-in-human-monocytic-cells-and-improves-hypercytokinemia-in-vivo
#15
Jing-Shiun Jan, Yung-Chen Chou, Yu-Wen Cheng, Chih-Kuang Chen, Wei-Jan Huang, George Hsiao
Dysregulated human monocytes/macrophages can synthesize and secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play important roles in the progression of sepsis. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC8) inhibitor, (E)-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-(biphenyl-4-yl)cinnamide (WK2-16), on MMP-9 production and activation in stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells. Our results demonstrated that the acetylation level of structural maintenance of chromosomes 3 (SMC3) was up-regulated by WK2-16 in THP-1 cells...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655573/identification-of-a-panel-of-serum-protein-markers-in-early-stage-of-sepsis-and-its-validation-in-a-cohort-of-patients
#16
Susana Garcia-Obregon, Mikel Azkargorta, Iratxe Seijas, Javier Pilar-Orive, Francisco Borrego, Felix Elortza, Maria Dolores Boyano, Itziar Astigarraga
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening illness with a challenging diagnosis. Current serum biomarkers are not sensitive enough for diagnosis. With the aim of finding proteins associated with sepsis, serum protein profile was compared between patients and healthy donors and serum classical inflammatory proteins were analyzed in both groups. METHODS: Serum protein profiles were characterized by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Identification of the proteins was carried out by mass spectrophotometry and their validation was performed by Enzyme-Linked-ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) in a cohort of 85 patients and 67 healthy donors...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651927/doxorubicin-plus-evofosfamide-versus-doxorubicin-alone-in-locally-advanced-unresectable-or-metastatic-soft-tissue-sarcoma-th-cr-406-sarc021-an-international-multicentre-open-label-randomised-phase-3-trial
#17
William D Tap, Zsuzsanna Papai, Brian A Van Tine, Steven Attia, Kristen N Ganjoo, Robin L Jones, Scott Schuetze, Damon Reed, Sant P Chawla, Richard F Riedel, Anders Krarup-Hansen, Maud Toulmonde, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Peter Hohenberger, Giovanni Grignani, Lee D Cranmer, Scott Okuno, Mark Agulnik, William Read, Christopher W Ryan, Thierry Alcindor, Xavier F Garcia Del Muro, G Thomas Budd, Hussein Tawbi, Tillman Pearce, Stew Kroll, Denise K Reinke, Patrick Schöffski
BACKGROUND: Evofosfamide is a hypoxia-activated prodrug of bromo-isophosphoramide mustard. We aimed to assess the benefit of adding evofosfamide to doxorubicin as first-line therapy for advanced soft-tissue sarcomas. METHODS: We did this international, open-label, randomised, phase 3, multicentre trial (TH CR-406/SARC021) at 81 academic or community investigational sites in 13 countries. Eligible patients were aged 15 years or older with a diagnosis of an advanced unresectable or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma, of intermediate or high grade, for which no standard curative therapy was available, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1...
June 23, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650427/roflumilast-reverses-polymicrobial-sepsis-induced-liver-damage-by-inhibiting-inflammation-in-mice
#18
Hongfang Feng, Jiajia Chen, Haitao Wang, Yufang Cheng, Zhengqiang Zou, Qiuping Zhong, Jiangping Xu
Sepsis is a life-threatening syndrome accompanied by an overwhelming inflammatory response and organ dysfunction. Selective targeting of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is currently being investigated as an effective therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated diseases. Roflumilast is a selective PDE4 inhibitor, used for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in clinic. However, its role in the treatment of sepsis-induced liver damage remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of roflumilast in mice with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis, and investigated the underlying mechanism...
June 26, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648038/-effects-of-na-h-exchanger-1-inhibitor-on-intestinal-injury-of-rats-with-burn-sepsis-and-the-mechanism
#19
W P Li, G Y Zhao, X K Yang
Objective: To observe the effects of Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) inhibitor on intestinal injury of rats with burn sepsis, and to explore the possible mechanism preliminarily. Methods: Ninety SD rats were divided into control group, pure sepsis group, and NHE1 inhibitor group according to the random number table, with 30 rats in each group. Full-thickness scald (hereinafter referred to as burn) model with 20% total body surface area were reproduced on the back of rats in pure sepsis and NHE1 inhibitor groups, and then 50 μL liquid of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (2×10(5) colony forming unit/mL) were injected into the center of wounds on the back...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646428/effects-of-carvacrol-on-survival-mesenteric-blood-flow-aortic-function-and-multiple-organ-injury-in-a-murine-model-of-polymicrobial-sepsis
#20
Erdem Kamil Ozer, Mustafa Tugrul Goktas, Aysun Toker, Hulagu Bariskaner, Ceyhan Ugurluoglu, Alper Bektas Iskit
Carvacrol (CRV) has strong cytoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to demonstrate the possible protective effects of CRV on survival, mesenteric artery blood flow (MBF), vascular reactivity, and oxidative and inflammatory injuries in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Wistar rats were allocated into the following four groups: Sham, CLP, Sham + CRV, and CLP + CRV. The animals were orally administered with CRV (80 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (corn oil; 1 mL/kg/day) for 7 days...
June 23, 2017: Inflammation
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