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Tumor and sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137271/environmental-conditions-differentially-affect-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#1
Mu-Huo Ji, Hui Tang, Dan Luo, Li-Li Qiu, Min Jia, Hong-Mei Yuan, Shan-Wu Feng, Jian-Jun Yang
Brain dysfunction remains a common complication after sepsis development and is an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis and an increased mortality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the behavioral outcomes after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration are exacerbated by an impoverished environment (IE) and alleviated by an enriched environment (EE), respectively. Mice were randomly allocated in a standard environment (SE), an EE, or an IE for 4 weeks after LPS or normal saline (NS) administration...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126656/the-effect-of-i%C3%AE%C2%BAk-16-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-impaired-monocytes
#2
Norman J Galbraith, Stephen Manek, Samuel Walker, Campbell Bishop, Jane V Carter, Meredith Cahill, Sarah A Gardner, Hiram C Polk, Susan Galandiuk
This study focuses on impaired monocyte function, which occurs in some patients after trauma, major elective surgery, or sepsis. This monocyte impairment increases the risk of secondary infection and death. We aimed to determine the influence IκK-16 had on monocytes using an ex-vivo model of human monocyte impairment. We included the effects of the well-studied comparators interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on impaired monocytes. Primary human monocytes were stimulated with 10ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 16h and then challenged with 100ng/mL LPS to assess the monocyte inflammatory response...
October 28, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120525/heparanase-level-and-procoagulant-activity-are-reduced-in-severe-sepsis
#3
Moshe Matan, Daniel King, Eli Peled, Shanny Ackerman, Yaron Bar-Lavi, Benjamin Brenner, Yona Nadir
BACKGROUND: During severe sepsis, levels and activity of all coagulation proteins are reduced. Heparanase is implicated in angiogenesis and tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that heparanase also affected the hemostatic system. It forms a complex and increases the activity of the blood coagulation initiator tissue factor. AIM: To evaluate heparanase levels and procoagulant activity as predictors of sepsis severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty one patients with non-trauma, non-surgical sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and 35 controls were recruited...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115392/the-inhibition-of-myd88-and-trif-signaling-serve-equivalent-roles-in-attenuating-myocardial-deterioration-due-to-acute-severe-inflammation
#4
Min-Zhi Ouyang, Dan Zhou, Yun Zhu, Ming Zhang, Ling Li
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll or interleukin-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (IFN-β) (TRIF) are two pivotal downstream adaptors of Toll-like receptors. Activation of MyD88 or TRIF signaling in cardiac immune pathology of severe inflammation negatively influences heart function. In the present study, severe septic cardiac injury was induced in C57BL/6 mice by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). A total of 64 mice were divided randomly into the following four groups (n=16/group; 8 for observation of survival rate, 8 for heart sample analysis): Sham, CLP, anti-MyD88-CLP and anti-TRIF-CLP...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113409/phase-i-clinical-trial-of-axl1717-for-treatment-of-relapsed-malignant-astrocytomas-analysis-of-dose-and-response
#5
Robert Aiken, Magnus Axelson, Johan Harmenberg, Maria Klockare, Olle Larsson, Cecilia Wassberg
Purpose: Early phase I study of safety of AXL1717 in patients with recurrent or progressive malignant astrocytomas and evaluation of preliminary anti-tumor efficacy. Patients and methods: Nine patients fulfilling the set criteria were enrolled. Eight had recurrent glioblastoma and one gliosarcoma. Patients were treated with an oral suspension of AXL1717 (215-400 mg bid) cycle-by-cycle in 35-day cycles (28 days bid and 7 days off). Patients with progressive disease and/or toxicity-related dose delay of more than 14 days were withdrawn...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103257/-fever-hepatic-dysfunction-and-interstitial-pneumonia-caused-by-intravesical-bacillus-calmette-guerin-bcg-instillation-after-urethral-bougie-a-case-report
#6
Satoshi Nitta, Shotaro Sakka, Tsuyoshi Endo, Manabu Komine, Masakazu Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
A 60-year-old man had a past history of urothelial carcinoma of the left renal pelvis treated with laparoscopic left total nephroureterectomy in October 2004. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TUR-Bt) twice for recurrence of urothelial carcinoma in the bladder in April 2014 and February 2015, and subsequently received intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation at weekly intervalsfor prevention of recurrence. In November 2016, a year and a half after BCG induction, he received BCG therapy after urethral bougie to dilate the urethral stricture...
