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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815912/assembly-and-rna-free-annotation-of-highly-heterozygous-genomes-the-case-of-the-thick-billed-murre-uria-lomvia
#1
Anna Tigano, Timothy B Sackton, Vicki L Friesen
Thanks to a dramatic reduction in sequencing costs followed by a rapid development of bioinformatics tools, genome assembly and annotation have become accessible to many researchers in recent years. Among tetrapods, birds have genomes that display many features that facilitate their assembly and annotation, such as small genome size, low number of repeats, and highly conserved genomic structure. However, we found that high genomic heterozygosity could have a great impact on the quality of the genome assembly of the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), an arctic colonial seabird...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811887/lessons-from-the-t%C3%A5-hoku-tsunami-a-model-for-island-avifauna-conservation-prioritization
#2
Michelle H Reynolds, Paul Berkowitz, John L Klavitter, Karen N Courtot
Earthquake-generated tsunamis threaten coastal areas and low-lying islands with sudden flooding. Although human hazards and infrastructure damage have been well documented for tsunamis in recent decades, the effects on wildlife communities rarely have been quantified. We describe a tsunami that hit the world's largest remaining tropical seabird rookery and estimate the effects of sudden flooding on 23 bird species nesting on Pacific islands more than 3,800 km from the epicenter. We used global positioning systems, tide gauge data, and satellite imagery to quantify characteristics of the Tōhoku earthquake-generated tsunami (11 March 2011) and its inundation extent across four Hawaiian Islands...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806408/microbiota-of-little-penguins-and-short-tailed-shearwaters-during-development
#3
Meagan L Dewar, John P Y Arnould, Theo R Allnutt, Tamsyn Crowley, Lutz Krause, John Reynolds, Peter Dann, Stuart C Smith
The establishment and early colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been recognised as a crucial stage in chick development, with pioneering microbial species responsible for influencing the development of the GI tract and influencing host health, fitness and disease status throughout life. Development of the microbiota in long lived seabirds is poorly understood. This study characterised the microbial composition of little penguin and short-tailed shearwater chicks throughout development, using Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803756/speciation-range-contraction-and-extinction-in-the-endemic-new-zealand-king-shag-complex
#4
Nicolas J Rawlence, Charlotte E Till, Luke J Easton, Hamish G Spencer, Rob Schuckard, David S Melville, R Paul Scofield, Alan J D Tennyson, Matt J Rayner, Jonathan M Waters, Martyn Kennedy
New Zealand's endemic King Shag (Leucocarbo carunculatus) has occupied only a narrow portion of the northeastern South Island for at least the past 240years. However, pre-human Holocene fossil and archaeological remains have suggested a far more widespread distribution of the three Leucocarbo species (King, Otago, Foveaux) on mainland New Zealand at the time of Polynesian settlement in the late 13th Century CE. We use modern and ancient DNA, and morphometric and osteological analyses, of modern King Shags and Holocene fossil Leucocarbo remains to assess the pre-human distribution and taxonomic status of the King Shag on mainland New Zealand, and the resultant conservation implications...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802273/evidence-for-borrelia-bavariensis-infections-of-ixodes-uriae-within-seabird-colonies-of-the-north-atlantic-ocean
#5
Hannah J Munro, Nicholas H Ogden, L Robbin Lindsay, Gregory J Robertson, Hugh Whitney, Andrew S Lang
The first report of members of the spirochete genus Borrelia in the seabird tick, Ixodes uriae, and seabird colonies occurred during the early 1990s. Since then, Borrelia spp. have been detected in these ticks and seabird colonies around the world. To-date, the primary species detected has been B. garinii, with rare occurrences of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae. During our research on Borrelia and I. uriae in seabird colonies of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we have identified B. bavariensis in I...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801968/warming-of-subarctic-waters-accelerates-development-of-a-key-marine-zooplankton-calanus-finmarchicus
#6
Agata Weydmann, Waldemar Walczowski, Jacob Carstensen, Slawomir Kwasniewski
Recent observations confirm the rising temperatures of Atlantic waters transported into the Arctic Ocean via the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). We studied the overall abundance and population structure of the North Atlantic keystone zooplankton copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which is the main prey for pelagic fish and some seabirds, in relation to selected environmental variables in this area between 2001 and 2011, when warming in the Arctic and Subarctic was particularly pronounced. Sampling within a three-week time window each summer demonstrated that trends in the overall abundance of C...
