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biostatistics and epidemiology

Joel D Kaufman, Elizabeth W Spalt, Cynthia L Curl, Anjum Hajat, Miranda R Jones, Sun-Young Kim, Sverre Vedal, Adam A Szpiro, Amanda Gassett, Lianne Sheppard, Martha L Daviglus, Sara D Adar
The MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information...
September 2016: Global Heart
Anthony J Culyer
Daniels, Porteny and Urrutia et al make a good case for the idea that that public decisions ought to be made not only "in the light of" evidence but also "on the basis of" budget impact, financial protection and equity. Health technology assessment (HTA) should, they say, be accordingly expanded to consider matters additional to safety and cost-effectiveness. They also complain that most HTA reports fail to develop ethical arguments and generally do not even mention ethical issues. This comment argues that some of these defects are more apparent than real and are not inherent in HTA - as distinct from being common characteristics found in poorly conducted HTAs...
May 16, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
S J O'Shea, J R Davies, J A Newton-Bishop
Survival from melanoma is influenced by several, well-established clinical and histopathological factors, e.g. age, Breslow thickness and microscopic ulceration. We (the Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds) have carried out research to better understand the biological basis for these observations. Preliminary results indicated a protective role for vitamin D in melanoma relapse and that higher vitamin D was associated with thinner primary melanomas. Funding from the British Skin Foundation enabled JNB to establish a study of the effects of vitamin A in melanoma...
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Mohammad H Rahbar, Aisha S Dickerson, Chul Ahn, Rickey E Carter, Manouchehr Hessabi, Christopher J Lindsell, Paul J Nietert, Robert A Oster, Brad H Pollock, Leah J Welty
PURPOSE: To learn the size, composition, and scholarly output of biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design (BERD) units in U.S. academic health centers (AHCs). METHOD: Each year for four years, the authors surveyed all BERD units in U.S. AHCs that were members of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium. In 2010, 46 BERD units were surveyed; in 2011, 55; in 2012, 60; and in 2013, 61. RESULTS: Response rates to the 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 surveys were 93...
August 30, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
John Collins, Paul S Albert
There is a wide body of literature in biostatistics and epidemiology literature about estimating diagnostic accuracy, such as sensitivity and specificity of a binary test, without a gold standard. This methodology is very attractive since obtaining gold standard information is impossible, difficult, or very expensive in some situations. Although there are many proponents of these approaches, there have also been some serious criticisms. We review important methodological developments as well as discuss problems with the approaches...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Xiaohui Xu, Sandie Uyen Ha, Rakshya Basnet
There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Linda Dodds, Eduardo Franco
No abstract available.
2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Graham M Snyder, Heather Young, Meera Varman, Aaron M Milstone, Anthony D Harris, Silvia Munoz-Price
Observational studies compare outcomes among subjects with and without an exposure of interest, without intervention from study investigators. Observational studies can be designed as a prospective or retrospective cohort study or as a case-control study. In healthcare epidemiology, these observational studies often take advantage of existing healthcare databases, making them more cost-effective than clinical trials and allowing analyses of rare outcomes. This paper addresses the importance of selecting a well-defined study population, highlights key considerations for study design, and offers potential solutions including biostatistical tools that are applicable to observational study designs...
October 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Kathleen Ruff, Dario Mirabelli, Corrado Magnani
In a paper published on Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health, Ilgren et al. claimed that cases of mesothelioma among workers of the Balangero (a municipality of the province of Turin, Northern Italy) chrysotile mine and nearby residents were not caused by chrysotile, but by other forms of asbestos. In support, they cited a reference where no pertaining evidence can be found. One year after the paper, an erratum was published by the journal editors in chief, warning that an erroneous citation was present...
March 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Silja Bühler, Christoph Hatz
The number of individuals with autoimmune diseases treated with immunosuppressive drugs is increasing steadily. The variety of immunosuppressive drugs and in particular biological therapies is also rising. The autoimmune disease itself as well as the immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infection in this population. Particularly the risk of vaccine-preventable infections is elevated. Thus, preventing infections by the means of vaccination is of utmost importance. The Division of Infectious Diseases of the Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, performed a literature search on the topic of vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases upon request by the Swiss Federal Commission for Vaccination Issues...
