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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783076/disrupted-reward-and-cognitive-control-networks-contribute-to-anhedonia-in-depression
#1
Liang Gong, Cancan He, Haisan Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Zhijun Zhang, Chunming Xie
Neuroimaging studies have identified that anhedonia, a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), is associated with dysfunction in reward and cognitive control processing. However, it is still not clear how the reward network (β-network) and the cognitive control network (δ-network) are linked to biased anhedonia in MDD patients. Sixty-eight MDD patients and 64 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A 2*2 ANCOVA analysis was used to explore the differences in the nucleus accumbens-based, voxelwise functional connectivity (FC) between the groups...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782957/the-role-of-monoamines-in-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-neuroprotective-effect-of-a-proline-rich-polypeptide
#2
Konstantin Yenkoyan, Katarine Fereshetyan, Senik Matinyan, Vergine Chavushyan, Michail Aghajanov
INTRODUCTION: We have analyzed the alterations in the brain monoaminergic system using the rat model of AD-like pathology. In addition, we have investigated potential neuroprotective effects of the hypothalamic proline-rich polypeptide (PRP-1). METHODS: Histochemical staining, HPLC, chemiluminescent and bioluminescence assays. RESULTS: The levels of monoamines in the target AD brain structures were found elevated, except serotonin, which was unaffected in both hippocampus and brainstem and decreased in frontal cortex...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782908/deficits-in-temporal-order-memory-induced-by-interferon-alpha-ifn-%C3%AE-treatment-are-rescued-by-aerobic-exercise
#3
Sally Barlow, Briana Fahey, Kimberley J Smith, Johannes Passecker, Andrea Della-Chiesa, Vincent Hok, Jennifer S Day, Charlotte K Callaghan, Shane M O'Mara
Patients receiving cytokine immunotherapy with IFN-α frequently present with neuropsychiatric consequences and cognitive impairments, including a profound depressive-like symptomatology. While the neurobiological substrates of the dysfunction that leads to adverse events in IFN-α-treated patients remains ill-defined, dysfunctions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are strong possibilities. To date, hippocampal deficits have been well-characterised; there does however remain a lack of insight into the nature of prefrontal participation...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782905/pathology-of-nnos-expressing-gabaergic-neurons-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Seungho Choi, Je-Seong Won, Steven L Carroll, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that is often accompanied by mood and emotional disturbances and seizures. There is growing body of evidence that neurons expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in regulation of cognition, mood, and emotion as well as seizure susceptibility, but participation of GABAergic neuronal pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not understood well at present. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein Swedish-Deutch-Iowa mutant (APPSweDI ) exhibit early loss of neurons expressing GAD67, a GABA synthesizing enzyme, in advance to the loss of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 region...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782389/development-of-a-novel-self-administered-cognitive-assessment-tool-and-normative-data-for-older-adults
#5
Raphael J Monsch, Amélie C Burckhardt, Manfred Berres, Alessandra E Thomann, Michael M Ehrensperger, Luzius A Steiner, Nicolai Goettel
BACKGROUND: Preexisting cognitive impairment in surgical patients is one of the leading risk factors for adverse cognitive outcomes such as postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. We developed a self-administered tablet computer application intended to assess the individual risk for adverse postoperative cognitive outcomes. This cross-sectional study aimed to establish normative data for the tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy volunteers aged 65 years and above were administered the Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Assessment Battery to assess cognitive health...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782323/role-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Zhiyou Cai, Pei-Feng Qiao, Cheng-Qun Wan, Min Cai, Nan-Kai Zhou, Qin Li
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). BBB is a highly selective semipermeable structural and chemical barrier which ensures a stable internal environment of the brain and prevents foreign objects invading the brain tissue. BBB dysfunction induces the failure of Aβ transport from brain to the peripheral circulation across the BBB. Especially, decreased levels of LRP-1 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) and increased levels of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) at the BBB can cause the failure of Aβ transport...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781405/changes-of-hippocampus-proteomic-profiles-after-blueberry-extracts-supplementation-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#7
Hai-Qiang Li, Long Tan, Hong-Peng Yang, Wei Pang, Tong Xu, Yu-Gang Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To examine protein changes in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice after blueberry extracts (BB) intervention. METHODS: Eight APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to Alzheimer's disease (AD)+BB group (n=4) and AD+control group (n=4). After a 16-week treatment, 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS were used to compare the proteomic profiles of the hippocampus in the two groups and Western blot was used to confirm the important differentially expressed proteins...
