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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441215/does-low-dose-methotrexate-deserve-more-respect-from-clinicians
#1
Brent Luu, George W Rodway
Medical errors associated with low-dose methotrexate may be life-threatening. Prescribers should be cognizant of the medication's toxicities and the persistent challenges in preventing adverse events. This article reviews the properties of methotrexate and its common drug-drug interactions. Best practices from the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, aimed at reducing methotrexate errors, are highlighted.
May 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439915/treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-direct-acting-antivirals-in-patients-with-%C3%AE-thalassaemia-major-and-advanced-liver-disease
#2
Emmanouil Sinakos, Dimitrios Kountouras, John Koskinas, Kalliopi Zachou, Stylianos Karatapanis, Christos Triantos, Themistoklis Vassiliadis, Ioannis Goulis, Alexandra Kourakli, Efthymia Vlachaki, Barbara Toli, Maria Tampaki, Pinelopi Arvaniti, Georgios Tsiaoussis, Aristea Bellou, Antonis Kattamis, Konstantinos Maragkos, Foteini Petropoulou, George N Dalekos, Evangelos Akriviadis, George V Papatheodoridis
Interferon-based regimens for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) were often deferred in patients with β-thalasaemia major (β-TM) due to poor efficacy and tolerance. Current guidelines recommend direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of DAAs in patients with β-TM and advanced liver disease due to CHC. Patients were recruited from eight liver units in Greece. The stage of liver disease was assessed using transient elastography and/or liver histology...
April 25, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439135/assessment-of-direct-oral-anticoagulant-prescribing-and-monitoring-pre-and-post-implementation-of-a-pharmacy-protocol-at-a-community-teaching-hospital
#3
Christina Miele, Mary Taylor, Aditi Shah
Background: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become popular alternatives to vitamin K antagonists for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic diseases; however, there are limited data regarding the appropriate use of DOACs in clinical practice. To ensure safety and efficacy of these medications, it is important that decisions regarding their use in patients rely on the available evidence. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of DOAC prescribing in adult patients before and after the implementation of a pharmacist-driven DOAC protocol...
March 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437058/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-antipsychotic-drugs
#4
Sarah D Holder, Alaina L Edmunds, Sherri Morgan
Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and are used to manage psychosis as well as other mental illnesses that may or may not have psychotic features, such as bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are more likely to cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia. Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs typically are related to metabolic abnormalities such as weight gain, abnormal blood glucose levels, and elevated lipid levels...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434406/efavirenz-based-simplification-after-successful-early-lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-in-burkina-faso-and-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-the-monod-anrs-12206-non-inferiority-randomised-trial
#5
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Karen Malateste, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Malik Coulibaly, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Thomas Toni, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Caroline Yonaba, François Eboua, Philippe Lepage, Divine Avit, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Philippe Van de Perre, Sylvie N'Gbeche, Angèle Kalmogho, Roger Salamon, Nicolas Meda, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization guidelines recommend all children <3 years start antiretroviral therapy (ART) on protease inhibitor-based regimens. But lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) syrup has many challenges in low-income countries, including limited availability, requires refrigeration, interactions with anti-tuberculous drugs, twice-daily dosing, poor palatability in young children, and higher cost than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. Successfully initiating LPV/r-based ART in HIV-infected children aged <2 years raises operational challenges that could be simplified by switching to a protease inhibitor-sparing therapy based on efavirenz (EFV), although, to date, EFV is not recommended in children <3 years...
April 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431779/propranolol
#6
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Ahmed H H Bakheit, Hatem A Abdel Aziz, Fahad M Alajmi, Haitham AlRabiah
Propranolol is a noncardioselective β-blocker. It is reported to have membrane-stabilizing properties, but it does not own intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Propranolol hydrochloride is used to control hypertension, pheochromocytoma, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is also used to control symptoms of sympathetic overactivity in the management of hyperthyroidism, anxiety disorders, and tremor. Other indications cover the prophylaxis of migraine and of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431778/olmesartan
#7
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Ahmed H H Bakheit, Hatem A Abdel Aziz, Abdulelah A M Al-Jallal
Olmesartan is an angiotensin receptor blockers with actions similar to those of losartan; it is used for the treatment of high blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels for this reason blood can flow more easily. It could be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. This chapter gives a comprehensive profile of olmesartan, containing detailed nomenclature, formulae, elemental analysis, and appearance of the drug. In addition this chapter also describes several methods of synthesis and usage of the olmesartan...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429246/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-caspofungin-versus-micafungin-in-pediatric-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-analysis
#8
Natalia Maximova, Giulia Schillani, Roberto Simeone, Alessandra Maestro, Davide Zanon
INTRODUCTION: The high morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) provide the rationale for antifungal prophylaxis in immuno-compromised pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Caspofungin and micafungin are antifungal agents of interest for prophylaxis of IFIs because of their potency against Candida and minimal toxicity or interactions with other drugs. Few studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of such echinocandins as prophylaxis for IFIs in patients undergoing HSCT...
