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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933449/clearing-the-fog-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-added-sugars-on-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-deficits
#1
REVIEW
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933379/the-role-of-receptor-like-protein-kinases-rlks-in-abiotic-stress-response-in-plants
#2
REVIEW
Yaoyao Ye, Yanfei Ding, Qiong Jiang, Feijuan Wang, Junwei Sun, Cheng Zhu
We review and introduce recent studies on RLK s involved in the abiotic stress response and provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms for alleviating abiotic stress. Abiotic stresses are important factors affecting plant growth and development, resulting in crop production reduction and even plant death. To survive, plants utilize different mechanisms to respond and adapt to continuously changing environmental factors. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant response to various stresses will aid in improving tolerance of plants to abiotic stress through genetic engineering, which would greatly promote the development of modern agriculture...
December 8, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932944/role-of-homocysteine-in-the-ischemic-stroke-and-development-of-ischemic-tolerance
#3
REVIEW
Ján Lehotský, Barbara Tothová, Maria Kovalská, Dušan Dobrota, Anna Beňová, Dagmar Kalenská, Peter Kaplán
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a toxic, sulfur-containing intermediate of methionine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy), as a consequence of impaired Hcy metabolism or defects in crucial co-factors that participate in its recycling, is assumed as an independent human stroke risk factor. Neural cells are sensitive to prolonged hHcy treatment, because Hcy cannot be metabolized either by the transsulfuration pathway or by the folate/vitamin B12 independent remethylation pathway. Its detrimental effect after ischemia-induced damage includes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and posttranslational modifications of proteins via homocysteinylation and thiolation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931000/thorium-impact-on-tobacco-root-transcriptome
#4
Kateřina Mazari, Přemysl Landa, Sylva Přerostová, Karel Müller, Radomíra Vaňková, Petr Soudek, Tomáš Vaněk
Thorium is natural actinide metal with potential use in nuclear energetics. Contamination by thorium, originated from mining activities or spills, represents environmental risk due to its radioactivity and chemical toxicity. A promising approach for cleaning of contaminated areas is phytoremediation, which need to be based, however, on detail understanding of the thorium effects on plants. In this study we investigated transcriptomic response of tobacco roots exposed to 200μM thorium for one week. Thorium application resulted in up-regulation of 152 and down-regulation of 100 genes (p-value <0...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930992/alteration-of-development-and-gene-expression-induced-by-in-ovo-nanoinjection-of-3-hydroxybenzo-c-phenanthrene-into-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes-embryos
#5
Kun Chen, Yuki Tsutsumi, Shuhei Yoshitake, Xuchun Qiu, Hai Xu, Yasuyuki Hashiguchi, Masato Honda, Kosuke Tashiro, Kei Nakayama, Takeshi Hano, Nobuo Suzuki, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Yohei Shimasaki, Yuji Oshima
Benzo[c]phenanthrene (BcP) is a highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) found throughout the environment. In fish, it is metabolized to 3-hydroxybenzo[c]phenanthrene (3-OHBcP). In the present study, we observed the effects of 1nM 3-OHBcP on the development and gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos. Embryos were nanoinjected with the chemical after fertilization. Survival, developmental stage, and heart rate of the embryos were observed, and gene expression differences were quantified by messenger RNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq)...
November 25, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930990/cigarette-smoke-and-related-risk-factors-in-neurological-disorders-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Smilin Bell Aseervatham G, Sangdun Choi, Jayalakshmi Krishnan, Ruckmani K
Cigarette smoking is known to be harmful to health, and is considered the main cause of death worldwide, especially in India. Among the well-distinguished diseases related to smoking are, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, oral and peripheral cancers, and cardiovascular complications. However, the impact of cigarette smoking on neurocognitive and neuropathological effects, including anxiety, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ischemic stroke, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction, still remains unclear...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930976/nephro-protective-effect-of-a-novel-formulation-of-unopened-coconut-inflorescence-sap-powder-on-gentamicin-induced-renal-damage-by-modulating-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-markers
#7
Svenia P Jose, Asha S, Krishnakumar Im, Ratheesh M, Savitha Santhosh, Sandya S, Girish Kumar B, Pramod C
Fresh oyster white translucent sap obtained from the tender unopened inflorescence of coconut trees (Cocos nucifera) is identified to have great health benefits. Drug induced Nephrotoxicity is one of the major causes of renal damage in present generation. As a therapeutic agent, gentamicin imparts direct toxicity to kidney, resulting in acute tubular necrosis, glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, haemodynamically mediated damage and obstructive nephropathy.There exists an increasing demand for safe and natural agents for the treatment and/or preventionofchronic nephrotoxicity and pathogenesis of kidney diseases...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928692/palmitic-acid-triggers-cell-apoptosis-in-rgc-5-retinal-ganglion-cells-through-the-akt-foxo1-signaling-pathway
#8
Panshi Yan, Shu Tang, Haifeng Zhang, Yuanyuan Guo, Zhiwen Zeng, Qiang Wen
Hallmarks of the pathophysiology of glaucoma are oxidative stress and apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Lipotoxicity, involving a series of pathological cellular responses after exposure to elevated levels of fatty acids, leads to oxidative stress and cell death in various cell types. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/Forkhead box O1 (PI3K/Akt/FoxO1) pathway is crucial for cell survival and apoptosis. More importantly, FoxO1 gene has been reported to confer relatively higher risks for eye diseases including glaucoma...
