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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644081/effects-of-added-lipids-on-digestibility-and-nitrogen-balance-in-oiled-common-murres-uria-aalge-and-western-grebes-aechmophorus-occidentalis-fed-four-formulations-of-a-critical-care-diet
#1
Rebecca S Duerr, Kirk C Klasing
Nutritional support is a primary therapy administered to oiled animals during responses to oil spills, but data informing nutritional decision-making during events are limited. In this study, 44 common murres ( Uria aalge ) and 6 Western grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ), naturally oiled by oceanic seeps off the coast of Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, CA, USA, were assigned to 1 of 4 groups fed diets with varying levels (6.8% [no added oil], 11%, and 20%) and types (salmon, corn) of oil added to a partially purified basal diet...
June 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625618/low-incidence-of-plastics-in-food-loads-delivered-to-nestlings-by-a-zooplanktivorous-seabird-over-a-21-year-period
#2
J M Hipfner, K R Studholme, M Galbraith
We quantified the amount of plastic found in food loads delivered to nestlings in Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), a small, zooplanktivorous seabird, on Triangle Island, British Columbia, in 1996-2016. The density of plastic in surrounding waters is moderately high, yet few food loads contained any plastic (3 of 850), and none more than two pieces. That result accords well with previous observations on the other four North Pacific auklets (Aethia spp.), leading us to conclude that true auklets rarely transfer plastic to nestlings...
June 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623288/seabirds-supply-nitrogen-to-reef-building-corals-on-remote-pacific-islets
#3
Anne Lorrain, Fanny Houlbrèque, Francesca Benzoni, Lucie Barjon, Laura Tremblay-Boyer, Christophe Menkes, David P Gillikin, Claude Payri, Hervé Jourdan, Germain Boussarie, Anouk Verheyden, Eric Vidal
Seabirds concentrate nutrients from large marine areas on their nesting islands playing an important ecological role in nutrient transfer between marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here we investigate the role of guano on corals reefs across scales by analyzing the stable nitrogen isotopic (δ(15)N) values of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis on fringing reefs around two Pacific remote islets with large seabird colonies. Marine stations closest to the seabird colonies had higher nitrate + nitrite concentrations compared to more distant stations...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620577/population-structure-of-the-soft-tick-ornithodoros-maritimus-and-its-associated-infectious-agents-within-a-colony-of-its-seabird-host-larus-michahellis
#4
Marlene Dupraz, Céline Toty, Elodie Devillers, Thomas Blanchon, Eric Elguero, Marion Vittecoq, Sara Moutailler, Karen D McCoy
The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonoses depends on the movement of both hosts and vectors, which can differ greatly in intensity across spatial scales. Because of their life history traits and small size, vector dispersal may be frequent, but limited in distance. However, little information is available on vector movement patterns at local spatial scales, and particularly for ticks, transmitting the greatest diversity of recognized infectious agents. To test the degree to which ticks can disperse and disseminate pathogens at local scales, we investigated the temporal dynamics and population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus within a colony of its seabird host, the Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616169/host-sympatry-and-body-size-influence-parasite-straggling-rate-in-a-highly-connected-multihost-multiparasite-system
#5
Jose L Rivera-Parra, Iris I Levin, Kevin P Johnson, Patricia G Parker
Parasite lineages commonly diverge when host lineages diverge. However, when large clades of hosts and parasites are analyzed, some cases suggest host switching as another major diversification mechanism. The first step in host switching is the appearance of a parasite on an atypical host, or "straggling." We analyze the conditions associated with straggling events. We use five species of colonially nesting seabirds from the Galapagos Archipelago and two genera of highly specific ectoparasitic lice to examine host switching...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598528/use-of-radar-detectors-to-track-attendance-of-albatrosses-at-fishing-vessels
#6
H Weimerskirch, D P Filippi, J Collet, S M Waugh, S C Patrick
Despite international waters covering over 60% of the world's oceans, our understanding of how fisheries in these regions shape ecosystem processes is surprisingly poor. Seabirds are known to forage at fishing vessels, with potential deleterious effects for their population, but the extent of overlap and behavior in relation to ships are poorly known. Using novel biologging devices, which can detect radar emissions to record the position of boats and seabirds, we measured the true extent of the overlap between seabirds and fishing vessels, and generated estimates of the intensity of fishing and distribution of vessels in international waters...
