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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341155/anthropogenic-debris-in-the-nests-of-kelp-gulls-in-south-africa
#1
Minke Witteveen, Mark Brown, Peter G Ryan
Anthropogenic debris results in detrimental interactions with many marine species. Several seabirds include debris items in their nests, which can lead to entanglement of chicks and adults, resulting in injury or death. Anthropogenic debris was found in 4-67% of kelp gull Larus dominicanus nests in seven colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa. Nests contained two types of litter: items included in the nest structure during construction (mainly ropes and straps), and regurgitated items (mainly bags and food wrappers) that probably accumulate primarily during the chick-rearing period...
January 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333458/declining-trends-of-polychlorinated-naphthalenes-in-seabird-eggs-from-the-canadian-arctic-1975-2014
#2
Birgit M Braune, Derek C G Muir
There are relatively few studies of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) for biota in polar regions and even fewer reports of temporal trends. We determined concentrations of PCNs in eggs of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) collected from the Canadian high Arctic between 1975 and 2014 and calculated their associated toxic equivalents (TEQs). Concentrations of Σ67PCN decreased significantly in the murre eggs between 1975 and 2014 at an average annual rate of -14.9 pg g(-1) wet weight. Although the penta- and tetra-CNs (predominantly CN-52/60 and CN-42) dominated the PCN profile, the hexa-CNs (mainly CN-66/67) accounted for the majority of the Σ67TEQ-PCN, concentrations of which also decreased significantly between 1975 to 2014...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331585/phylogenetics-and-biogeography-of-the-two-wing-flyingfish-exocoetidae-exocoetus
#3
Eric A Lewallen, Andrew J Bohonak, Carolina A Bonin, Andre J van Wijnen, Robert L Pitman, Nathan R Lovejoy
Two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetus spp.) are widely distributed, epipelagic, mid-trophic organisms that feed on zooplankton and are preyed upon by numerous predators (e.g., tunas, dolphinfish, tropical seabirds), yet an understanding of their speciation and systematics is lacking. As a model of epipelagic fish speciation and to investigate mechanisms that increase biodiversity, we studied the phylogeny and biogeography of Exocoetus, a highly abundant holoepipelagic fish taxon of the tropical open ocean. Morphological and molecular data were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships, species boundaries, and biogeographic patterns of the five putative Exocoetus species...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325173/patterns-and-processes-influencing-helminth-parasites-of-arctic-coastal-communities-during-climate-change
#4
K V Galaktionov
This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302954/contamination-status-and-accumulation-characteristics-of-heavy-metals-and-arsenic-in-five-seabird-species-from-the-central-bering-sea
#5
Chihiro Ishii, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yared Beyene Yohannes, Yutaka Watanuki, Masaaki Fukuwaka, Mayumi Ishizuka
Seabirds are marine top predators and accumulate high levels of metals and metalloids in their tissues. Contamination by metals in the highly productive offshore region has become a matter of public concern. It is home to 80% of the seabird population in the USA, 95% of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), and major populations of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and whales. Here, the concentrations of eight heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) and a metalloid (As) in the liver and kidneys of the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris), tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) collected in the Bering Sea were measured...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266602/subglacial-discharges-create-fluctuating-foraging-hotspots-for-sea-birds-in-tidewater-glacier-bays
#6
Jacek Andrzej Urbanski, Lech Stempniewicz, Jan Marcin Węsławski, Katarzyna Dragańska-Deja, Agnieszka Wochna, Michał Goc, Lech Iliszko
Although the processes occurring at the front of an ice face in tidewater glacier bays still await thorough investigation, their importance to the rapidly changing polar environment is spurring a considerable research effort. Glacier melting, sediment delivery and the formation of seabird foraging hotspots are governed by subglacial discharges of meltwater. We have combined the results of tracking black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla equipped with GPS loggers, analyses of satellite images and in situ measurements of water temperature, salinity and turbidity in order to examine the magnitude and variability of such hotspots in the context of glacier bay hydrology...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264057/combined-bio-logging-and-stable-isotopes-reveal-individual-specialisations-in-a-benthic-coastal-seabird-the-kerguelen-shag
#7
Elodie C M Camprasse, Yves Cherel, John P Y Arnould, Andrew J Hoskins, Charles-André Bost
Individual specialisations, which involve the repetition of specific behaviours or dietary choices over time, have been suggested to benefit animals by avoiding competition with conspecifics and increasing individual foraging efficiency. Among seabirds, resident and benthic species are thought to be good models to study inter-individual variation as they repetitively exploit the same environment. We investigated foraging behaviour, isotopic niche and diet in the Kerguelen shag Phalacrocorax verrucosus during both the incubation and chick-rearing periods for the same individuals to determine the effect of sex, breeding stage, body mass and morphometrics on mean foraging metrics and their consistency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261659/climate-impacts-on-global-hot-spots-of-marine-biodiversity
