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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353309/methods-for-enhancing-cyanobacterial-stress-tolerance-to-enable-improved-production-of-biofuels-and-industrially-relevant-chemicals
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca L Kitchener, Amy M Grunden
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that can fix atmospheric CO2 and can be engineered to produce industrially important compounds such as alcohols, free fatty acids, alkanes used in next-generation biofuels, and commodity chemicals such as ethylene or farnesene. They can be easily genetically manipulated, have minimal nutrient requirements, and are quite tolerant to abiotic stress making them an appealing alternative to other biofuel-producing microbes which require additional carbon sources and plants which compete with food crops for arable land...
January 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353190/characterization-of-acrylamide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-cardiovascular-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos
#2
Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Jun Wang, Zhidan Xia, Yu Zhang
Acrylamide (AA) is a high production volume chemical in industrial applications and widely found in baked or fried carbohydrate-rich foods. In this study, we unravelled that AA induced developmental toxicity associated with oxidative stress status and disordered lipid distribution in heart region of developing zebrafish. Treatment with AA caused a deficient cardiovascular system with significant heart malformation and dysfunction. We also found that AA could reduce the number of cardiomyocytes through the reduced capacity of cardiomyocyte proliferation rather than cell apoptosis...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353166/toxicological-responses-on-cytochrome-p450-and-metabolic-transferases-in-liver-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-exposed-to-lead-and-paraquat
#3
Xiaoming Xu, Zhaojie Cui, Xinlei Wang, Xixin Wang, Su Zhang
As the producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both lead (Pb) and paraquat (PQ) can generate serious oxidative stress in target organs which result in irreversible toxic effects on organisms. They can disturb the normal catalytic activities of many enzymes by means of different toxicity mechanism. The changed responses of enzymes are frequently used as the biomarkers for indicating the relationship between toxicological effects and exposure levels. In this work, goldfish was exposed to a series of test groups containing lead and paraquat in the range of 0...
January 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353014/neuroprotective-effect-of-morin-on-lead-acetate-induced-apoptosis-by-preventing-cytochrome-c-translocation-via-regulation-of-bax-bcl-2-ratio
#4
Sumathi Thangarajan, Aishwarya Vedagiri, Shanmathy Somasundaram, Rathika Sakthimanogaran, Mahalakshmi Murugesan
Lead (Pb) intoxication is a prevalent type of environmental toxicity as well as minimal amount of lead exposure is liable for neurobehavioral or perhaps intelligence defects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of morin in protecting the lead acetate (PbAc)-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. PbAc intoxication resulted in motor deficit, memory impairment and oxidative stress Further, PbAc administration alters Bax/Bcl-2 expression thereby increases cytochrome c release from the mitochondria...
January 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352355/physiological-responses-to-salt-stress-of-salt-adapted-and-directly-salt-nacl-and-nacl-na2so4-mixture-stressed-cyanobacterium-anabaena-fertilissima
#5
Prashant Swapnil, Ashwani K Rai
Soil salinity in nature is generally mixed type; however, most of the studies on salt toxicity are performed with NaCl and little is known about sulfur type of salinity (Na2SO4). Present study discerns the physiologic mechanisms responsible for salt tolerance in salt-adapted Anabaena fertilissima, and responses of directly stressed parent cells to NaCl and NaCl+Na2SO4 mixture. NaCl at 500 mM was lethal to the cyanobacterium, whereas salt-adapted cells grew luxuriantly. Salinity impaired gross photosynthesis, electron transport activities, and respiration in parent cells, but not in the salt-adapted cells, except a marginal increase in PSI activity...
January 19, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351877/rest-a-master-transcriptional-regulator-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jee-Yeon Hwang, R Suzanne Zukin
The restrictive element-1 silencing transcription factor)/NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencing factor (NRSF) is a transcriptional repressor which acts via epigenetic remodeling to silence target genes. Emerging evidence indicates that REST is a master transcriptional regulator of neuron-specific genes not only in neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, but also in differentiated neurons during the critical period in postnatal brain development, where it plays a role in fine-tuning of genes involved in synaptic plasticity, and in normal aging, where it promotes neuroprotection by repressing genes involved in oxidative stress and β-amyloid toxicity...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351805/neuroprotection-by-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-oxidative-stress-mediated-injury
#7
Bojun Chen, Jianming Li, Richard Ben Borgens
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is a critical component of nervous system secondary injury. Oxidative stress produces toxic chemical byproducts including reactive aldehydes that traverse intact membranes and attack neighboring healthy cells. This secondary damage often leads to further patho-biochemical cascades that exacerbate the original insult. In this work, we investigate the therapeutic effects of chitosan nanoparticles on cell cultures exposed to oxidative stress. RESULTS: We found chitosan nanoparticles can rescue BV-2 glial cells from death, but only for cells undergoing necrosis...
