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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108946/in-vivo-neuroimaging-and-behavioral-correlates-in-a-rat-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-dysfunction
#1
Robert L Barry, Nellie E Byun, M Noor Tantawy, Chase A Mackey, George H Wilson, Adam J Stark, Michael P Flom, Laura C Gee, C Chad Quarles
Adjuvant chemotherapy has been used for decades to treat cancer, and it is well known that disruptions in cognitive function and memory are common chemotherapeutic adverse effects. However, studies using neuropsychological metrics have also reported group differences in cognitive function and memory before or without chemotherapy, suggesting that complex factors obscure the true etiology of chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction (CICD) in humans. Therefore, to better understand possible mechanisms of CICD, we explored the effects of CICD in rats through cognition testing using novel object recognition (NOR) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC), and through metabolic neuroimaging via [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108394/unsmoothed-functional-mri-of-the-human-amygdala-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-during-processing-of-emotional-faces
#2
Ronald Sladky, Nicole Geissberger, Daniela M Pfabigan, Christoph Kraus, Martin Tik, Michael Woletz, Katharina Paul, Thomas Vanicek, Bastian Auer, Georg S Kranz, Claus Lamm, Rupert Lanzenberger, Christian Windischberger
Functional neuroimaging of the human amygdala has been of great interest to uncover the neural underpinnings of emotions, mood, motivation, social cognition, and decision making, as well as their dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Yet, several factors limit in vivo imaging of amygdalar function, most importantly its location deep within the temporal lobe adjacent to air-filled cavities that cause magnetic field inhomogeneities entailing signal dropouts. Additionally, the amygdala and the extended amygdalar region consist of several substructures, which have been assigned different functions and have important implications for functional and effective connectivity studies...
January 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108263/anxiety-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Nadeeka N W Dissanayaka, Rachael A Lawson, Alison J Yarnall, Gordon W Duncan, David P Breen, Tien K Khoo, Roger A Barker, David J Burn
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are prevalent non-motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD). While few studies have demonstrated a possible link between cognitive dysfunction and anxiety in PD, to our knowledge, no studies have directly examined the association between them. This study investigated the association between anxiety and cognitive deficits in newly diagnosed PD patients. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed PD (N = 185) were recruited from community and outpatient clinics...
January 4, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108207/cognitive-impairment-is-very-common-in-elderly-patients-with-syncope-and-unexplained-falls
#4
Susanne C de Ruiter, Jos F M de Jonghe, Tjeerd Germans, Jaap H Ruiter, René W M M Jansen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI), including mild CI and dementia, in elderly patients with syncope and unexplained falls. In this population, we compared the use of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with a cognitive screening test that assesses executive dysfunction typical of subcortical (vascular) CI, that is, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient fall and syncope clinic...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107668/neurotrophins-role-in-depressive-symptoms-and-executive-function-performance-association-analysis-of-nrn1-gene-and-its-interaction-with-bdnf-gene-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#5
C Prats, B Arias, G Ortet, M I Ibáñez, J Moya, E Pomarol-Clotet, L Fañanás, M Fatjó-Vilas
BACKGROUND: Neuritin-1 is a neurotrophic factor involved in synaptic plasticity that has been associated with depressive disorders, schizophrenia and cognitive performance. The study of genotype-phenotype relationships in healthy individuals is a useful framework to investigate the etiology of brain dysfunctions. We therefore aimed to investigate in a non-clinical sample whether NRN1 gene contributes to the psychopathological profile, with a particular focus on the clinical dimensions previously related to the NRN1 gene (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107480/drosophila-vps13-is-required-for-protein-homeostasis-in-the-brain
#6
Jan J Vonk, Wondwossen M Yeshaw, Francesco Pinto, Anita I E Faber, Liza L Lahaye, Bart Kanon, Marianne van der Zwaag, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Raimundo Freire, Sven C van IJzendoorn, Nicola A Grzeschik, Ody C M Sibon