October 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102784/individual-differences-in-the-brain-are-associated-with-resilience-versus-susceptibility-to-lipopolysaccharide-induced-memory-impairment
#7
Hui Tang, Muhuo Ji, Manman Zong, Min Jia, Dan Luo, Zhiqiang Zhou, Jianjun Yang
Sepsis impairs learning and memory function, yet marked interindividual variability exists in the degree to which sepsis compromises learning and memory function. Thus, testing resilience versus susceptibility to systemic inflammation induced-memory impairment and the underlying mechanism is needed. In the present study, we firstly used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce memory impairment, and then evaluated cognitive function on days 4-7 after the first LPS challenge. Subjects' scores on both behavioral measures were subjected to a hierarchical cluster analysis, identifying two clusters that differed notably on the Y-maze and fear conditioning tests...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100962/metabolic-features-of-macrophages-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer
#8
Yi Rang Na, Sungmo Je, Seung Hyeok Seok
Macrophages are now considered to be important players in various inflammatory diseases as well as tumor progression. Emerging evidence reveals that macrophage metabolic features are deeply associated with their immune functions. Understanding the interaction between cellular metabolism and immune signaling pathways in macrophages can help us to develop appropriate therapeutic approaches for inflammatory diseases. In this review, we briefly summarize key metabolic features of M1 and M2 macrophages as well as signaling interactions between major metabolic molecules with TLRs and NLRs...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098196/perirenal-abscess-after-partial-nephrectomy-because-of-migration-of-upper-calix-stone-and-urine-leakage-a-case-report
#9
Sheng-Chun Hung, Li-Wen Chang, Cheng-Kuang Yang
Background: Nephron-sparing surgery has been shown to achieve oncological results equivalent to those of radical nephrectomy in patients with compromised renal function who have renal tumors <4 cm. However, technical difficulties and potential surgical complications remain challenges to the surgeon. Various factors, such as tumor size and location, collecting system invasion, and patient's expectations, are major concerns that may affect the feasibility of performing an effective partial nephrectomy. We report a patient with renal cell carcinoma who underwent open partial nephrectomy and suffered from complications of perirenal abscess because of stone migration, obstruction, and subsequence urine leakage...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095202/simultaneous-inhibition-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-1-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-8-completely-protects-against-acute-inflammation-and-sepsis
#10
Sophie Steeland, Sara Van Ryckeghem, Jolien Vandewalle, Marlies Ballegeer, Elien Van Wonterghem, Melanie Eggermont, Johan Decruyenaere, Liesbet De Bus, Claude Libert, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis causes very high mortality and morbidity rates and remains one of the biggest medical challenges. This study investigates whether plasma levels of both matrix metalloproteinase 8 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 are associated with sepsis severity and also investigates the therapeutic applicability of simultaneous inhibition of the two molecules in sepsis. DESIGN: Observational human pilot study-prospective controlled animal study. SETTING: University hospital and research laboratory...
October 31, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075910/pyoderma-gangrenosum-and-pyogenic-arthritis-presenting-as-severe-sepsis-in-a-rheumatoid-arthritis-patient-treated-with-golimumab
#11
REVIEW
Anastasia Skalkou, Sofia-Magdalini Manoli, Alexandros Sachinidis, Vasilios Ntouros, Konstantinos Petidis, Eleni Pagkopoulou, Efstratios Vakirlis, Athina Pyrpasopoulou, Theodoros Dimitroulas
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease resulting in joint destruction and deformities, but also associated with extraarticular and systemic manifestations. The later devastating conditions, such as the development of rheumatoid vasculitis, are more frequently encountered in seropositive patients and their incidence has been attenuated after the introduction of biologic disease modifying drugs, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) agents, which generally have considerably contributed to the better control and long-term outcomes of the disease...
October 26, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074099/efficacy-and-safety-of-long-acting-pasireotide-or-everolimus-alone-or-in-combination-in-patients-with-advanced-carcinoids-of-the-lung-and-thymus-luna-an-open-label-multicentre-randomised-phase-2-trial
#12
Piero Ferolla, Maria Pia Brizzi, Tim Meyer, Wasat Mansoor, Julien Mazieres, Christine Do Cao, Hervé Léna, Alfredo Berruti, Vincenzo Damiano, Wieneke Buikhuisen, Henning Grønbæk, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, Christian Grohé, Vincenzo Minotti, Marcello Tiseo, Javier De Castro, Nicholas Reed, Gabriella Gislimberti, Neha Singh, Miona Stankovic, Kjell Öberg, Eric Baudin
BACKGROUND: There are no data from prospective studies focused exclusively on patients with advanced lung and thymic carcinoids. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of long-acting pasireotide and everolimus, administered alone or in combination, in patients with advanced carcinoids of the lung or thymus. METHODS: LUNA was a prospective, multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial of adult patients (aged >18 years) with advanced (unresectable or metastatic), well differentiated carcinoid tumours of the lung or thymus, with radiological progression within 12 months before randomisation, and a WHO performance status of 0-2...
October 23, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072402/outcomes-of-high-risk-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#13
Asif Husain Osmani, Adnan Abdul Jabbar, Manesh Kumar Gangwani, Bilal Hassan
Fever during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Mortality depends on the duration and degree of neutropenia, bacteremia, sepsis, performance status, comorbidities and other parameters. The highest mortality rates in cancer patients hospitalized with febrile neutropenia (FN) are observed in those with documented infection. The objectives of the study were to present available tools for risk assessment, to review pathogens causing infections in adult FN patients and to assess outcomes...
