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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445527/enhanced-functional-connectivity-and-volume-between-cognitive-and-reward-centers-of-na%C3%A3-ve-rodent-brain-produced-by-pro-dopaminergic-agent-kb220z
#1
Marcelo Febo, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Pablo D Perez, Luis M Colon-Perez, Panayotis K Thanos, Craig F Ferris, Praveen Kulkarni, John Giordano, David Baron, Mark S Gold
Dopaminergic reward dysfunction in addictive behaviors is well supported in the literature. There is evidence that alterations in synchronous neural activity between brain regions subserving reward and various cognitive functions may significantly contribute to substance-related disorders. This study presents the first evidence showing that a pro-dopaminergic nutraceutical (KB220Z) significantly enhances, above placebo, functional connectivity between reward and cognitive brain areas in the rat. These include the nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate gyrus, anterior thalamic nuclei, hippocampus, prelimbic and infralimbic loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444635/the-leukocentric-theory-of-neurological-disorder-a-manifesto
#2
Robert Fern
Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contribution to disorders often considered to be largely focused in gray matter; for example, in stroke where ~49% of injury by volume is located in WM...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444556/thalamo-cortical-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#3
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Christine L Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Siren Tønnesen, Guido Biele, Anja Vaskinn, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The thalamus is a highly connected subcortical structure that relays and integrates sensory and cortical information, which is critical for coherent and accurate perceptual awareness and cognition. Thalamic dysfunction is a classical finding in schizophrenia (SZ), and resting-state functional MRI has implicated somatomotor and frontal lobe thalamic dysconnectivity. However, it remains unclear whether these findings generalize to different psychotic disorders, are confined to specific thalamic sub-regions, and how they relate to structural thalamic alterations...
April 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444077/chronic-critical-illness-are-we-saving-patients-or-creating-victims
#4
Sergio Henrique Loss, Diego Silva Leite Nunes, Oellen Stuani Franzosi, Gabriela Soranço Salazar, Cassiano Teixeira, Silvia Regina Rios Vieira
The technological advancements that allow support for organ dysfunction have led to an increase in survival rates for the most critically ill patients. Some of these patients survive the initial acute critical condition but continue to suffer from organ dysfunction and remain in an inflammatory state for long periods of time. This group of critically ill patients has been described since the 1980s and has had different diagnostic criteria over the years. These patients are known to have lengthy hospital stays, undergo significant alterations in muscle and bone metabolism, show immunodeficiency, consume substantial health resources, have reduced functional and cognitive capacity after discharge, create a sizable workload for caregivers, and present high long-term mortality rates...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443038/mother-infant-and-extra-dyadic-interactions-with-a-new-social-partner-developmental-trajectories-of-early-social-abilities-during-play
#5
Roberta Fadda, Loredana Lucarelli
Mother-infant interactions during feeding and play are pivotal experiences in the development of infants' early social abilities (Stern, 1985, 1995; Biringen, 2000). Stern indicated distinctive characteristics of mother-infant interactions, respectively, during feeding and play, suggesting to evaluate both to better describe the complexity of such early affective and social experiences (Stern, 1996). Moreover, during the first years of life, infants acquire cognitive and social skills that allow them to interact with new social partners in extra-dyadic interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442424/thioredoxin-is-not-a-marker-for-treatment-resistance-depression-but-associated-with-cognitive-function-an-rtms-study
#6
Efruz Pirdogan Aydın, Abdullah Genc, Mihriban Dalkıran, Ece Türkyilmaz Uyar, Ömer Akil Özer, Kayıhan Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu
Elevated oxidative stress is known to play an important role in development of depression and cognitive dysfunction. To date, thioredoxin (TRX), an antioxidant protein, has been investigated as a marker for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism but its relationship with depression is yet to be unknown. The aim of this study is to detect the TRX levels in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), analyse the effect of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) application on TRX levels and display the relationship of TRX with cognitive areas...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442406/anti-amnesic-effect-of-extract-and-alkaloid-fraction-from-aerial-parts-of-peganum-harmala-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-deficits-in-mice
#7
Wei Liu, Yudan Zhu, Yongli Wang, Shenglan Qi, Yuwen Wang, Chao Ma, Shuping Li, Bo Jiang, Xuemei Cheng, Zhengtao Wang, Zhenyu Xuan, Changhong Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aerial parts of Peganum harmala Linn (APP) is used as traditional medical herb for treatment of forgetfulness in Uighur medicine in China. But, the active ingredients and underlying mechanisms are unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to investigate the improvement effects of extract and alkaloid fraction from APP on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction and to elucidate their underlying mechanisms of action, and to support its folk use with scientific evidence, and lay a foundation for its further researches...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441964/fecal-metagenomic-profiles-in-subgroups-of-patients-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#8
Dorottya Nagy-Szakal, Brent L Williams, Nischay Mishra, Xiaoyu Che, Bohyun Lee, Lucinda Bateman, Nancy G Klimas, Anthony L Komaroff, Susan Levine, Jose G Montoya, Daniel L Peterson, Devi Ramanan, Komal Jain, Meredith L Eddy, Mady Hornig, W Ian Lipkin
BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by unexplained persistent fatigue, commonly accompanied by cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, lymphadenopathy, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The extent to which the gastrointestinal microbiome and peripheral inflammation are associated with ME/CFS remains unclear. We pursued rigorous clinical characterization, fecal bacterial metagenomics, and plasma immune molecule analyses in 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls frequency-matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic site, and season of sampling...