#8
Francisco Ramírez, Isabel Afán, Lloyd S Davis, André Chiaradia
Human activities drive environmental changes at scales that could potentially cause ecosystem collapses in the marine environment. We combined information on marine biodiversity with spatial assessments of the impacts of climate change to identify the key areas to prioritize for the conservation of global marine biodiversity. This process identified six marine regions of exceptional biodiversity based on global distributions of 1729 species of fish, 124 marine mammals, and 330 seabirds. Overall, these hot spots of marine biodiversity coincide with areas most severely affected by global warming...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258775/a-markov-model-for-planning-and-permitting-offshore-wind-energy-a-case-study-of-radio-tracked-terns-in-the-gulf-of-maine-usa
#9
Alexana Cranmer, Jennifer R Smetzer, Linda Welch, Erin Baker
Quantifying and managing the potential adverse wildlife impacts of offshore wind energy is critical for developing offshore wind energy in a sustainable and timely manner, but poses a significant challenge, particularly for small marine birds that are difficult to monitor. We developed a discrete-time Markov model of seabird movement around a colony site parameterized by automated radio telemetry data from common terns (Sterna hirundo) and Arctic terns (S. paradisaea), and derived impact functions that estimate the probability of collision fatality as a function of the distance and bearing of wind turbines from a colony...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258086/validating-accelerometry-estimates-of-energy-expenditure-across-behaviours-using-heart-rate-data-in-a-free-living-seabird
#10
Olivia Hicks, Sarah Burthe, Francis Daunt, Adam Butler, Charles Bishop, Jonathan A Green
Two main techniques have dominated the field of ecological energetics, the heart-rate and doubly labelled water methods. Although well established, they are not without their weaknesses, namely expense, intrusiveness and lack of temporal resolution. A new technique has been developed using accelerometers; it uses the Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) of an animal as a calibrated proxy for energy expenditure. This method provides high resolution data without the need for surgery. Significant relationships exist between rate of oxygen consumption (V̇o2) and ODBA in controlled conditions across a number of taxa; however, it is not known whether ODBA represents a robust proxy for energy expenditure consistently in all natural behaviours and there have been specific questions over its validity during diving, in diving endotherms...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249020/the-use-of-mesoscale-eddies-by-juvenile-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-in-the-southwestern-atlantic
#11
Peter Gaube, Caren Barceló, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Andrés Domingo, Philip Miller, Bruno Giffoni, Neca Marcovaldi, Yonat Swimmer
Marine animals, such as turtles, seabirds and pelagic fishes, are observed to travel and congregate around eddies in the open ocean. Mesoscale eddies, large swirling ocean vortices with radius scales of approximately 50-100 km, provide environmental variability that can structure these populations. In this study, we investigate the use of mesoscale eddies by 24 individual juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region. The influence of eddies on turtles is assessed by collocating the turtle trajectories to the tracks of mesoscale eddies identified in maps of sea level anomaly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248436/defining-ecologically-relevant-scales-for-spatial-protection-with-long-term-data-on-an-endangered-seabird-and-local-prey-availability
#12
Richard B Sherley, Philna Botha, Les G Underhill, Peter G Ryan, Danie van Zyl, Andrew C Cockcroft, Robert J M Crawford, Bruce M Dyer, Timothée R Cook
Human activities are important drivers of marine ecosystem functioning. However, separating the synergistic effects of fishing and environmental variability on the prey base of non-target predators is difficult, often because prey availability estimates on appropriate scales are lacking. Understanding how prey abundance at different spatial scales links to population change can help integrate the needs of non-target predators into fisheries management by defining ecologically-relevant areas for spatial protection...
March 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242285/feather-corticosterone-during-non-breeding-correlates-with-multiple-measures-of-physiology-during-subsequent-breeding-in-a-migratory-seabird
#13
Graham D Fairhurst, Louise Champoux, Keith A Hobson, Jean-François Rail, Jonathan Verreault, Magella Guillemette, William A Montevecchi, Pauline Brousseau, Catherine Soos
Carry-over effects in migratory birds are likely mediated by physiological processes that are activated in response to environmental variation. Such processes affect body condition and/or reproductive success, and can include corticosterone (CORT) because this hormone responds to environmental stressors and influences energy balance. Few studies have considered how CORT levels during non-breeding relate to a broader physiological profile during subsequent breeding, and fewer still have considered measures other than body condition...