December 7, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927697/absence-of-11-keto-reduction-of-cortisone-and-11-ketotestosterone-in-the-model-organism-zebrafish
#9
Maria Tsachaki, Arne Meyer, Benjamin Weger, Denise V Kratschmar, Janina Tokarz, Jerzy Adamski, Heinz-Georg Belting, Markus Affolter, Thomas Dickmeis, Alex Odermatt
Zebrafish are widely used as model organism. Their suitability for endocrine studies, drug screening and toxicity assessements depends on the extent of conservation of specific genes and biochemical pathways between zebrafish and human. Glucocorticoids consist of inactive 11-keto (cortisone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone) and active 11β-hydroxyl forms (cortisol, corticosterone). In mammals, two 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD1, 11β-HSD2) interconvert active and inactive glucocorticoids, allowing tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927277/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-cypermethrin-on-female-reproductive-function-by-using-rabbit-model-and-of-the-protective-role-of-chinese-propolis
#10
A E Khatab, N M Hashem, L M El-Kodary, F M Lotfy, G A Hassan
The prophylactic effects of Chinese propolis against cypermethrin toxicity were evaluated by performing ovary and uterus histopathology, as well as by characterizing ovarian function, embryos, and litters. Cypermethrin induced atypia in the ovary and uterus, and decreased the ovulation sites and the number of embryos. Cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress during pregnancy, decreased the parturition rate as well as the number and weight of offspring and increased the incidence of morphological malformations in the offspring...
October 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924923/genome-wide-analysis-of-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-gene-family-and-their-response-to-abiotic-stresses-in-soybean
#11
Ning Wang, Xiujuan Zhong, Yahui Cong, Tingting Wang, Songnan Yang, Yan Li, Junyi Gai
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) plays an important role in assimilating atmospheric CO2 during C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis, and also participates in various non-photosynthetic processes, including fruit ripening, stomatal opening, supporting carbon-nitrogen interactions, seed formation and germination, and regulation of plant tolerance to stresses. However, a comprehensive analysis of PEPC family in Glycine max has not been reported. Here, a total of ten PEPC genes were identified in soybean and denominated as GmPEPC1-GmPEPC10...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923919/quorum-sensing-coordinates-cooperative-expression-of-pyruvate-metabolism-genes-to-maintain-a-sustainable-environment-for-population-stability
#12
Lisa A Hawver, Jennifer M Giulietti, James D Baleja, Wai-Leung Ng
: Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-cell communication system that regulates gene expression in response to population density to coordinate collective behaviors. Yet, the role of QS in resolving the stresses caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolic by-products at high cell density is not well defined. In response to cell density, QS could be involved in reprogramming of the metabolic network to maintain population stability. Using unbiased metabolomics, we discovered that Vibrio cholerae mutants genetically locked in a low cell density (LCD) QS state are unable to alter the pyruvate flux to convert fermentable carbon sources into neutral acetoin and 2,3-butanediol molecules to offset organic acid production...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923774/mechanistic-insights-into-selective-killing-of-oxphos-dependent-cancer-cells-by-arctigenin
#13
Karin Brecht, Virginie Riebel, Philippe Couttet, Franziska Paech, Armin Wolf, Salah-Dine Chibout, Francois Pognan, Stephan Krähenbühl, Marianne Uteng
Arctigenin has previously been identified as a potential anti-tumor treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanism of how arctigenin kills cancer cells is not fully understood. In the present work we studied arctigenin's mechanism of toxicity in the human pancreatic cell line, Panc-1, with special emphasis on the mitochondria. A comparison of Panc-1 cells cultured in glucose versus galactose medium was applied, allowing assessments of effects in glycolytic versus oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent Panc-1 cells...