April 20, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426096/managing-the-sequence-specificity-of-antisense-oligonucleotides-in-drug-discovery
#9
Peter H Hagedorn, Bo R Hansen, Troels Koch, Morten Lindow
All drugs perturb the expression of many genes in the cells that are exposed to them. These gene expression changes can be divided into effects resulting from engaging the intended target and effects resulting from engaging unintended targets. For antisense oligonucleotides, developments in bioinformatics algorithms, and the quality of sequence databases, allow oligonucleotide sequences to be analyzed computationally, in terms of the predictability of their interactions with intended and unintended RNA targets...
March 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424965/assessment-of-drug-drug-interaction-potential-between-ceritinib-and-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-healthy-subjects-and-in-patients-with-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Yvonne Y Lau, Wen Gu, Tiffany Lin, Kalyanee Viraswami-Appanna, Can Cai, Jeffrey W Scott, Michael Shi
PURPOSE: The impact of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy of ceritinib was evaluated. METHODS: A healthy subject drug-drug interaction (DDI) study was conducted to assess the effect of esomeprazole on the PK of a single 750 mg dose of ceritinib. To further investigate the impact of PPIs on the PK and efficacy of ceritinib in ALK-positive cancer patients, two subgroup analyses were performed. Analysis 1 evaluated ceritinib steady-state trough concentration (Ctrough,ss) and overall response rate (ORR) by concomitant use of PPIs in patients from the ASCEND-1, -2, and -3 studies; analysis 2 evaluated ceritinib single-dose and steady-state AUC0-24h and C max by concomitant PPI use in patients from ASCEND-1 using a definition of PPI usage similar to that used in the healthy subject study...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423970/recent-advances-on-topical-antimicrobials-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-and-their-safety-concerns
#11
P L Lam, K K H Lee, R S M Wong, G Y M Cheng, Z X Bian, C H Chui, R Gambari
Antimicrobial resistance of disease-related microorganisms is considered a worldwide prevalent and serious issue which increases the failure of treatment outcomes and leads to high mortality. Considering that the increased resistance to systemic antimicrobial therapy often needs of the use of more toxic agents, topical antimicrobial therapy emerges as an attractive route for the treatment of infectious diseases. The topical antimicrobial therapy is based on the absorption of high drug doses in a readily accessible skin surface, resulting in a reduction of microbial proliferation at infected skin sites...
April 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420410/ethnopharmacologic-survey-of-medicinal-plants-used-to-treat-human-diseases-by-traditional-medical-practitioners-in-dega-damot-district-amhara-northwestern-ethiopia
#12
Muluken Wubetu, Tefera Abula, Getye Dejenu
BACKGROUND: One of the services that plants provide for human beings is their wider medicinal application. Although it is not fully assessed, the practice and wider use of traditional medicine is frequent in Ethiopia. Studies conducted previously are confined to the perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. A total of 45 informants were selected purposefully from the study area. For collecting the data, semi-structured interviewees, observation and field walks were employed from August 10 to September 30/2014...
April 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416195/pitavastatin-versus-pravastatin-in-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-and-dyslipidaemia-intrepid-12-week-and-52-week-results-of-a-phase-4-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-superiority-trial
#13
Judith A Aberg, Craig A Sponseller, Douglas J Ward, Vladimir A Kryzhanovski, Stuart E Campbell, Melanie A Thompson
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV and dyslipidaemia...
