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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545227/potential-use-of-chemoprotectants-against-the-toxic-effects-of-cyanotoxins-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, María Puerto, Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena, Ana I Prieto, Silvia Pichardo, Ángeles Jos, Alexandre Campos, Vitor Vasconcelos, Ana M Cameán
Cyanobacterial toxins, particularly microcystins (MCs) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), are responsible for toxic effects in humans and wildlife. In order to counteract or prevent their toxicity, various strategies have been followed, such as the potential application of chemoprotectants. A review of the main substances evaluated for this aim, as well as the doses and their influence on cyanotoxin-induced toxicity, has been performed. A search of the literature shows that research on MCs is much more abundant than research on CYN...
May 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545106/serum-microrna-signatures-as-liquid-biopsies-for-interrogating-hepatotoxic-mechanisms-and-liver-pathogenesis-in-human
#2
Julian Krauskopf, Theo M de Kok, Shelli J Schomaker, Mark Gosink, Deborah A Burt, Patricia Chandler, Roscoe L Warner, Kent J Johnson, Florian Caiment, Jos C Kleinjans, Jiri Aubrecht
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released into the peripheral circulation upon cellular injury have shown a promise as a new class of tissue-specific biomarkers. We were first to demonstrate that next-generation sequencing analysis of serum from human subjects with acetaminophen-induced liver injury revealed a specific signature of circulating miRNAs. We consequently hypothesized that different types of hepatic liver impairments might feature distinct signatures of circulating miRNAs and that this approach might be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic "liquid biopsies" enabling the interrogation of underlying molecular mechanisms of injury in distant tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545065/influence-of-the-ferric-uptake-regulator-fur-protein-on-pathogenicity-in-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-brasiliense
#3
Collins Kipngetich Tanui, Divine Yutefar Shyntum, Stefan Louis Priem, Jacques Theron, Lucy Novungayo Moleleki
Iron is an important nutrient for the survival and growth of many organisms. In order to survive, iron uptake from the environment must be strictly regulated and maintained to avoid iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates genes involved in iron homeostasis in many bacteria, including phytopathogens. However, to date, the role played by Fur in the biology of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb1692), an important pathogen of potatoes, has not yet been studied. To this end, we used the lambda recombineering method to generate a fur mutant strain of Pcb1692 and assessed the virulence and fitness of the mutant strain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544042/forced-degradation-studies-of-lansoprazole-using-lc-esi-hrms-and-1-h-nmr-experiments-in-vitro-toxicity-evaluation-of-major-degradation-products
#4
G Shankar, R M Borkar, S Udutha, L Guntuku, V G M Naidu, N Nagesh, R Srinivas
Regulatory agencies from all over the world have set up stringent guidelines with regard to drug degradation products due to their toxic effects or carcinogenicity. Lansoprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, was subjected to forced degradation studies as per ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). The drug was found to degrade under acidic, basic, neutral hydrolysis and oxidative stress conditions, whereas it was found to be stable under thermal and photolytic conditions. The chromatographic separation of the drug and its degradation products were achieved on a Hiber Purospher, C18 (250 X 4...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542928/crosstalk-between-e2f1-and-p53-transcription-factors-in-doxorubicin-induced-dna-damage-evidence-for-preventive-protective-effects-of-silymarin
#5
Seyedeh-Khadijeh Shafiei-Roudbari, Hassan Malekinejad, Hamed Janbaz-Aciabar, Mazdak Razi
OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of silymarin in various forms of applications on the molecular mechanism(s) of doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in male rats. METHODS: Following DOX administration with or without SMN in male rats, sperm quality assays were conducted. Moreover, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide content of testis were determined. Expression profile of p53 and E2F1 was analysed by PCR technique. Ultimately, the rate of DNA fragmentation in the testes was quantitatively measured...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542473/stably-engineered-nanobubbles-and-ultrasound-an-effective-platform-for-enhanced-macromolecular-delivery-to-representative-cells-of-the-retina
#6
Sachin S Thakur, Micheal S Ward, Amirali Popat, Nicole B Flemming, Marie-Odile Parat, Nigel L Barnett, Harendra S Parekh
Herein we showcase the potential of ultrasound-responsive nanobubbles in enhancing macromolecular permeation through layers of the retina, ultimately leading to significant and direct intracellular delivery; this being effectively demonstrated across three relevant and distinct retinal cell lines. Stably engineered nanobubbles of a highly homogenous and echogenic nature were fully characterised using dynamic light scattering, B-scan ultrasound and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanobubbles appeared as spherical liposome-like structures under TEM, accompanied by an opaque luminal core and darkened corona around their periphery, with both features indicative of efficient gas entrapment and adsorption, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542385/cadmium-toxicity-induced-contrasting-patterns-of-concentrations-of-free-sarcosine-specific-amino-acids-and-selected-microelements-in-two-noccaea-species
