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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542258/bycatch-in-the-maldivian-pole-and-line-tuna-fishery
#1
Kelsey I Miller, Ibrahim Nadheeh, A Riyaz Jauharee, R Charles Anderson, M Shiham Adam
Tropical tuna fisheries are among the largest worldwide, with some having significant bycatch issues. However, pole-and-line tuna fisheries are widely believed to have low bycatch rates, although these have rarely been quantified. The Maldives has an important pole-and-line fishery, targeting skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). In the Maldives, 106 pole-and-line tuna fishing days were observed between August 2014 and November 2015. During 161 fishing events, tuna catches amounted to 147 t: 72% by weight was skipjack, 25% yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and 3% other tunas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528412/bioindicators-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-the-sea-of-okhotsk-and-the-western-bering-sea
#2
Vasiliy Yu Tsygankov, Margarita D Boyarova, Olga N Lukyanova, Nadezhda K Khristoforova
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515870/behavioral-responses-to-encounter-of-fishing-boats-in-wandering-albatrosses
#3
Julien Collet, Samantha C Patrick, Henri Weimerskirch
Animals are attracted to human food subsidies worldwide. The behavioral response of individuals to these resources is rarely described in detail, beyond chances of encounters. Seabirds for instance scavenge in large numbers at fishing boats, triggering crucial conservation issues, but how the response to boats varies across encounters is poorly known. Here we examine the behavioral response of wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans), equipped with GPS tags, to longline fishing boats operating near their colony for which we had access to vessel monitoring system data...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515469/the-topobiology-of-chemical-elements-in-seabird-feathers
#4
Nicholas R Howell, Jennifer L Lavers, Sayaka Uematsu, David Paterson, Daryl L Howard, Kathryn Spiers, Martin D de Jonge, Tracey Hanley, Richard Garrett, Richard B Banati
The highly organized morphogenesis of bird feathers holds important phylo- and ontogenetic information on the evolution of birds, organogenesis, tissue regeneration, and the health status of individual animals. Altered topobiological patterns are regularly used as retrospective evidence for disturbed developmental trajectories due to the past exposure to environmental stressors. Using the most advanced high-resolution (5-70 µm) X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM), we describe in the feathers from three species of Procellariiformes hitherto unknown, depositions of elements (Zn, Ca, Br, Cu, Fe) that are independent of pigmentation or any underlying variation in density or polymer structure...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506428/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-heavy-metals-in-the-cispata-bay-colombia-a-marine-tropical-ecosystem
#5
Saudith Burgos-Núñez, Amado Navarro-Frómeta, José Marrugo-Negrete, Germán Enamorado-Montes, Iván Urango-Cárdenas
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were evaluated in shallow sediments, water, fish and seabird samples from the Cispata Bay, Colombia. The heavy metals concentrations in the sediment was in the following order: Cu>Pb>Hg>Cd. The heavy metal concentration was different (p<0.05) in juvenile and adult birds. High concentrations of mercury were registered in the seabird (10.19±4.99mgkg(-1)) and fish (0.67μgg(-1)) samples. The total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 7...