April 13, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412168/facilitating-translational-nanomedicine-via-predictive-safety-assessment
#14
REVIEW
Vahid Mirshafiee, Wen Jiang, Bingbing Sun, Xiang Wang, Tian Xia
Extensive research on engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has led to the development of numerous nano-based formulations for theranostic purposes. Although some nano-based drug delivery systems already exist on the market, growing numbers of newly designed ENMs exhibit improved physicochemical properties and are being assessed in preclinical stages. While these ENMs are designed to improve the efficacy of current nano-based therapeutic or imaging systems, it is necessary to thoroughly determine their safety profiles for successful clinical applications...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411872/induction-therapy-with-the-selective-interleukin-23-inhibitor-risankizumab-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-crohn-s-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-study
#15
Brian G Feagan, William J Sandborn, Geert D'Haens, Julián Panés, Arthur Kaser, Marc Ferrante, Edouard Louis, Denis Franchimont, Olivier Dewit, Ursula Seidler, Kyung-Jo Kim, Markus F Neurath, Stefan Schreiber, Paul Scholl, Chandrasena Pamulapati, Bojan Lalovic, Sudha Visvanathan, Steven J Padula, Ivona Herichova, Adina Soaita, David B Hall, Wulf O Böcher
BACKGROUND: The interleukin-23 pathway is implicated genetically and biologically in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of risankizumab (BI 655066, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany), a humanised monoclonal antibody targeting the p19 subunit of interleukin-23, in patients with moderately-to-severely active Crohn's disease. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study, we enrolled patients at 36 referral sites in North America, Europe, and southeast Asia...
April 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411013/physician-reported-factors-that-encourage-collaboration-with-community-pharmacists
#16
Nicole C Pezzino, Macary Weck Marciniak, Megan G Smith, Stefanie P Ferreri
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors that encourage physicians to establish collaborative practice agreements with community pharmacists. METHODS: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was mailed to a random sample of 1000 family medicine physicians practicing in North Carolina. Two weeks after the initial mailing, a reminder was sent to physicians. Physicians were entered into a drawing to receive a gift card as an incentive for survey completion. The questionnaire collected demographic information, factors important to physicians for collaboration with a community pharmacist, and physician perceptions of pharmacist qualifications...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409660/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-on-effectiveness-and-safety-of-celecoxib-adjunctive-therapy-in-adolescents-with-acute-bipolar-mania
#17
Seyed Yaser Mousavi, Rasoul Khezri, Mohammad-Ali Karkhaneh-Yousefi, Payam Mohammadinejad, Faezeh Gholamian, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Atefeh Zeinoddini, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have focused on the role of inflammatory cascades as one of the possible etiologic factors of bipolar disorder. We hypothesize that celecoxib, through its anti-inflammatory properties, may have a therapeutic role in acute bipolar mania. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two adolescent inpatients with the diagnosis of acute bipolar mania participated in a parallel, randomized, double-blind controlled trial, and 40 patients underwent an 8-week treatment with either celecoxib (100 mg twice daily) or placebo as an adjunctive treatment to lithium and risperidone...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409480/genetic-testing-for-opioid-pain-management-a-primer
#18
Deepti Agarwal, Mercy A Udoji, Andrea Trescot
Patients see their primary care physicians (PCPs) for a variety of medical conditions, chronic pain being one of the most common. An increased use of prescription medications (especially opioids) has led to an increase in adverse drug reactions and has heightened our awareness of the variability in response to medications. Opioids and other pain adjuvants are widely used, and drug-drug interactions involving these analgesics can be problematic and potentially lethal. Pharmacogenetics has improved our understanding of drug efficacy and response, opened doors to individual tailoring of medical management, and created a series of ethical and economic considerations...
April 13, 2017: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407449/drug-interactions-and-safety-profiles-with-concomitant-use-of-caspofungin-and-calcineurin-inhibitors-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#19
Mitsutaka Nishimoto, Hideo Koh, Atsushi Tokuwame, Yousuke Makuuchi, Masatomo Kuno, Teruhito Takakuwa, Hiroshi Okamura, Shiro Koh, Takuro Yoshimura, Satoru Nanno, Mika Nakamae, Asao Hirose, Yasuhiro Nakashima, Takahiko Nakane, Masayuki Hino, Hirohisa Nakamae
AIM: Small-scale clinical studies have reported on drug interactions between caspofungin (CPFG) and calcineurin inhibitors in healthy subjects; however, little is known about these interactions in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the drug interactions and safety profiles in allo-HCT recipients treated concomitantly with CPFG and calcineurin inhibitors. RESULTS: Ninety-one consecutive cases were evaluated...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405136/ifosfamide-induced-encephalopathy-precipitated-by-aprepitant-a-rarely-manifested-side-effect-of-drug-interaction
#20
Pritam Sureshchandra Kataria, Pradip Piraji Kendre, Apurva A Patel
Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity has been reported in approximately 10%-30% of patients receiving intravenous infusions of ifosfamide. Encephalopathy is a rare but serious CNS adverse reaction in these patients, and although usually transient and reversible, may cause persistent neurological dysfunction or death. Clinical features range from fatigue and confusion to coma and death. Ifosfamide forms backbone of various treatment regimens including curative treatment and palliative chemotherapy regimen. Precipitation of ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy (IIE) by aprepitant has been reported in the literature rarely...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
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