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biostatistics and epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097842/in-hospital-capacity-building-in-research-and-management-for-pediatric-professionals
#1
Graciela Demirdjian, Susana Rodríguez, Juan C Vassallo, Vilma Irazola, Josefa Rodríguez
We describe an educational strategy aimed at capacity-building of hospital health care professionals in research and management initiated at a pediatric hospital in 2006, and the results obtained eight years after its implementation. Research and Management in Pediatrics (GIP) is an annual 250-hour course combining meetings and off-site assignments delivered through the Hospital's on-line campus. It provides students with practical tools for research (epidemiology, methodology, bibliographic search, evidencebased medicine, biostatistics) and management (strategic planning, management programs, health services research, quality improvement, health economics)...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097472/proceedings-of-the-third-international-molecular-pathological-epidemiology-mpe-meeting
#2
REVIEW
Peter T Campbell, Timothy R Rebbeck, Reiko Nishihara, Andrew H Beck, Colin B Begg, Alexei A Bogdanov, Yin Cao, Helen G Coleman, Gordon J Freeman, Yujing J Heng, Curtis Huttenhower, Rafael A Irizarry, N Sertac Kip, Franziska Michor, Daniel Nevo, Ulrike Peters, Amanda I Phipps, Elizabeth M Poole, Zhi Rong Qian, John Quackenbush, Harlan Robins, Peter K Rogan, Martha L Slattery, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Mingyang Song, Tyler J VanderWeele, Daniel Xia, Emily C Zabor, Xuehong Zhang, Molin Wang, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is a transdisciplinary and relatively new scientific discipline that integrates theory, methods, and resources from epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. The underlying objective of MPE research is to better understand the etiology and progression of complex and heterogeneous human diseases with the goal of informing prevention and treatment efforts in population health and clinical medicine. Although MPE research has been commonly applied to investigating breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, its methodology can be used to study most diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039181/sports-biostatistician-a-critical-member-of-all-sports-science-and-medicine-teams-for-injury-prevention
#3
REVIEW
Martí Casals, Caroline F Finch
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted...
December 30, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991573/porcine-circovirus-type-2-pcv2-evolution-before-and-after-the-vaccination-introduction-a-large-scale-epidemiological-study
#4
Giovanni Franzo, Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Mattia Cecchinato, Michele Drigo
Since their commercialization, vaccines against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) have been the cornerstone control strategy. Nevertheless, the periodic emergence of new genotype waves and the recent reports of vaccine failure outbreaks have raised the question if widespread vaccination strategies could have driven viral evolution and affected different genotype fitness. To investigate this issue an in-deep analysis, based on a bioinformatics and biostatistics approach, has been implemented. ORF2 sequences from vaccinated and non-vaccinated populations (i...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911589/recommended-reading-from-university-of-georgia-department-of-epidemiology-and-biostatistics-fellows
#5
Leonardo Martinez, María Eugenia Castellanos, Benjamin D Hallowell, Christopher C Whalen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876014/prenatal-diagnosis-in-sweden-2011-to-2013-a-register-based-study
#6
Kerstin Petersson, Marie Lindkvist, Margareta Persson, Peter Conner, Annika Åhman, Ingrid Mogren
BACKGROUND: Prenatal diagnosis involves methods used in early pregnancy as either screening tests or diagnostic methods. The aims of the study were to i) investigate guidelines on prenatal diagnosis in the counties of Sweden, ii) investigate uptake of prenatal diagnosis, and iii) background characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in relation to different prenatal diagnostic methods. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study using data from the Swedish Pregnancy Register 2011 to 2013 (284,789 pregnancies) was performed...
November 22, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828888/approach-to-a-standardized-injury-prevention-coordinator-training-curriculum
#7
Pina Violano, Ian Weston, Glen Tinkoff
The effectiveness of trauma center-based injury prevention programs is constrained by a number of variables. These include the wide range of injury types, the variety of possible interventions, institutional support and funding, and the knowledge and experience of the persons responsible for these programs. As the field of injury prevention has increased in complexity, so must the role and professional development of these injury prevention professionals responsible for these programs. Trauma center-based injury prevention coordinators are a diverse group with variable education and professional background especially related to public health, advocacy, epidemiology, biostatistics, and research...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793412/challenges-in-the-estimation-of-net-survival-the-censur-working-survival-group
#8
R Giorgi
BACKGROUND: Net survival, the survival probability that would be observed, in a hypothetical world, where the cancer of interest would be the only possible cause of death, is a key indicator in population-based cancer studies. Accounting for mortality due to other causes, it allows cross-country comparisons or trends analysis and provides a useful indicator for public health decision-making. The objective of this study was to show how the creation and formalization of a network comprising established research teams, which already had substantial and complementary experience in both cancer survival analysis and methodological development, make it possible to meet challenges and thus provide more adequate tools, to improve the quality and the comparability of cancer survival data, and to promote methodological transfers in areas of emerging interest...
October 2016: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789317/the-latin-american-clinical-epidemiology-network-latinclen
#9
Carlos Gómez Restrepo, Sergio Muñoz N, Alvaro J Ruiz, Fernando Lanas
The Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network (LatinCLEN) was born in the nineties as a branch of the International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN). Clinical Epidemiology Units that made up this network in the region were initially composed of health professionals trained in Australia and North America. From these units, second and third generation training centers started to develop in the region, with the main purpose of introducing clinical research methodology and critical appraisal, as well as health economics and biostatistics...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741981/advances-in-understanding-air-pollution-and-cvd
#10
REVIEW
Joel D Kaufman, Elizabeth W Spalt, Cynthia L Curl, Anjum Hajat, Miranda R Jones, Sun-Young Kim, Sverre Vedal, Adam A Szpiro, Amanda Gassett, Lianne Sheppard, Martha L Daviglus, Sara D Adar
The MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information...