May 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503374/sooty-tern-onychoprion-fuscatus-survival-oil-spills-shrimp-fisheries-and-hurricanes
#6
Ryan M Huang, Oron L Bass, Stuart L Pimm
Migratory seabirds face threats from climate change and a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Although most seabird research has focused on the ecology of individuals at the colony, technological advances now allow researchers to track seabird movements at sea and during migration. We combined telemetry data on Onychoprion fuscatus (sooty terns) with a long-term capture-mark-recapture dataset from the Dry Tortugas National Park to map the movements at sea for this species, calculate estimates of mortality, and investigate the impact of hurricanes on a migratory seabird...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489902/disturbance-of-a-rare-seabird-by-ship-based-tourism-in-a-marine-protected-area
#7
Timothy K Marcella, Scott M Gende, Daniel D Roby, Arthur Allignol
Managers of marine protected areas (MPAs) must often seek ways to allow for visitation while minimizing impacts to the resources they are intended to protect. Using shipboard observers, we quantified the "zone of disturbance" for Kittlitz's and marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris and B. marmoratus) exposed to large cruise ships traveling through Glacier Bay National Park, one of the largest MPAs in North America. In the upper reaches of Glacier Bay, where Kittlitz's murrelets predominated, binary logistic regression models predicted that 61% of all murrelets within 850 m perpendicular distance of a cruise ship were disturbed (defined as flushing or diving), whereas in the lower reaches, where marbled murrelets predominated, this percentage increased to 72%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480009/plasticity-results-in-delayed-breeding-in-a-long-distant-migrant-seabird
#8
F Stephen Dobson, Peter H Becker, Coline M Arnaud, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne Charmantier
A major question for conservationists and evolutionary biologists is whether natural populations can adapt to rapid environmental change through micro-evolution or phenotypic plasticity. Making use of 17 years of data from a colony of a long-distant migratory seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo), we examined phenotypic plasticity and the evolutionary potential of breeding phenology, a key reproductive trait. We found that laying date was strongly heritable (0.27 ± 0.09) and under significant fecundity selection for earlier laying...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475653/a-long-term-retrospective-study-on-rehabilitation-of-seabirds-in-gran-canaria-island-spain-2003-2013
#9
Natalia Montesdeoca, Pascual Calabuig, Juan A Corbera, Jorge Orós
AIMS: The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC) in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process. METHODS: We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive) in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout), fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469021/fathers-matter-male-body-mass-affects-life-history-traits-in-a-size-dimorphic-seabird
#10
Tina Cornioley, Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Luca Börger, Henri Weimerskirch, Arpat Ozgul
One of the predicted consequences of climate change is a shift in body mass distributions within animal populations. Yet body mass, an important component of the physiological state of an organism, can affect key life-history traits and consequently population dynamics. Over the past decades, the wandering albatross-a pelagic seabird providing bi-parental care with marked sexual size dimorphism-has exhibited an increase in average body mass and breeding success in parallel with experiencing increasing wind speeds...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460236/trophic-ecology-drives-contaminant-concentrations-within-a-tropical-seabird-community
#11
Manrico Sebastiano, Paco Bustamante, Igor Eulaers, Govindan Malarvannan, Paula Mendez-Fernandez, Carine Churlaud, Pierre Blévin, Antoine Hauselmann, Adrian Covaci, Marcel Eens, David Costantini, Olivier Chastel
To support environmental management programs, there is an urgent need to know about the presence and understand the dynamics of major contaminants in seabird communities of key marine ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and trophodynamics of trace elements in six seabird species and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in three seabird species breeding on Grand Connétable Island (French Guiana), an area where the increase in human population and mining activities has raised concerns in recent years...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458244/cadmium-lead-and-bromine-in-beached-microplastics
#12
Angelo Massos, Andrew Turner
Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441596/individual-variation-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-relation-to-stable-isotope-ratios-sex-reproductive-phase-and-oxidative-status-in-scopoli-s-shearwaters-calonectris-diomedea-from-the-southern-mediterranean
#13
David Costantini, Manrico Sebastiano, Martina S Müller, Igor Eulaers, Per Ambus, Govindan Malarvannan, Adrian Covaci, Bruno Massa, Giacomo Dell'Omo
Little is known about the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and its consequences for seabirds in the Mediterranean basin. We characterised the plasma contaminant profile (polychlorinated biphenyls ΣPCBs; organochlorine pesticides ΣOCPs; polybrominated diphenyl ethers ΣPBDEs) of a population of the seabird Scopoli's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) that breeds in the southern Mediterranean (Linosa Island) and investigated (i) whether sex, stable isotope ratios (related to diet), reproductive phase (early incubation vs...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431744/incidence-of-marine-debris-in-seabirds-feeding-at-different-water-depths
#14
D C Tavares, J F de Moura, A Merico, S Siciliano
Marine debris such as plastic fragments and fishing gears are accumulating in the ocean at alarming rates. This study assesses the incidence of debris in the gastrointestinal tracts of seabirds feeding at different depths and found stranded along the Brazilian coast in the period 2010-2013. More than half (55%) of the species analysed, corresponding to 16% of the total number of individuals, presented plastic particles in their gastrointestinal tracts. The incidence of debris was higher in birds feeding predominantly at intermediate (3-6m) and deep (20-100m) waters than those feeding at surface (<2m)...