2016: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Wenjing Zheng, Maya Petersen, Mark J van der Laan
In social and health sciences, many research questions involve understanding the causal effect of a longitudinal treatment on mortality (or time-to-event outcomes in general). Often, treatment status may change in response to past covariates that are risk factors for mortality, and in turn, treatment status may also affect such subsequent covariates. In these situations, Marginal Structural Models (MSMs), introduced by Robins (1997. Marginal structural models Proceedings of the American Statistical Association...
May 1, 2016: International Journal of Biostatistics
Janneke H van de Wijgert, Vicky Jespers
PURPOSE: Next generation sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction technologies are now widely available, and research incorporating these methods is growing exponentially. In the vaginal microbiota (VMB) field, most research to date has been descriptive. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of different ways in which next generation sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction data can be used to answer clinical epidemiologic research questions using examples from VMB research...
May 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Joseph M Rohr, Heidi N Kaschke, Jaynie E Bird, Ashlie M Nelson, Geoffrey A Talmon
OBJECTIVES: Although pathology is a central discipline in medicine, many do not understand the role of pathologists and laboratory professionals. While there are efforts to educate the public, few focus on precollege students. METHODS: To define a curriculum exposing high school students to major concepts in health and disease, while introducing them to professions that employ this knowledge. A semester-long class was designed to meet for 2-hour sessions semiweekly...
May 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Harvey Risch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Epidemiology
Takeaki Takeuchi, Masahiro Hashizume
Behavioral medicine has increased in importance to become a promising field in medical education. The Teikyo University Graduate School of Public Health and Toho University School of Medicine were evaluated in terms of their educational emphasis on behavioral medicine. The Teikyo University Graduate School of Public Health has the following five core requirements, as in the global standards: behavioral medicine, biostatistics, epidemiology, occupational health, and health policy management. Behavioral medicine mainly encompasses psychology in normal populations, working as a gateway to the medical world among non-medical professionals who are interested in medicine...
2016: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
Dragan Ilic, Basia Diug
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether the clinical maturity of medical trainees impacts upon the level of trainee competency in evidence-based medicine (EBM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Undergraduate and graduate-entry medical trainees entering their first year of training in the clinical environment were recruited for this study. Competency in EBM was measured using a psychometrically validated instrument. EBM competency scores were analysed using Student's t tests, in order to differentiate between undergraduate and graduate-entry trainee performance...
September 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Elizabeth L Ogburn, Scott L Zeger
Epidemiology is concerned with determining the distribution and causes of disease. Throughout its history, epidemiology has drawn upon statistical ideas and methods to achieve its aims. Because of the exponential growth in our capacity to measure and analyze data on the underlying processes that define each person's state of health, there is an emerging opportunity for population-based epidemiologic studies to influence health decisions made by individuals in ways that take into account the individuals' characteristics, circumstances, and preferences...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ashish Joshi, Attiqa Mirza, Kim McFarlane, Chioma Amadi
AIMS: The objective of our study was to search existing public health job websites over the internet and describe the challenges related to finding these job websites. METHOD: An internet search was conducted using different search engines, including Google, Yahoo and Bing, with several keywords including: Public Health Jobs, Epidemiology Jobs, Biostatistics Jobs, Health Policy and Management Jobs, Community Health Jobs, Health Administration Jobs, Nutrition Jobs, Environmental and Occupational Health Science Jobs, GIS Jobs, and Public Health Informatics Jobs...
September 2016: Perspectives in Public Health
Colleen L Lau, Carl S Smith
Globally, infectious diseases are responsible for a significant burden on human health. Drivers of disease transmission depend on interactions between humans, the environment, vectors, carriers, and pathogens; transmission dynamics are therefore potentially highly complex. Research in infectious disease eco-epidemiology has been rapidly gaining momentum because of the rising global importance of disease emergence and outbreaks, and growing understanding of the intimate links between human health and the environment...
March 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Kambria H Evans, Atalie C Thompson, Colin O'Brien, Madika Bryant, Preetha Basaviah, Charles Prober, Rita A Popat
PROBLEM: There is little understanding of the impact of teaching clinical epidemiology and biostatistics in a flipped or blended format. At Stanford University School of Medicine, the quantitative medicine (QM) curriculum for first-year students was redesigned to use a blended format, in response to student feedback. APPROACH: The blended QM curriculum introduced in 2013 integrated self-paced, online learning with small-group collaborative learning. The authors analyzed the blended format's impact on student satisfaction and performance, comparing the pilot cohort of students (n = 101) with students who took the traditional curriculum in 2011 and 2012 (n = 178)...
May 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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