Chorea-Acanthocytosis is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of locomotor and cognitive function. It is caused by loss of function mutations in the Vacuolar Protein Sorting 13A (VPS13A) gene, which is conserved from yeast to human. The consequences of VPS13A dysfunction in the nervous system are still largely unspecified. In order to study the consequences of VPS13A protein dysfunction in the ageing central nervous system we characterized a Drosophila melanogaster Vps13 mutant line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106557/blunted-respiratory-responses-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-rat-model
#7
Dalton L Ebel, Christopher G Torkilsen, Tim D Ostrowski
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known for the progressive decline of cognition and memory. In addition to these disease-defining symptoms, impairment of respiratory function is frequently observed and often expressed by sleep-disordered breathing or reduced ability to adjust respiration when oxygen demand is elevated. The mechanisms for this are widely unknown. Postmortem analysis from the brainstem of AD patients reveals pathological alterations, including in nuclei responsible for respiratory control. In this study, we analyzed respiratory responses and morphological changes in brainstem nuclei following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of streptozotocin (STZ), a rat model commonly used to mimic sporadic AD...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106060/brain-microvasculature-defects-and-glut1-deficiency-syndrome-averted-by-early-repletion-of-the-glucose-transporter-1-protein
#8
Maoxue Tang, Guangping Gao, Carlos B Rueda, Hang Yu, David N Thibodeaux, Tomoyuki Awano, Kristin M Engelstad, Maria-Jose Sanchez-Quintero, Hong Yang, Fanghua Li, Huapeng Li, Qin Su, Kara E Shetler, Lynne Jones, Ryan Seo, Jonathan McConathy, Elizabeth M Hillman, Jeffrey L Noebels, Darryl C De Vivo, Umrao R Monani
Haploinsufficiency of the SLC2A1 gene and paucity of its translated product, the glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) protein, disrupt brain function and cause the neurodevelopmental disorder, Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). There is little to suggest how reduced Glut1 causes cognitive dysfunction and no optimal treatment for Glut1 DS. We used model mice to demonstrate that low Glut1 protein arrests cerebral angiogenesis, resulting in a profound diminution of the brain microvasculature without compromising the blood-brain barrier...
January 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105719/allostatic-load-and-biological-anthropology
#9
Ashley N Edes, Douglas E Crews
Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104338/prevalence-and-determinants-of-insomnia-after-a-myocardial-infarction
#10
Deborah Da Costa, Ava-Ann Allman, Eva Libman, Philip Desormeau, Ilka Lowensteyn, Steven Grover
BACKGROUND: This study analyzed cross-sectional data to examine the prevalence of insomnia and to identify factors associated with insomnia after a myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: The participants were 209 individuals with a recent MI. At approximately 5 weeks post-MI, participants completed standardized self-report measures assessing insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index) and various sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial variables, including stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep...
November 8, 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103961/a-review-of-altered-biochemistry-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-first-episode-psychosis
#11
L Squarcina, J A Stanley, M Bellani, C A Altamura, P Brambilla
Relevant biochemicals of the brain can be quantified in vivo, non-invasively, using proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (¹H MRS). This includes metabolites associated with neural general functioning, energetics, membrane phospholipid metabolism and neurotransmission. Moreover, there is substantial evidence of implication of the frontal and prefrontal areas in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. In particular, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in cognitive control of emotional and non-emotional processes...
January 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103593/executive-dysfunction-and-behavioral-symptoms-are-associated-with-deficits-in-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#12
Negar Moheb, Mario F Mendez, Sarah A Kremen, Edmond Teng
BACKGROUND: Deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs) may be more prominent in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) than in nonfluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) or semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA). It is uncertain whether frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subgroups exhibit different patterns and/or predictors of functional impairment. METHODS: We examined data from participants diagnosed with bvFTD (n = 607), svPPA (n = 132), and nfvPPA (n = 155) who were included in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Uniform Data Set (UDS) and assessed with the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ)...