April 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431743/opportunistic-sampling-to-quantify-plastics-in-the-diet-of-unfledged-black-legged-kittiwakes-rissa-tridactyla-northern-fulmars-fulmarus-glacialis-and-great-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo
#15
Heidi Acampora, Stephen Newton, Ian O'Connor
Seabirds can interact with marine litter, mainly by entanglement or ingestion. The ingestion of plastics can lead to starvation or physical damage to the digestive tract. For chicks, it could additionally lead to reduced growth, affecting survival and fledging. This study quantified the ingestion of plastics by seabird chicks via an opportunistic sampling strategy. When ringing is carried out at colonies, birds may spontaneously regurgitate their stomach contents due to the stress or as a defence mechanism...
April 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410026/variation-in-growth-drives-the-duration-of-parental-care-a-test-of-ydenberg-s-model
#16
Kyle H Elliott, Jannie F Linnebjerg, Chantelle Burke, Anthony J Gaston, Anders Mosbech, Morten Frederiksen, Flemming Merkel
The duration of parental care in animals varies widely, from none to lifelong. Such variation is typically thought to represent a trade-off between growth and safety. Seabirds show wide variation in the age at which offspring leave the nest, making them ideal to test the idea that a trade-off between high energy gain at sea and high safety at the nest drives variation in departure age (Ydenberg's model). To directly test the model assumptions, we attached time-depth recorders to murre parents (fathers [which do all parental care at sea] and mothers; [Formula: see text] of each)...
May 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407753/genomic-characterization-of-two-novel-pathogenic-avipoxviruses-isolated-from-pacific-shearwaters-ardenna-spp
#17
Subir Sarker, Shubhagata Das, Jennifer L Lavers, Ian Hutton, Karla Helbig, Jacob Imbery, Chris Upton, Shane R Raidal
BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. carneipes) (SWPV-1) and the other from a Wedge-tailed Shearwater (A...
April 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405388/diet-dichotomy-between-two-migrant-seabirds-breeding-near-a-high-arctic-polynya
#18
Isabeau Pratte, Kelly A Boadway, Shanti E Davis, Mark Maftei, Mark L Mallory
High Arctic polynyas are predictable areas of open water, which offer long-distance migrant seabirds a reliable source of food during a period when they have to replenish and accumulate energy for reproduction. Investigating the interaction between species nesting sympatrically in the vicinity of polynyas should provide insights into the role that such oceanographic features play for pre-breeding seabirds. We used stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) to compare the diet of two ground-nesting seabirds, Sabine's gull (Xema sabini) and Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), nesting on an island adjacent to a recurring polynya in the Canadian high Arctic in 2008 and 2009...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405300/outlier-analyses-to-test-for-local-adaptation-to-breeding-grounds-in-a-migratory-arctic-seabird
#19
Anna Tigano, Allison J Shultz, Scott V Edwards, Gregory J Robertson, Vicki L Friesen
Investigating the extent (or the existence) of local adaptation is crucial to understanding how populations adapt. When experiments or fitness measurements are difficult or impossible to perform in natural populations, genomic techniques allow us to investigate local adaptation through the comparison of allele frequencies and outlier loci along environmental clines. The thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) is a highly philopatric colonial arctic seabird that occupies a significant environmental gradient, shows marked phenotypic differences among colonies, and has large effective population sizes...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405270/group-foraging-in-socotra-cormorants-a-biologging-approach-to-the-study-of-a-complex-behavior
#20
Timothée R Cook, Rob Gubiani, Peter G Ryan, Sabir B Muzaffar
Group foraging contradicts classic ecological theory because intraspecific competition normally increases with aggregation. Hence, there should be evolutionary benefits to group foraging. The study of group foraging in the field remains challenging however, because of the large number of individuals involved and the remoteness of the interactions to the observer. Biologging represents a cost-effective solution to these methodological issues. By deploying GPS and temperature-depth loggers on individuals over a period of several consecutive days, we investigated intraspecific foraging interactions in the Socotra cormorant Phalacrocorax nigrogularis, a threatened colonial seabird endemic to the Arabian Peninsula...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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