September 2016: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694664/hta-algorithm-or-process-comment-on-expanded-hta-enhancing-fairness-and-legitimacy
#11
Anthony J Culyer
Daniels, Porteny and Urrutia et al make a good case for the idea that that public decisions ought to be made not only "in the light of" evidence but also "on the basis of" budget impact, financial protection and equity. Health technology assessment (HTA) should, they say, be accordingly expanded to consider matters additional to safety and cost-effectiveness. They also complain that most HTA reports fail to develop ethical arguments and generally do not even mention ethical issues. This comment argues that some of these defects are more apparent than real and are not inherent in HTA - as distinct from being common characteristics found in poorly conducted HTAs...
May 16, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667313/vitamin-d-vitamin-a-the-primary-melanoma-transcriptome-and-survival
#12
S J O'Shea, J R Davies, J A Newton-Bishop
Survival from melanoma is influenced by several, well-established clinical and histopathological factors, e.g. age, Breslow thickness and microscopic ulceration. We (the Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds) have carried out research to better understand the biological basis for these observations. Preliminary results indicated a protective role for vitamin D in melanoma relapse and that higher vitamin D was associated with thinner primary melanomas. Funding from the British Skin Foundation enabled JNB to establish a study of the effects of vitamin A in melanoma...
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580435/characteristics-of-biostatistics-epidemiology-and-research-design-programs-in-institutions-with-clinical-and-translational-science-awards
#13
Mohammad H Rahbar, Aisha S Dickerson, Chul Ahn, Rickey E Carter, Manouchehr Hessabi, Christopher J Lindsell, Paul J Nietert, Robert A Oster, Brad H Pollock, Leah J Welty
PURPOSE: To learn the size, composition, and scholarly output of biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design (BERD) units in U.S. academic health centers (AHCs). METHOD: Each year for four years, the authors surveyed all BERD units in U.S. AHCs that were members of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium. In 2010, 46 BERD units were surveyed; in 2011, 55; in 2012, 60; and in 2013, 61. RESULTS: Response rates to the 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 surveys were 93...
August 30, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548004/estimating-diagnostic-accuracy-without-a-gold-standard-a-continued-controversy
#14
John Collins, Paul S Albert
There is a wide body of literature in biostatistics and epidemiology literature about estimating diagnostic accuracy, such as sensitivity and specificity of a binary test, without a gold standard. This methodology is very attractive since obtaining gold standard information is impossible, difficult, or very expensive in some situations. Although there are many proponents of these approaches, there have also been some serious criticisms. We review important methodological developments as well as discuss problems with the approaches...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547751/a-review-of-epidemiological-research-on-adverse-neurological-effects-of-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution
#15
REVIEW
Xiaohui Xu, Sandie Uyen Ha, Rakshya Basnet
There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348094/a-collaboration-between-cousins-the-canadian-journal-of-public-health-and-the-canadian-society-for-epidemiology-and-biostatistics
#16
Linda Dodds, Eduardo Franco
No abstract available.
June 27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322190/research-methods-in-healthcare-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-observational-studies
#17
Graham M Snyder, Heather Young, Meera Varman, Aaron M Milstone, Anthony D Harris, Silvia Munoz-Price
Observational studies compare outcomes among subjects with and without an exposure of interest, without intervention from study investigators. Observational studies can be designed as a prospective or retrospective cohort study or as a case-control study. In healthcare epidemiology, these observational studies often take advantage of existing healthcare databases, making them more cost-effective than clinical trials and allowing analyses of rare outcomes. This paper addresses the importance of selecting a well-defined study population, highlights key considerations for study design, and offers potential solutions including biostatistical tools that are applicable to observational study designs...
October 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27290892/scientific-journal-publishes-second-eratum-regarding-false-information-by-scientists-funded-by-asbestos-interests
#18
Kathleen Ruff, Dario Mirabelli, Corrado Magnani
In a paper published on Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health, Ilgren et al. claimed that cases of mesothelioma among workers of the Balangero (a municipality of the province of Turin, Northern Italy) chrysotile mine and nearby residents were not caused by chrysotile, but by other forms of asbestos. In support, they cited a reference where no pertaining evidence can be found. One year after the paper, an erratum was published by the journal editors in chief, warning that an erroneous citation was present...
March 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268452/-vaccinations-in-patients-with-autoimmune-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Silja Bühler, Christoph Hatz
The number of individuals with autoimmune diseases treated with immunosuppressive drugs is increasing steadily. The variety of immunosuppressive drugs and in particular biological therapies is also rising. The autoimmune disease itself as well as the immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infection in this population. Particularly the risk of vaccine-preventable infections is elevated. Thus, preventing infections by the means of vaccination is of utmost importance. The Division of Infectious Diseases of the Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, performed a literature search on the topic of vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases upon request by the Swiss Federal Commission for Vaccination Issues...
2016: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227723/doubly-robust-and-efficient-estimation-of-marginal-structural-models-for-the-hazard-function
#20
Wenjing Zheng, Maya Petersen, Mark J van der Laan
In social and health sciences, many research questions involve understanding the causal effect of a longitudinal treatment on mortality (or time-to-event outcomes in general). Often, treatment status may change in response to past covariates that are risk factors for mortality, and in turn, treatment status may also affect such subsequent covariates. In these situations, Marginal Structural Models (MSMs), introduced by Robins (1997. Marginal structural models Proceedings of the American Statistical Association...
May 1, 2016: International Journal of Biostatistics
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