January 19, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351480/mechanistically-different-effects-of-fat-and-sugar-on-insulin-resistance-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#8
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Lidia Atienza, Josefina Casas, Olga Jáuregui, Susana Amézqueta, Gabriel Dasilva, Isabel Medina, Maria Rosa Nogués, Marta Romeu, Josep Lluís Torres
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are the first manifestations of diet-induced metabolic alterations leading to type-2 diabetes, while hypertension is the deadliest risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The roles of dietary fat and fructose in the development of IR, IGT and hypertension are controversial. We tested the long-term effects of an excess of fat or sucrose (fructose/glucose) on healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fat affects IR and IGT earlier than fructose through low-grade systemic inflammation evidenced by liver inflammatory infiltration, increased levels of plasma interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2 and reduced levels of protective short-chain fatty acids without triggering hypertension...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351455/thrombosis-systemic-and-cardiac-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-induced-by-pulmonary-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-particles-and-the-effect-of-nootkatone-thereon
#9
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Badreldin H Ali
Adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution persist even at lower concentrations than those of the current air quality limit. Therefore, identification of safe and effective measures against particles-induced cardiovascular toxicity is needed. Nootkatone is a sesquiterpenoid in grapefruit with diverse bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its protective effect on the cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has not been studied before...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351450/cardiac-vanilloid-receptor-1-afferent-depletion-enhances-stellate-ganglion-neuronal-activity-and-efferent-sympathetic-response-to-cardiac-stress
#10
Koji Yoshie, Pradeep S Rajendran, Louis Massoud, OhJin Kwon, Vasudev Tadimeti, Siamak Salavatian, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi A Ajijola
Afferent fibers expressing the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) channel are implicated in cardiac nociception, however, their role in modulating reflex responses to cardiac stress is not well-understood. We evaluated this role in Yorkshire pigs by percutaneous epicardial application of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a toxic activator of the VR1 channel, resulting in depletion of cardiac VR1-expressing afferents. Hemodynamics, epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARIs), and in vivo activity of stellate ganglion (SG) neurons (SGNs) were recorded in control and RTX-treated animals...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350786/multiple-biological-defects-caused-by-calycosin-7-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-are-associated-with-the-activation-of-oxidative-damage
#11
Jianqin Zhang, Xiaoli Xue, Yang Yang, Wen Ma, Yan Han, Xuemei Qin
Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) is an important active isoflavone compound in Radix Astragali that has many bioactivities. However, the toxicological effects and related toxicological mechanism of CG have been rarely documented. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity effects of CG on the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Some characteristics of the nematode, including lifespan, movement behavior and reproductive capacity, were used to detect the toxic effects of CG on C. elegans...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350491/reproductive-toxic-impact-of-subchronic-treatment-with-combined-butylparaben-and-triclosan-in-weanling-male-rats
#12
Madeha A Riad, Marwa M Abd-Rabo, Samy A Abd El Aziz, Adel M El Behairy, Mohamed M Badawy
The effect of treatment with combined butylparaben and triclosan on male gonadal toxicity in weanling rats was investigated. All treated groups experienced atrophy in the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, likewise significant depletion in the number and motility of sperm. Given individually or combined butylparaben and triclosan, significantly decreased testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Individual treatment with tested compounds caused significant elevation in the E2 level, whereas combined treatment did not alter the E2 level...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350476/investigating-the-mechanisms-underlying-phytoprotection-by-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-in-spartina-densiflora-under-metal-stress
#13
K Paredes-Páliz, R Rodríguez-Vázquez, B Duarte, M A Caviedes, E Mateos-Naranjo, S Redondo-Gómez, Isabel Caçador, Ignacio D Rodríguez-Llorente, E Pajuelo
Pollution of coasts by toxic metals and metalloids is a worldwide problem for which phytoremediation using halophytes and associated microbiomes is getting relevance. Metal(loid)s excess is a constraint for plant establishment and development, and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mitigate plant stress under these conditions. However, mechanisms underlying this effect remain elusive. In this paper, the effect of toxic metal(loid)s on the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes in roots of the halophyte Spartina densiflora grown on real polluted sediments in a green house experiment, was investigated...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350306/progress-on-the-study-of-the-mechanism-of-busulfan-cytotoxicity
#14
REVIEW
Xiaoli Chen, Mingyuan Liang, Dong Wang
The preparation of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplant recipients laid the technical foundation for SSC transplant technology and the understanding of spermatogenesis mechanisms. Busulfan is commonly used to prepare recipients for mouse SSC transplantation; however, its safety and efficiency have been questioned. This review summarizes the relationship between SSCs and Sertoli cells (SCs), and the mechanism of busulfan toxicity against sperm cells. We concluded that the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of SSCs are regulated by SCs...