January 20, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102493/a-meta-analysis-of-working-memory-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Ya Wang, Yi-Bing Zhang, Lu-Lu Liu, Ji-Fang Cui, Jing Wang, David H K Shum, Therese van Amelsvoort, Raymond C K Chan
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by executive dysfunction, and working memory (WM) comprises one core component of executive function. Many studies have investigated WM impairments in individuals with ASD, however, a conclusive agreement has not been reached. The present study provided a meta-analytic review of WM impairments in individuals with ASD and evaluated potential moderating variables of this problem. Twenty-eight studies were included in this study, and the participants comprised 819 individuals with ASD and 875 healthy controls...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102227/singular-location-and-signaling-profile-of-adenosine-a2a-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-heteromers-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#14
Estefanía Moreno, Anna Chiarlone, Mireia Medrano, Mar Puigdellívol, Lucka Bibic, Lesley A Howell, Eva Resel, Nagore Puente, María J Casarejos, Juan Perucho, Joaquín Botta, Nuria Suelves, Francisco Ciruela, Silvia Ginés, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Vicent Casadó, Pedro Grandes, Beat Lutz, Krisztina Monory, Enric I Canela, Carmen Lluís, Peter J McCormick, Manuel Guzmán
The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A2AR and CB1R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A2AR-CB1R heteromeric complexes...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101151/effect-of-general-anesthesia-on-serum-%C3%AE-amyloid-protein-and-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-of-elderly-patients-after-subtotal-gastrectomy
#15
Peng Yu, Hua Wang, Lei Mu, Xuemei Ding, Wei Ding
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of general anesthesia on serum β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) of elderly patients after subtotal gastrectomy. From June, 2014 to December, 2015, among 168 patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment was administered the day prior to surgery and the second and ninth days after the operation. In addition, we administered the tests to 168 healthy adult volunteers (healthy controls) who were treated in our hospital medical center in the same period...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100843/pathophysiology-and-molecular-basis-of-selected-metabolic-abnormalities-in-huntington-s-disease
#16
Jolanta Krzysztoń-Russjan
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, devastating neurodegenerative disease with a known genetic background and autosomally dominant inheritance pattern. HTT gene mutation (mHTT) is associated with polymorphic fragment elongation above 35 repeats of the CAG triplet. The mHTT product is an altered protein with a poly-Q elongated fragment, with the highest expression determined in the central nervous system (CNS) and with differentiated expression outside the CNS. A drastic loss of striatal and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex neurons was determined in the CNS, but muscle and body weight mass loss with dysfunction of many organs was also observed...
December 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099507/correlations-of-behavioral-deficits-with-brain-pathology-assessed-through-longitudinal-mri-and-histopathology-in-the-hdhq150-q150-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#17
Ivan Rattray, Edward J Smith, William R Crum, Thomas A Walker, Richard Gale, Gillian P Bates, Michel Modo
A variety of mouse models have been developed that express mutant huntingtin (mHTT) leading to aggregates and inclusions that model the molecular pathology observed in Huntington's disease. Here we show that although homozygous HdhQ150 knock-in mice developed motor impairments (rotarod, locomotor activity, grip strength) by 36 weeks of age, cognitive dysfunction (swimming T maze, fear conditioning, odor discrimination, social interaction) was not evident by 94 weeks. Concomitant to behavioral assessments, T2-weighted MRI volume measurements indicated a slower striatal growth with a significant difference between wild type (WT) and HdhQ150 mice being present even at 15 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099209/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity
#18
Laura Patriarca, Greta Magerowski, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review examines recent advances in the use of functional neuroimaging to study human obesity, a field that is rapidly expanding and continues to be of paramount importance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition. With rising levels of obesity worldwide and limited therapeutic options, there is a great need for the development of new solutions that can benefit patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies that utilize functional neuroimaging are beginning to shed light on the nature of behavioral and neurocognitive dysfunctions previously identified in individuals with obesity...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098692/postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-low-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-is-this-relationship-fragile-or-fractured-altogether
#19
Hilary P Grocott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098510/dt-mri-microstructural-cortical-lesion-damage-does-not-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-ms
#20
Paolo Preziosa, Elisabetta Pagani, Maria E Morelli, Massimiliano Copetti, Vittorio Martinelli, Fiammetta Pirro, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: We combined double inversion recovery (DIR) and diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify the severity of cortical lesion (CL) microstructural tissue abnormalities in a large cohort of relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and its contribution to cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: DIR, DT, dual-echo, and three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted scans were acquired from 149 MS patients and 40 controls. Cognitively impaired (CI) patients had ⩾2 abnormal neuropsychological tests...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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