August 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782012/comment-on-marine-plastic-debris-emits-a-keystone-infochemical-for-olfactory-foraging-seabirds-by-savoca-et-al
#7
Gaia Dell'Ariccia, Richard A Phillips, Jan A van Franeker, Nicolas Gaidet, Paulo Catry, José P Granadeiro, Peter G Ryan, Francesco Bonadonna
In their recent paper, Savoca and collaborators (2016) showed that plastic debris in the ocean may acquire a dimethyl sulfide (DMS) signature from biofouling developing on their surface. According to them, DMS emission may represent an olfactory trap for foraging seabirds, which explains patterns of plastic ingestion among procellariiform seabirds. This hypothesis is appealing, but some of the data that Savoca et al. used to support their claim are questionable, resulting in a misclassification of species, as well as other decisions regarding the variables to include in their models...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752962/seabirds-laridae-as-a-source-of-campylobacter-spp-salmonella-spp-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-south-africa
#8
Elisabet Moré, Teresa Ayats, Peter G Ryan, Preneshni R Naicker, Karen H Keddy, Davide Gaglio, Minke Witteveen, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar
Zoonotic thermophilic Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis worldwide. There is little information about reservoirs of these zoonotic agents in Africa. Thus, chicks of kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, n=129) and greater crested terns (Thalasseus bergii, n=100) were studied at five colonies on the Western Cape coast (South Africa) during summer 2013/2014. Campylobacter spp. occurrence was 14.0% (CI95% : 9.9-19.3), with C. jejuni the most frequently isolated species, whilst that of Salmonella was 27...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751345/books-night-shift-dragons-of-depression-to-seabirds
#9
Sarah Alderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746844/heart-rate-variability-reveals-that-a-decrease-in-parasympathetic-rest-and-digest-activity-dominates-autonomic-stress-responses-in-a-free-living-seabird
#10
Martina S Müller, Alexei L Vyssotski, Maki Yamamoto, Ken Yoda
The autonomic stress response, often referred to as the 'fight-or-flight' response, is a highly conserved physiological reaction to stress in vertebrates that occurs via a decrease in parasympathetic (PNS) activity, which promotes self-maintenance 'rest and digest' processes, and an increase in sympathetic (SNS) activity, which prepares an animal for danger ('fight-or-flight'). Though the PNS and SNS both innervate most organs, they often control different tissues and functions within those organs (though the pacemaker of the heart is controlled by both)...
July 23, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743395/biomonitoring-of-fluoroalkylated-substances-in-antarctica-seabird-plasma-development-and-validation-of-a-fast-and-rugged-method-using-on-line-concentration-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Gabriel Munoz, Pierre Labadie, Emmanuel Geneste, Patrick Pardon, Sabrina Tartu, Olivier Chastel, Hélène Budzinski
We report on a fast, accurate and rugged analytical procedure to determine a wide span of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in seabird plasma. The 26 investigated compounds included perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (C5-C14 PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, C7, C8, C10 PFSAs), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and N-alkyl derivatives (MeFOSA, EtFOSA), N-alkyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acids (MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA), fluorotelomer sulfonates (4:2 FTSA, 6:2 FTSA, 8:2 FTSA), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide phosphate diester (diSAmPAP)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738555/assessment-of-mercury-speciation-in-feathers-using-species-specific-isotope-dilution-analysis
#12
Marina Renedo, Paco Bustamante, Emmanuel Tessier, Zoyne Pedrero, Yves Cherel, David Amouroux
Seabirds are considered as effective sentinels of environmental marine contamination and their feathers are extensively used as non-lethal samples for contaminant biomonitoring. This tissue represents the main route for mercury (Hg) elimination in seabirds and contains predominantly methylmercury (MeHg). In this work, we developed a robust analytical technique for precise and accurate simultaneous quantification of MeHg, inorganic Hg (iHg) and consequently total Hg (THg), in feathers by gas-chromatography (GC)-ICPMS analyses using species-specific isotope dilution technique...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734075/high-occurrence-of-jellyfish-predation-by-black-browed-and-campbell-albatross-identified-by-dna-metabarcoding
#13
Julie C McInnes, Rachael Alderman, Mary-Anne Lea, Ben Raymond, Bruce E Deagle, Richard A Phillips, Andrew Stanworth, David R Thompson, Paulo Catry, Henri Weimerskirch, Cristián G Suazo, Michaël Gras, Simon N Jarman
Gelatinous zooplankton are a large component of the animal biomass in all marine environments, but are considered to be uncommon in the diet of most marine top predators. However, the diets of key predator groups like seabirds have conventionally been assessed from stomach content analyses, which cannot detect most gelatinous prey. As marine top predators are used to identify changes in the overall species composition of marine ecosystems, such biases in dietary assessment may impact our detection of important ecosystem regime shifts...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715294/avian-pox-discovered-in-the-critically-endangered-waved-albatross-phoebastria-irrorata-from-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands-ecuador
#14
Emily M Tompkins, David J Anderson, Kristy L Pabilonia, Kathryn P Huyvaert
The Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) is a critically endangered seabird in a rapidly shrinking population in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The introduction of novel pathogens and parasites poses a threat to population persistence. Monitoring disease prevalence and guarding against the spread of such agents in endemic taxa are conservation priorities for the Galápagos, where recent increases in the prevalence of avian pox may have contributed to population declines and range contractions in other bird species...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701505/remotely-sensed-wind-speed-predicts-soaring-behaviour-in-a-wide-ranging-pelagic-seabird
#15
Rory Gibb, Akiko Shoji, Annette L Fayet, Chris M Perrins, Tim Guilford, Robin Freeman
Global wind patterns affect flight strategies in many birds, including pelagic seabirds, many of which use wind-powered soaring to reduce energy costs during at-sea foraging trips and migration. Such long-distance movement patterns are underpinned by local interactions between wind conditions and flight behaviour, but these fine-scale relationships are far less well understood. Here we show that remotely sensed ocean wind speed and direction are highly significant predictors of soaring behaviour in a migratory pelagic seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus)...