#7
Veronika Zemanová, Milan Pavlík, Daniela Pavlíková
Cadmium (Cd) toxicity affects numerous metabolic processes in plants. In the presence of Cd, plants accumulate specific amino acids which may be beneficial to developing Cd tolerance. Our study aimed to characterize the changes in the metabolism of selected free amino acids that are associated with Cd tolerance, and investigate the levels of selected microelements in order to relate these changes to the adaptation strategies of two metallophytes-Noccaea caerulescens (Redlschlag, Austria) and Noccaea praecox (Mežica, Slovenia)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542246/a-drastic-superoxide-dependent-oxidative-stress-is-prerequisite-for-the-down-regulation-of-irp1-insights-from-studies-on-sod1-deficient-mice-and-macrophages-treated-with-paraquat
#8
Anna Milczarek, Rafał R Starzyński, Agnieszka Styś, Aneta Jończy, Robert Staroń, Agnieszka Grzelak, Paweł Lipiński
Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) is a cytosolic bifunctional [4Fe-4S] protein which exhibits aconitase activity or binds iron responsive elements (IREs) in untranslated regions of specific mRNA encoding proteins involved in cellular iron metabolism. Superoxide radical (O2.-) converts IRP1 from a [4Fe-4S] aconitase to a [3Fe-4S] "null" form possessing neither aconitase nor trans-regulatory activity. Genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an antioxidant enzyme that acts to reduce O2.- concentration, revealed a new O2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541776/enantioselective-apoptosis-and-oxidative-damage-induced-by-individual-isomers-of-profenofos-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#9
Xian T Lu, Yun Ma, Hang J Zhang, Mei Q Jin, Jun H Tang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptosis-related cytotoxic effects and molecular mechanisms of individual isomers of profenofos (PFF) on primary hippocampal neurons at 1.0 to 20 mg L(-1). The cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux indicated that (-)-PFF exposure was associated with more toxic effects than (+)-PFF above the concentration of 5 mg L(-1) (P < 0.5). Flow cytometric results showed that the percentages of apoptotic cells incubated with 20 mg L(-1) (-)-PFF, (+)-PFF and rac-PFF for 24 h reached 23...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541669/effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-and-their-hydroxylated-metabolites-oh-pcbs-on-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Srishty Subramanian, Jerald L Schnoor, Benoit Van Aken
Plants metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into hydroxylated derivatives (OH-PCBs), which are sometimes more toxic than the parent PCBs. The objective of this research was to compare the toxicity of a suite of PCBs and OH-PCBs toward the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. While parent PCBs and higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs exhibited a low or non-detectable toxicity, lower-chlorinated OH-PCBs significantly inhibited the germination rate and plant growth, with IC50 ranging from 1.6 to 12.0 mg L-1. The transcriptomic response of A...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541126/oxidative-stress-and-hepatotoxicity-in-the-frog-rana-chensinensis-when-exposed-to-low-doses-of-trichlorfon
#11
Bo Li, Yu Ma, Yu H Zhang
Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide that is widely used in aquaculture and agriculture against parasitic infestations and has caused aquatic toxicity to non-target organisms. To evaluate the effects of low doses of trichlorfon on the oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in amphibians, Chinese brown frogs (Rana chensinensis) were exposed to trichlorfon at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L for 2 and 4 weeks. Then, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatic tissue were examined to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539916/endophytic-fungi-piriformospora-indica-mediated-protection-of-host-from-arsenic-toxicity
#12
Shayan Mohd, Jagriti Shukla, Aparna S Kushwaha, Kapil Mandrah, Jai Shankar, Nidhi Arjaria, Prem N Saxena, Ram Narayan, Somendu K Roy, Manoj Kumar
Complex intercellular interaction is a common theme in plant-pathogen/symbiont relationship. Cellular physiology of both the partners is affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known about the degree of protection each offers to the other from different types of environmental stress. Our current study focused on the changes in response to toxic arsenic in the presence of an endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica that colonizes the paddy roots. The primary impact of arsenic was observed in the form of hyper-colonization of fungus in the host root and resulted in the recovery of its overall biomass, root damage, and chlorophyll due to arsenic toxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539089/simulating-real-life-exposures-to-uncover-possible-risks-to-human-health-a-proposed-consensus-for-a-novel-methodological-approach
#13
A M Tsatsakis, D Kouretas, M N Tzatzarakis, P Stivaktakis, K Tsarouhas, K S Golokhvast, V N Rakitskii, V A Tutelyan, A F Hernandez, R Rezaee, G Chung, C Fenga, A B Engin, M Neagu, A L Arsene, A O Docea, E Gofita, D Calina, I Taitzoglou, J Liesivuori, A W Hayes, S Gutnikov, C Tsitsimpikou
In real life, consumers are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals via food, water and commercial products consumption. Since risk assessment usually focuses on individual compounds, the current regulatory approach doesn't assess the overall risk of chemicals present in a mixture. This study will evaluate the cumulative toxicity of mixtures of different classes of pesticides and mixtures of different classes of pesticides together with food additives (FAs) and common consumer product chemicals using realistic doses after long-term exposure...