January 19, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349357/comprehensive-cytotoxicity-studies-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#15
REVIEW
Rakesh M Patil, Nanasaheb D Thorat, Prajkta B Shete, Poonam A Bedge, Shambala Gavde, Meghnad G Joshi, Syed A M Tofail, Raghvendra A Bohara
Recently lots of efforts have been taken to develop superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for biomedical applications. So it is utmost necessary to have in depth knowledge of the toxicity occurred by this material. This article is designed in such way that it covers all the associated toxicity issues of SPIONs. It mainly emphasis on toxicity occurred at different levels including cellular alterations in the form of damage to nucleic acids due to oxidative stress and altered cellular response. In addition focus is been devoted for in vitro and in vivo toxicity of SPIONs, so that a better therapeutics can be designed...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348557/sensitizing-tumor-cells-to-conventional-drugs-hsp70-chaperone-inhibitors-their-selection-and-application-in-cancer-models
#16
Vladimir F Lazarev, Dmitry V Sverchinsky, Elena R Mikhaylova, Pavel I Semenyuk, Elena Y Komarova, Sergey A Niskanen, Alina D Nikotina, Anton V Burakov, Viktor G Kartsev, Irina V Guzhova, Boris A Margulis
Hsp70 chaperone controls proteostasis and anti-stress responses in rapidly renewing cancer cells, making it an important target for therapeutic compounds. To date several Hsp70 inhibitors are presented with remarkable anticancer activity, however their clinical application is limited by the high toxicity towards normal cells. This study aimed to develop assays to search for the substances that reduce the chaperone activity of Hsp70 and diminish its protective function in cancer cells. On our mind the resulting compounds alone should be safe and function in combination with drugs widely employed in oncology...
January 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348410/oxidative-stress-via-inhibition-of-the-mitochondrial-electron-transport-and-nrf-2-mediated-anti-oxidative-response-regulate-the-cytotoxic-activity-of-plumbagin
#17
Arvinder Kapur, Thomas Beres, Kavya Rathi, Amruta P Nayak, Austin Czarnecki, Mildred Felder, Amani Gillette, Spencer S Ericksen, Emmanuel Sampene, Melissa C Skala, Lisa Barroilhet, Manish S Patankar
Plumbagin, an anti-cancer agent, is toxic to cells of multiple species. We investigated if plumbagin targets conserved biochemical processes. Plumbagin induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cells of diverse mutational background with comparable potency. A 3-5 fold increase in intracellular oxygen radicals occurred in response to plumbagin. Neutralization of the reactive oxygen species by N-acetylcysteine blocked apoptosis, indicating a central role for oxidative stress in plumbagin-mediated cell death. Plumbagin docks in the ubiquinone binding sites (Q0 and Qi) of mitochondrial complexes I-III, the major sites for oxygen radicals...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348106/report-palladium-glutathione-n-acetylcysteine-d-penicillamine-conjugation-chemistry
#18
Muhammad Mukhtiar, Syed Umer Jan, Muhammad Farid Khan, Naseem Ullah, Abid Hussain, Saifur Rehman, Muhammad Murtaza Qureshi
The metalloelement Palladium has a number of potential Pharmaco-clinical advantages. Palladium compounds have antiviral, antibacterial, neuroprotective and antitumor properties. However studies have also indicated some mild to serious toxic effects of Palladium metalloelements. Biothiols are important antioxidants that provide protection against metals toxicity. The interaction of metalloelements with biothiols can provide valuable information about the level of toxicity of the metalloelements and about the protective role of biothiols thereof...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346835/two-citrate-transporters-coordinately-regulate-citrate-secretion-from-rice-bean-root-tip-under-aluminum-stress
#19
Mei Ya Liu, He Qiang Lou, Wei Wei Chen, Miguel A Piñeros, Jia Meng Xu, Wei Fan, Leon V Kochian, Shao Jian Zheng, Jian Li Yang
Al-induced organic acid secretion from the root apex is an important Al resistance mechanism. However, it remains unclear how plants fine-tune root organic acid secretion which can contribute significantly to the loss of fixed carbon from the plant. Here, we demonstrate that Al-induced citrate secretion from the rice bean root apex is biphasic, consisting of an early phase with low secretion and a later phase of large citrate secretion. We isolated and characterized VuMATE2 as a possible second citrate transporter in rice bean functioning in tandem with VuMATE1, which we previously identified...
January 18, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346757/p53-suppresses-metabolic-stress-induced-ferroptosis-in-cancer-cells
#20
Amy Tarangelo, Leslie Magtanong, Kathryn T Bieging-Rolett, Yang Li, Jiangbin Ye, Laura D Attardi, Scott J Dixon
How cancer cells respond to nutrient deprivation remains poorly understood. In certain cancer cells, deprivation of cystine induces a non-apoptotic, iron-dependent form of cell death termed ferroptosis. Recent evidence suggests that ferroptosis sensitivity may be modulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor and canonical tumor suppressor protein p53. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, small-molecule probes, and high-resolution, time-lapse imaging, we find that stabilization of wild-type p53 delays the onset of ferroptosis in response to cystine deprivation...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
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