May 21, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781201/neuropsychological-and-self-reporting-outcomes-following-rehabilitation-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-survivors-of-breast-cancer-a-pilot-study-involving-survivor-partner-dyads
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780970/three-challenges-for-future-research-on-cochlear-implants
#9
REVIEW
David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Michael S Harris, Aaron C Moberly
Cochlear implants (CIs) often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL) hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780353/normal-performance-in-non-visual-social-cognition-tasks-in-women-with-turner-syndrome
#10
David Anaki, Tal Zadikov-Mor, Vardit Gepstein, Ze'ev Hochberg
Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder in women resulting from a partial or complete absence of the X chromosome. In addition to physical and hormonal dysfunctions, along with a unique neurocognitive profile, women with TS are reported to suffer from social functioning difficulties. Yet, it is unclear whether these difficulties stem from impairments in social cognition per se or from other deficits that characterize TS but are not specific to social cognition. Previous research that has probed social functioning in TS is equivocal regarding the source of these psychosocial problems since they have mainly used tasks that were dependent on visual-spatial skills, which are known to be compromised in TS...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780145/reversible-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-successfully-treated-with-aggressive-immunosuppressive-therapy
#11
Yuya Fujita, Shoichi Fukui, Midori Ishida, Yushiro Endo, Sosuke Tsuji, Ayuko Takatani, Takashi Igawa, Toshimasa Shimizu, Masataka Umeda, Remi Sumiyoshi, Ayako Nishino, Tomohiro Koga, Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Naoki Iwamoto, Kunihiro Ichinose, Mami Tamai, Hideki Nakamura, Tomoki Origuchi, Atsushi Kawakami
A 70-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital with gait disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. Since she had arthritis, leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypocomplementemia, and anti-nuclear and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral hyperintensities in the putamen. Based on her cognitive impairment, muscle rigidity, and high levels of interleukin-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid, we believed she had developed a complication of a neuropsychiatric disease and administered corticosteroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779876/linear-self-motion-cues-support-the-spatial-distribution-and-stability-of-hippocampal-place-cells
#12
Ryan E Harvey, Stephanie A Rutan, Gabrielle R Willey, Jennifer J Siegel, Benjamin J Clark, Ryan M Yoder
The vestibular system provides a crucial component of place-cell and head-direction cell activity [1-7]. Otolith signals are necessary for head-direction signal stability and associated behavior [8, 9], and the head-direction signal's contribution to parahippocampal spatial representations [10-14] suggests that place cells may also require otolithic information. Here, we demonstrate that self-movement information from the otolith organs is necessary for the development of stable place fields within and across sessions...
May 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779818/fighting-obesity-non-pharmacological-interventions
#13
María Fernanda Higuera-Hernández, Elena Reyes-Cuapio, Marissa Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, André Barciela Veras, Henning Budde, Johanna Jesse, Jaime Zaldívar-Rae, Carlos Blanco-Centurión, Sérgio Machado, Eric Murillo-Rodríguez
The abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that impairs health is one of the criteria that fulfills obesity. According to epidemiological data, obesity has become a worldwide public health problem that in turn would trigger additional pathologies such as cardiorespiratory dysfunctions, cancer, gastrointestinal disturbances, depression, sleep disorders, just to mention a few. Then, the search for a therapeutical intervention aimed to prevent and manage obesity has been the focus of study during the last years...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779116/a-holistic-approach-to-factors-affecting-depression-in-haemodialysis-patients
#14
REVIEW
Georgia Gerogianni, Anastasios Kouzoupis, Eirini Grapsa
Depression in dialysis populations is affected by co-morbid diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and immune dysfunction, and it also includes high suicide risk and frequent hospitalizations. Depressive disorders have a close association with malnutrition and chronic inflammation, as well as with cognitive impairment. Impaired cognitive function may be manifested as low adherence to dialysis treatment, leading to malnutrition. Additionally, chronic pain and low quality of sleep lead to high rates of depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients, while an untreated depression can cause sleep disturbances and increased mortality risk...