June 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538683/metabolic-investigations-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-associated-with-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Robert Powers, Shulei Lei, Annadurai Anandhan, Darrell D Marshall, Bradley Worley, Ronald L Cerny, Eric D Dodds, Yuting Huang, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, Rodrigo Franco
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by fibrillar cytoplasmic aggregates of α-synuclein (i.e., Lewy bodies) and the associated loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. Mutations in genes such as α-synuclein (SNCA) account for only 10% of PD occurrences. Exposure to environmental toxicants including pesticides and metals (e.g., paraquat (PQ) and manganese (Mn)) is also recognized as an important PD risk factor. Thus, aging, genetic alterations, and environmental factors all contribute to the etiology of PD...
May 24, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538211/the-oxido-metabolic-driver-atf4-enhances-temozolamide-chemo-resistance-in-human-gliomas
#15
Daishi Chen, Manfred Rauh, Michael Buchfelder, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai Savaskan
Malignant gliomas are devastating neoplasia with limited curative treatment options. Temozolomide (TMZ, Temcat®, Temodal® or Temodar®) is a first-line treatment for malignant gliomas but the development of drug resistance remains a major concern. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical oxido-metabolic regulator in gliomas, and its role in the pathogenesis of TMZ-resistance remains elusive. We investigated the effect of TMZ on human glioma cells under conditions of enhanced ATF4 expression (ATF4OE) and ATF4 knock down (ATF4KD)...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537731/reaction-of-spring-barley-and-common-radish-on-the-introduction-of-ionic-liquids-containing-asymmetric-cations-to-the-soil
#16
Barbara Pawłowska, Arkadiusz Telesiński, Maciej Płatkowski, Michał Stręk, Martyna Śnioszek, Robert Biczak
The harmful effect of ionic liquids (ILs) on the environment is one of the important elements of scientific research conducted around the world. This study presents the effect of ionic liquids, containing the asymmetric cations benzyltrimethylammonium chloride [BenzTMA][Cl] and benzyltriethylammonium chloride[BenzTEA][Cl], on physiological and biochemical changes in common radish plants and spring barley seedlings. The examined ILs demonstrated low toxicity to higher plants. A compound that exhibiting higher phytotoxicity to these plant species was [BenzTMA][Cl]...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537539/-metal-on-metal-hip-implant-continues-to-be-a-source-of-concern
#17
J A N Verhaar, T Gosens
It has recently been suggested that patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants have an increased chance of mortality. These observations come from a meta-analysis including many small randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies. Because of the high risk of bias there is no reason for great concern. In the Netherlands, the Dutch Orthopaedic Association (NOV) advised against the use of MOM implants in 2012, and that all patients with MOM implants should be followed up every year. There are good arguments to continue this policy because of the high risk of revision associated with MOM implants and the potential toxic effects of metal ions...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537420/nitration-and-glycation-turn-mature-ngf-into-a-toxic-factor-for-motor-neurons-a-role-for-p75-sup-ntr-sup-and-rage-signaling-in-als
#18
Mi Jin Kim, Marcelo R Vargas, Benjamin A Harlan, Kelby M Killoy, Lauren Ball, Susana Comte-Walters, Monika Gooz, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Joseph S Beckman, Luis Barbeito, Mariana Pehar
Glycating stress can occur together with oxidative stress during neurodegeneration and contribute to the pathogenic mechanism. Nerve growth factor (NGF) accumulates in several neurodegenerative diseases. Besides promoting survival, NGF can paradoxically induce cell death by signaling through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75<sup>NTR</sup>). The ability of NGF to induce cell death is increased by nitration of its tyrosine residues under conditions associated with increased peroxynitrite formation...
May 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536976/memory-and-learning-dysfunction-following-copper-toxicity-biochemical-and-immunohistochemical-basis
#19
Jayantee Kalita, Vijay Kumar, Usha K Misra, Himangsu K Bora
The prototype disease of Cu toxicity in human is Wilson disease, and cognitive impairment is the presenting symptom of it. There is no study correlating Cu-induced excitotoxicity, apoptosis, and astrocytic reaction with memory dysfunction. We report excitotoxicity, apoptosis, and astrocytic reaction of the hippocampus and frontal cortex with memory dysfunction in rat model of Cu toxicity. Thirty-six rats were divided into group I (control) and group II (100 mg/kgBwt/day CuSO4 orally). Y-maze was performed for memory and learning at 0, 30, 60, and 90 days...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536799/stress-induced-transcriptional-changes-and-dna-damage-associated-with-bis-2-ethylhexyl-adipate-exposure-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#20
Halis Boran, Serap Terzi
The present study evaluates potential toxic effects of bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) plasticizer to larval (72 h post fertilization) zebrafish (Danio rerio) by analyzing changes in expression levels of stress-related genes (p53, rad51 and xrcc5) and assessing possible DNA damage of DEHA in larvae. The lethal concentration for 50% mortality (LC50) in larval zebrafish exposed for 96 h to 0-200 mg L(-1) DEHA was 89.9 ± 8.03 mg L(-1). A concentration-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks was detected in cells from larvae exposed for 96 h to DEHA...
May 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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