October 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069651/staphylococcus-aureus-%C3%AE-toxin-induces-inflammatory-cytokines-via-lysosomal-acid-sphingomyelinase-and-ceramides
#14
Jie Ma, Erich Gulbins, Michael J Edwards, Charles C Caldwell, Martin Fraunholz, Katrin Anne Becker
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections are a major clinical problem and range from mild skin and soft-tissue infections to severe and even lethal infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, and toxic shock syndrome. Toxins that are released from S. aureus mediate many of these effects. Here, we aimed to identify molecular mechanisms how α-toxin, a major S. aureus toxin, induces inflammation. METHODS: Macrophages were isolated from the bone marrow of wildtype and acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, stimulated with S...
October 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068553/serum-alpha1-proteinase-inhibitor-concentrations-in-dogs-with-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-or-sepsis
#15
Romy M Heilmann, Niels Grützner, Brittany E Thames, Jörg M Steiner, James W Barr
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the concentration of serum canine alpha1 -proteinase inhibitor (cα1 -PI) has diagnostic or prognostic utility in dogs with sepsis or noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). DESIGN: Prospective, observational study from May to December 2010. SETTING: University teaching hospital ICU. ANIMALS: Sixty-nine client-owned dogs: 19 dogs with SIRS or sepsis and 50 healthy control dogs...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064085/the-biology-of-natural-killer-cells-during-sepsis
#16
REVIEW
Yin Guo, Naeem K Patil, Liming Luan, Julia K Bohannon, Edward R Sherwood
Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes largely recognized for their importance in tumor surveillance and the host response to viral infections. However, as the major innate lymphocyte population, NK cells also coordinate early responses to bacterial infections by amplifying the antimicrobial functions of myeloid cells, especially macrophages, by production of IFNγ. Alternatively, excessive NK cell activation and IFNγ production can amplify the systemic inflammatory response during sepsis resulting in increased physiologic dysfunction and organ injury...
October 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056305/exotoxins-and-endotoxins-inducers-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#17
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Cavaillon
Endotoxins and exotoxins are among the most potent bacterial inducers of cytokines. During infectious processes, the production of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFNγ) and chemokines orchestrates the anti-infectious innate immune response. However, an overzealous production, leading up to a cytokine storm, can be deleterious and contributes to mortality consecutive to sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. Endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) are particularly inflammatory because they generate auto-amplificatory loops after activation of monocytes/macrophages...
October 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049138/graph-theoretical-analysis-of-genome-scale-data-examination-of-gene-activation-occurring-in-the-setting-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
Octavia M Peck Palmer, Gary Rogers, Sachin Yende, Derek C Angus, Michael A Langston, Gilles Clermont
INTRODUCTION: We have previously reported evidence that black individuals appear to have a significantly higher incidence of infection-related hospitalizations compared to white individuals. It is possible that the host immune response is responsible for this vital difference. In support such a hypothesis, the aim of this study was to determine whether black and white individuals exhibit differential whole blood gene network activation. METHODS: We examined whole blood network activation in a subset of patients (n = 22 pairs, propensity score matched (1:1) black and white patients) with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from the Genetic and Inflammatory Markers of Sepsis study...
October 18, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048364/protective-effect-of-argan-and-olive-oils-against-lps-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-mice-livers
#19
Soufiane El Kamouni, Riad El Kebbaj, Pierre Andreoletti, Abderrahim El Ktaibi, Issam Rharrassi, Abdelkhalid Essamadi, M'hammed Saïd El Kebbaj, Stéphane Mandard, Norbert Latruffe, Joseph Vamecq, Boubker Nasser, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki
Sepsis causes severe dysregulation of organ functions, via the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. These pathophysiological mechanisms are mimicked in mice injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, protective properties of argan oil against LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are explored in the murine model. Mice received standard chow, supplemented with argan oil (AO) or olive oil (OO) for 25 days, before septic shock was provoked with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS, 16 hours prior to animal sacrifice...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046432/alk-is-a-therapeutic-target-for-lethal-sepsis
#20
Ling Zeng, Rui Kang, Shan Zhu, Xiao Wang, Lizhi Cao, Haichao Wang, Timothy R Billiar, Jianxin Jiang, Daolin Tang
Sepsis, a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by infection, is a major public health concern with limited therapeutic options. We provide evidence to support a role for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a tumor-associated receptor tyrosine kinase, in the regulation of innate immunity during lethal sepsis. The genetic disruption of ALK expression diminishes the stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-mediated host immune response to cyclic dinucleotides in monocytes and macrophages. Mechanistically, ALK directly interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to trigger serine-threonine protein kinase AKT phosphorylation and activate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways, enabling STING-dependent rigorous inflammatory responses...
October 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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