May 19, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778918/cognitive-mechanisms-of-sleep-outcomes-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia
#15
Philip I Chow, Karen S Ingersoll, Frances P Thorndike, Holly R Lord, Linda Gonder-Frederick, Charles M Morin, Lee M Ritterband
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate in a randomized clinical trial the role of sleep-related cognitive variables in the long-term efficacy of an online, fully automated cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for insomnia (CBT-I) (Sleep Healthy Using the Internet [SHUTi]). METHOD: Three hundred and three participants (Mage  = 43.3 years; SD = 11.6) were randomly assigned to SHUTi or an online patient education condition and assessed at baseline, postintervention (nine weeks after baseline), and six and 12 months after the intervention period...
December 20, 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778804/emotion-introspection-and-regulation-in-depression
#16
Uwe Herwig, Sarah Opialla, Katja Cattapan, Thomas C Wetter, Lutz Jäncke, Annette B Brühl
Depressed patients suffer from an impairment to voluntarily influence and regulate their unpleasant emotional state. Strengthening the mental ability to interfere with dysfunctional emotion processing may be beneficial in treating depression. According to models of emotion processing this may be done by successful down-regulation of enhanced amygdala activity. We investigated short periods of intentional emotion-introspection compared with cognitive self-reflection as two domains of self-awareness in terms of effects on emotion regulation...
May 9, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777676/cognitive-effects-of-rhythmic-auditory-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-p300-study
#17
Juan Lei, Nadine Conradi, Cornelius Abel, Stefan Frisch, Alla Brodski-Guerniero, Marcel Hildner, Christian A Kell, Jochen Kaiser, Maren Schmidt-Kassow
Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) may compensate dysfunctions of the basal ganglia (BG), involved with intrinsic evaluation of temporal intervals and action initiation or continuation. In the cognitive domain, RAS containing periodically presented tones facilitates young healthy participants' attention allocation to anticipated time points, indicated by better performance and larger P300 amplitudes to periodic compared to random stimuli. Additionally, active auditory-motor synchronization (AMS) leads to a more precise temporal encoding of stimuli via embodied timing encoding than stimulus presentation adapted to the participants' actual movements...
May 16, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777461/hiv-aids-and-an-overweight-body-mass-are-associated-with-excessive-intra-individual-variability-in-response-preparation
#18
Lance O Bauer
Factors other than HIV/AIDS may influence the cognitive function of patients living with this disease. The present study tested the influence of a common comorbid problem-an overweight body mass. It also examined intra-task variabilities in performance and brain activation as potentially more sensitive indicators of dysfunction than their mean levels. One-hundred seventy-eight participants were recruited and categorized by HIV-1 serostatus (-/+) and body mass (BMI < 26/≥ 26 kg/m2 ). They performed a simple time estimation task during which response time accuracy and electroencephalographic readiness potentials were recorded...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776894/amyloid-pet-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-dementia
#19
V Camacho, A Gómez-Grande, P Sopena, D García-Solís, M Gómez Río, C Lorenzo, S Rubí, J Arbizu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss, and is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid plaques with neurofibrillary tangles are a neuropathological hallmark of AD that produces synaptic dysfunction and culminates later in neuronal loss. Amyloid PET is a useful, available and non-invasive technique that provides in vivo information about the cortical amyloid burden. In the latest revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD biomarkers were defined and integrated: pathological and diagnostic biomarkers (increased retention on fibrillar amyloid PET or decreased Aβ1-42 and increased T-Tau or P-Tau in CSF) and neurodegeneration or topographical biomarkers (temporoparietal hypometabolism on 18 F-FDG PET and temporal atrophy on MRI)...
May 15, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776623/nonrestorative-sleep-in-healthy-young-adults-without-insomnia-associations-with-executive-functioning-fatigue-and-pre-sleep-arousal
#20
Ruben Tinajero, Paula G Williams, Matthew R Cribbet, Holly K Rau, Daniel L Bride, Yana Suchy
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that nonrestorative sleep (NRS), even in the absence of insomnia symptoms or other sleep disorders, may be associated with daytime dysfunction. This study examined the association between NRS and daytime dysfunction in healthy adults screened for insomnia and sleep apnea. DESIGN: Multi-day assessment approach. SETTING: Community-based adults and college students. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy young adults without insomnia and sleep apnea (n = 79; 68% female, mean age = 27...
June 2018: Sleep Health
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