December 3, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923689/eupafolin-nanoparticle-improves-acute-renal-injury-induced-by-lps-through-inhibiting-ros-and-inflammation
#14
Hao Zhang, Ming-Kun Chen, Ke Li, Cheng Hu, Min-Hua Lu, Jie Situ
Acute renal injury is a common severe clinical syndrome, occurring in many clinical situations. It is necessary to explore effective drugs to treat it. Eupafolin is a flavonoid compound, derived from Phyla nodiflora, which has been previously reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, it is known little about how it works in acute renal injury. Also, eupafolin is characterized by skin penetration and poor water solubility, limiting its clinical applications...
December 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923643/anthraquinone-derivative-exerted-hormetic-effect-on-the-apoptosis-in-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-pc12-cells-via-erk-and-akt-activated-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathway
#15
Lu Liu, Weiwei Huang, Jianhong Wang, Huiling Song, Juan Cen, Biansheng Ji
There were accumulated evidences that agents may attenuate neurological disorders through a hormetic effect. This study was designed to investigate hormetic effect of BME on the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced mitochondrial apoptosis in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. The effect of BME on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) formation and pro-survival signals mediated by ERK and Akt as well as transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathways was also determined...
December 3, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#16
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922495/toxic-and-endocrine-myopathies
#17
Hans D Katzberg, Charles D Kassardjian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of toxic and endocrine myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Early detection and expeditious correction of metabolic disturbances in endocrinopathies such as Cushing syndrome, thyroid and parathyroid diseases, and acromegaly can minimize and prevent neurologic complications including myopathy. Recently proposed mechanisms of injury in patients with critical illness myopathy include inhibition of protein synthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative stress, and disruption of intramuscular calcium homeostasis, which can cause a myosin-loss myopathy...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920530/blockage-of-both-the-extrinsic-and-intrinsic-pathways-of-diazinon-induced-apoptosis-in-patu-cells-by-magnesium-oxide-and-selenium-nanoparticles
#18
Mahdi Shiri, Mona Navaei-Nigjeh, Maryam Baeeri, Mahban Rahimifard, Hossein Mahboudi, Ahmad Reza Shahverdi, Abbas Kebriaeezadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi
Diazinon (DZ) is an organophosphorus insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is important to note that it can induce oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, diabetic disorders, and cytotoxicity. Magnesium oxide (MgO) and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) showed promising protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and diabetic disorders. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of MgO and Se NPs against DZ-induced cytotoxicity in PaTu cell line...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919268/air-liquid-interface-exposure-to-aerosols-of-poorly-soluble-nanomaterials-induces-different-biological-activation-levels-compared-to-exposure-to-suspensions
#19
Thomas Loret, Emmanuel Peyret, Marielle Dubreuil, Olivier Aguerre-Chariol, Christophe Bressot, Olivier le Bihan, Tanguy Amodeo, Bénédicte Trouiller, Anne Braun, Christophe Egles, Ghislaine Lacroix
BACKGROUND: Recently, much progress has been made to develop more physiologic in vitro models of the respiratory system and improve in vitro simulation of particle exposure through inhalation. Nevertheless, the field of nanotoxicology still suffers from a lack of relevant in vitro models and exposure methods to predict accurately the effects observed in vivo, especially after respiratory exposure. In this context, the aim of our study was to evaluate if exposing pulmonary cells at the air-liquid interface to aerosols of inhalable and poorly soluble nanomaterials generates different toxicity patterns and/or biological activation levels compared to classic submerged exposures to suspensions...
November 3, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919164/differences-in-allergic-inflammatory-responses-in-murine-lungs-comparison-of-pm2-5-and-coarse-pm-collected-during-the-hazy-events-in-a-chinese-city
#20
Miao He, Takamichi Ichinose, Seiichi Yoshida, Fumiko Shiba, Keiichi Arashidani, Hirohisa Takano, Guifan Sun, Takayuki Shibamoto
Urban particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increase in asthma. PM2.5 (<PM2.5 μm) and coarse PM (CPM: PM2.5-PM10 μm) were collected from the air in a Chinese city during haze events. The amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in PM2.5 than in CPM. Conversely, microbial elements LPS and β-glucan were much higher in CPM than in PM2.5. Concentrations of Si, Al, Fe, and Ti in CPM were greater than in PM2.5, while Pb, Cu and As concentrations were lower than in PM2.5. When RAW264...
December 5, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
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