February 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231421/varying-demographic-impacts-of-different-fisheries-on-three-mediterranean-seabird-species
#14
M Genovart, D Doak, J M Igual, S Sponza, J Kralj, D Oro
Fisheries have an enormous economic importance but reconciling their socio-economic features with the conservation and sustainability of marine ecosystems presents major challenges. Bycatch mortality from fisheries is clearly among the most serious global threats for marine ecosystems, affecting a wide range of top predators. Recent estimates report ca. 200,000 seabirds killed annually by bycatch in European waters. However there is an urgent need to rigorously estimate actual mortality rates and quantify effects of bycatch on populations...
February 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211483/colonisation-in-social-species-the-importance-of-breeding-experience-for-dispersal-in-overcoming-information-barriers
#15
A Payo-Payo, M Genovart, A Sanz-Aguilar, J L Greño, M García-Tarrasón, A Bertolero, J Piccardo, D Oro
Studying colonisation is crucial to understand metapopulations, evolutionary ecology and species resilience to global change. Unfortunately, few empirical data are available because field monitoring that includes empty patches at large spatiotemporal scales is required. We examine the colonisation dynamics of a long-lived seabird over 34 years in the western Mediterranean by comparing population and individual data from both source colony and the newly-formed colonies. Since social information is not available, we hypothesize that colonisation should follow particular dispersal dynamics and personal information must be crucial in decision making...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202814/early-mortality-saves-energy-estimating-the-energetic-cost-of-excess-offspring-in-a-seabird
#16
Oscar Vedder, He Zhang, Sandra Bouwhuis
Offspring are often produced in excess as insurance against stochastic events or unpredictable resources. This strategy may result in high early-life mortality, yet age-specific mortality before offspring independence and its associated costs have rarely been quantified. In this study, we modelled age-specific survival from hatching to fledging using 24 years of data on hatching order (HO), growth and age of mortality of more than 15 000 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks. We found that mortality peaked directly after hatching, after which it declined rapidly...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202811/small-birds-big-effects-the-little-auk-alle-alle-transforms-high-arctic-ecosystems
#17
Ivan González-Bergonzoni, Kasper L Johansen, Anders Mosbech, Frank Landkildehus, Erik Jeppesen, Thomas A Davidson
In some arctic areas, marine-derived nutrients (MDN) resulting from fish migrations fuel freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, increasing primary production and biodiversity. Less is known, however, about the role of seabird-MDN in shaping ecosystems. Here, we examine how the most abundant seabird in the North Atlantic, the little auk (Alle alle), alters freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems around the North Water Polynya (NOW) in Greenland. We compare stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) of freshwater and terrestrial biota, terrestrial vegetation indices and physical-chemical properties, productivity and community structure of fresh waters in catchments with and without little auk colonies...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202269/trace-elements-in-fragments-of-fishing-net-and-other-filamentous-plastic-litter-from-two-beaches-in-sw-england
#18
Andrew Turner
Filamentous plastic litter collected from two beaches in south west England has been characterized by FTIR and XRF. The majority of samples were constructed of polyethylene and consisted of twisted or braided strands of a variety of colours that appeared to be derived from commercial fishing nets. A number of different elements were detected among the samples but, from an environmental perspective, the regular occurrence of Cr and Pb and the occasional or isolated occurrence of Br, Cd and Se were of greatest concern...
February 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166941/keeping-it-regular-development-of-thermoregulation-in-four-tropical-seabird-species
#19
Lorinda A Hart, Colleen T Downs, Mark Brown
The thermoregulatory capacity of a species can determine which climatic niche it occupies. Its development in avian chicks is influenced by numerous factors. Furthermore, it is suggested that altricial chicks develop their thermoregulatory capacity post-hatching, while precocial chicks develop aspects of this in the egg. We investigated the development of thermoregulation of four co-occurring seabird species in the Seychelles; namely white, ground-nesting white-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon lepturus) and tree-nesting fairy terns (Gygis alba); and dark plumaged, tree-nesting lesser noddies (Anous tenuirostris) and ground- and tree-nesting brown noddies (A...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160980/ingestion-of-marine-debris-by-the-white-chinned-petrel-procellaria-aequinoctialis-is-it-increasing-over-time-off-southern-brazil
#20
Maria V Petry, Victória R F Benemann
Seabirds are amongst the most affected organisms by plastic pollution worldwide. Ingestion of marine debris has been reported in at least 122 species, and owing to the increasing global production and persistence of these anthropogenic materials within the marine environment, it is expected to be a growing problem to the marine fauna. Here we report evidence of an increasing frequency in marine debris ingestion and a decrease in the amount of plastic pellets ingested by White-chinned Petrels attending south Brazilian waters during the last three decades...
February 1, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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