April 26, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441905/dopamine-dysregulation-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-relates-to-cognitive-deficits-in-the-sub-chronic-pcp-model-for-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-investigation
#9
Samantha L McLean, Michael K Harte, Joanna C Neill, Andrew Mj Young
RATIONALE: Dopamine dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Sub-chronic phencyclidine (scPCP) treatment produces cognitive impairments in rodents and is a thoroughly validated animal model for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of PFC dopamine in scPCP-induced deficits in a cognitive task of relevance to the disorder, novel object recognition (NOR). METHODS: Twelve adult female Lister Hooded rats received scPCP (2 mg/kg) or vehicle via the intraperitoneal route twice daily for 7 days, followed by 7 days washout...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441884/targeting-neuronal-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-with-nicotine-evidence-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#10
Jason Smucny, Jason R Tregellas
Patients with schizophrenia self-administer nicotine at rates higher than is self-administered for any other psychiatric illness. Although the reasons are unclear, one hypothesis suggests that nicotine is a form of 'self-medication' in order to restore normal levels of nicotinic signaling and target abnormalities in neuronal function associated with cognitive processes. This brief review discusses evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia patients that nicotinic agonists may effectively target dysfunctional neuronal circuits in the illness...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441758/acteoside-and-isoacteoside-protect-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-induced-cytotoxicity-cognitive-deficit-and-neurochemical-disturbances-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Young-Ji Shiao, Muh-Hwan Su, Hang-Ching Lin, Chi-Rei Wu
Acteoside and isoacteoside, two phenylethanoid glycosides, coexist in some plants. This study investigates the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of acteoside and isoacteoside in amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)-infused rats and Aβ 1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. It further elucidates the role of amyloid cascade and central neuronal function in these effects. Acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated cognitive deficits, decreased amyloid deposition, and reversed central cholinergic dysfunction that were caused by Aβ 1-42 in rats...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441649/home-based-physical-behavior-in-late-stage-parkinson-disease-dementia-differences-between-cognitive-subtypes
#12
Bernhard Cerff, Walter Maetzler, Patricia Sulzer, Malte Kampmeyer, Jos Prinzen, Markus A Hobert, Dominik Blum, Rob van Lummel, Silvia Del Din, Susanne Gräber, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
BACKGROUND: For the early diagnosis of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), objective home-based tools are needed to quantify even mild stages of dysfunction of the activities of daily living (ADL). OBJECTIVES: In this pilot study, home-based physical behavior was assessed to examine whether it is possible to distinguish mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) from PDD. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with mild to severe Parkinson disease (PD) participated in this cross-sectional study...
April 26, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440221/nptx2-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Mei-Fang Xiao, Desheng Xu, Michael T Craig, Kenneth A Pelkey, Chun-Che Chien, Yang Shi, Juhong Zhang, Susan Resnick, Olga Pletnikova, David Salmon, James Brewer, Steven Edland, Jerzy Wegiel, Benjamin Tycko, Alena Savonenko, Roger H Reeves, Juan C Troncoso, Chris J McBain, Douglas Galasko, Paul F Worley
Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is attributed to pervasive weakening and loss of synapses. Here, we present findings supporting a special role for excitatory synapses connecting pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex with fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons that control network excitability and rhythmicity. Excitatory synapses on PV interneurons are dependent on the AMPA receptor subunit GluA4, which is regulated by presynaptic expression of the synaptogenic immediate early gene NPTX2 by pyramidal neurons...