July 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695260/challenges-to-oil-spill-assessment-for-seabirds-in-the-deep-ocean
#16
J Christopher Haney, Patrick G R Jodice, William A Montevecchi, David C Evers
We synthesize impediments for evaluating effects to seabirds from open ocean hydrocarbon releases. Effects on seabirds from ship discharges, spills, and well blowouts often are poorly detected and monitored far from land. Regulatory regimes for ocean spills can result in monitoring efforts that are not entirely transparent. We illustrate how interdisciplinary technologies address deficits that hamper individual or population level assessments for seabirds, and we demonstrate where emerging technologies might be engaged to bridge gaps in oil spill monitoring...
July 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695256/anomalously-high-recruitment-of-the-2010-gulf-menhaden-brevoortia-patronus-year-class-evidence-of-indirect-effects-from-the-deepwater-horizon-blowout-in-the-gulf-of-mexico
#17
Jeffrey W Short, Harold J Geiger, J Christopher Haney, Christine M Voss, Maria L Vozzo, Vincent Guillory, Charles H Peterson
Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) exhibited unprecedented juvenile recruitment in 2010 during the year of the Deepwater Horizon well blowout, exceeding the prior 39-year mean by more than four standard deviations near the Mississippi River. Abundance of that cohort remained exceptionally high for two subsequent years as recruits moved into older age classes. Such changes in this dominant forage fish population can be most parsimoniously explained as consequences of release from predation. Contact with crude oil induced high mortality of piscivorous seabirds, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), waders, and other fish-eating marsh birds, all of which are substantial consumers of Gulf menhaden...
July 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694838/how-animals-distribute-themselves-in-space-variable-energy-landscapes
#18
Juan F Masello, Akiko Kato, Julia Sommerfeld, Thomas Mattern, Petra Quillfeldt
BACKGROUND: Foraging efficiency determines whether animals will be able to raise healthy broods, maintain their own condition, avoid predators and ultimately increase their fitness. Using accelerometers and GPS loggers, features of the habitat and the way animals deal with variable conditions can be translated into energetic costs of movement, which, in turn, can be translated to energy landscapes.We investigated energy landscapes in Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua from two colonies at New Island, Falkland/Malvinas Islands...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690792/the-most-common-diet-results-in-low-reproduction-in-a-generalist-seabird
#19
Susanne van Donk, Kees C J Camphuysen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Jaap van der Meer
Dietary specialization has been described across a wide range of taxa in the animal kingdom. Fitness consequences are, however, not well documented. We examined the reproductive consequences of different dietary specializations in the herring gull Larus argentatus, an omnivorous seabird, using an extensive dataset which includes breeding and dietary data of 10 successive years. We hypothesized that pairs that focused on prey of higher energetic value would yield higher fledging rates. An alternative hypothesis is that pairs that relied on more resources simultaneously would reproduce better...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683918/enzymology-of-microbial-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-catabolism
#20
Mishtu Dey
The biochemistry of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) catabolism is reviewed. The microbes that catalyze the reactions central to DMSP catabolic pathways are described, and the focus is on the enzymology of the process. Approximately 10(9)tons of DMSP is released annually by marine eukaryotes as an osmolyte. A vast majority of DMSP is assimilated by bacteria through either a demethylation or lyase pathways, producing either the methane thiol or the volatile dimethylsulfide (DMS), respectively. Enzymatic breakdown of DMSP generates ~10(7)tons of DMS annually, which may have impact on global climate...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
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