March 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437758/balance-impairment-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-without-concurrent-peripheral-neuropathy
#14
T Zanotto, S Gobbo, V Bullo, B Vendramin, F Duregon, L Cugusi, A Di Blasio, L Furian, C Silvestre, D Neunhaeuserer, M Zaccaria, M Bergamin, A Ermolao
Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) present with compromised functional capacity, low levels of physical activity, muscle atrophy, and peripheral nerve dysfunction that may result in high postural instability. This study aimed to compare the static balance control of 19 KTRs with 19 healthy adults (HA). All participants completed the Romberg test on a stabilometric platform with eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and during a dual task (DT) condition. Centre of pressure (COP) measures (COP velocity (COPv) and sway area (SA)), as well as position-based outcomes such as anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) ranges of COP displacements were recorded...
April 15, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437207/persistent-delirium-in-chronic-critical-illness-as-a-prodrome-syndrome-before-death
#15
Anna DeForest, Craig D Blinderman
BACKGROUND: Chronic critical illness (CCI) patients have poor functional outcomes, high risk of mortality, and significant sequelae, including delirium and cognitive dysfunction. The prognostic significance of persistent delirium in patients with CCI has not been well described. OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiac surgery who was hemodynamically stable following a long course in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CTICU), but had persistent and unremitting delirium...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437056/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-schizophrenia
#16
Alaina L Edmunds
Schizophrenia is the most common psychotic illness, typically appearing between the late teenage years and the mid-30s. The first episode of psychosis may be preceded by a prodromal period. Schizophrenia symptoms fall into six common symptom clusters: delusions and hallucinations, disorganization of speech, cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and motor system abnormalities. The diagnosis is based on criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, including exclusion of other possible medical or psychiatric etiologies of psychosis...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435670/type-1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-signaling-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Masanobu Kano, Takaki Watanabe
The cerebellum is a brain structure involved in coordination, control, and learning of movements, as well as certain aspects of cognitive function. Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons from the cerebellar cortex and therefore play crucial roles in the overall function of the cerebellum. The type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) is a key "hub" molecule that is critically involved in the regulation of synaptic wiring, excitability, synaptic response, and synaptic plasticity of Purkinje cells. In this review, we aim to highlight how mGluR1 controls these events in Purkinje cells...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435339/compulsive-exercise-links-risks-and-challenges-facedent
#18
REVIEW
Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Cecilie Juul Hinze, Bolette Emborg, Freja Thomsen, Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen
Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity), risks (negative consequences), and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context)...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435052/neurovascular-neuroenergetic-coupling-axis-in-the-brain-master-regulation-by-nitric-oxide-and-consequences-in-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#19
REVIEW
Cátia F Lourenço, Ana Ledo, Rui M Barbosa, João Laranjinha
The strict energetic demands of the brain require that nutrient supply and usage be fine-tuned in accordance with the specific temporal and spatial patterns of ever-changing levels of neuronal activity. This is achieved by adjusting local cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a function of activity level - neurovascular coupling - and by changing how energy substrates are metabolized and shuttled amongst astrocytes and neurons - neuroenergetic coupling. Both activity-dependent increase of CBF and O2 and glucose utilization by active neural cells are inextricably linked, establishing a functional metabolic axis in the brain, the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis...
April 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434616/impaired-tuning-of-neural-ensembles-and-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia-a-translational-and-computational-neuroscience-perspective
#20
REVIEW
John H Krystal, Alan Anticevic, Genevieve J Yang, George Dragoi, Naomi R Driesen, Xiao-Jing Wang, John D Murray
The functional optimization of neural ensembles is central to human higher cognitive functions. When the functions through which neural activity is tuned fail to develop or break down, symptoms and cognitive impairments arise. This review considers ways in which disturbances in the balance of excitation and inhibition might develop and be expressed in cortical networks in association with schizophrenia. This presentation is framed within a developmental perspective that begins with disturbances in glutamate synaptic development in utero...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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