June 9, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594902/the-stable-isotope-composition-of-nitrogen-and-carbon-and-elemental-contents-in-modern-and-fossil-seabird-guano-from-northern-chile-marine-sources-and-diagenetic-effects
#7
Friedrich Lucassen, Wolfgang Pritzkow, Martin Rosner, Fernando Sepúlveda, Paulina Vásquez, Hans Wilke, Simone A Kasemann
Seabird excrements (guano) have been preserved in the arid climate of Northern Chile since at least the Pliocene. The deposits of marine organic material in coastal areas potentially open a window into the present and past composition of the coastal ocean and its food web. We use the stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon as well as element contents to compare the principal prey of the birds, the Peruvian anchovy, with the composition of modern guano. We also investigate the impact of diagenetic changes on the isotopic composition and elemental contents of the pure ornithogenic sediments, starting with modern stratified deposits and extending to fossil guano...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586675/seabirds
#8
Stephen C Votier, Richard B Sherley
In this Quick Guide, Votier and Sherley explain how diverse seabirds play important roles in ecosystem functioning, global nutrient cycling and climate regulation, but are declining in the face of multiple threats.
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575104/genetically-diverse-herpesviruses-in-south-american-atlantic-coast-seabirds
#9
Claudia Niemeyer, Cíntia Maria Favero, H L Shivaprasad, Marcela Uhart, Cesar Meyer Musso, María Virginia Rago, Rodolfo Pinho Silva-Filho, Paula Lima Canabarro, María Isabel Craig, Valeria Olivera, Ariel Pereda, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Different herpesviruses have been associated with respiratory and enteric disease and mortality among seabirds and waterfowl. In 2011, a respiratory disease outbreak affected 58.3% (98/168) of the Magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation due to an oil spill off the southern Brazilian coast. Etiology was attributed to a novel herpesvirus identified by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and molecular studies with partial DNA sequencing. Since migration, rehabilitation and translocation may facilitate the spread of pathogens between populations and trigger the onset of clinical disease in animals with latent infections, investigation of herpesvirus occurrence in asymptomatic seabirds was performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575078/dynamic-oceanography-determines-fine-scale-foraging-behavior-of-masked-boobies-in-the-gulf-of-mexico
#10
Caroline L Poli, Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Adriana Vallarino, Patrick D Gerard, Patrick G R Jodice
During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570991/from-antarctica-to-the-subtropics-contrasted-geographical-concentrations-of-selenium-mercury-and-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-skua-chicks-catharacta-spp
#11
Alice Carravieri, Yves Cherel, Maud Brault-Favrou, Carine Churlaud, Laurent Peluhet, Pierre Labadie, Hélène Budzinski, Olivier Chastel, Paco Bustamante
Seabirds integrate bioaccumulative contaminants via food intake and have revealed geographical trends of contamination in a variety of ecosystems. Pre-fledging seabird chicks are particularly interesting as bioindicators of chemical contamination, because concentrations in their tissues reflect primarily dietary sources from the local environment. Here we measured 14 trace elements and 18 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blood of chicks of skuas that breed in four sites encompassing a large latitudinal range within the southern Indian Ocean, from Antarctica (Adélie Land, south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki), through subantarctic areas (Crozet and Kerguelen Islands, brown skua C...
May 29, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554005/contaminants-and-energy-expenditure-in-an-arctic-seabird-organochlorine-pesticides-and-perfluoroalkyl-substances-are-associated-with-metabolic-rate-in-a-contrasted-manner
#12
Pierre Blévin, Sabrina Tartu, Hugh I Ellis, Olivier Chastel, Paco Bustamante, Charline Parenteau, Dorte Herzke, Frédéric Angelier, Geir W Gabrielsen
Basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimal energetic cost of living in endotherms, is known to be influenced by thyroid hormones (THs) which are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in birds and mammals. Several environmental contaminants may act on energy expenditure through their thyroid hormone-disrupting properties. However, the effect of contaminants on BMR is still poorly documented for wildlife. Here, we investigated the relationships between three groups of contaminants (organochlorines (OCs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and mercury) with metabolic rate (MR), considered here as a proxy of BMR and also with circulating total THs (thyroxine (TT4) and triiodothyronine (TT3)) in Arctic breeding adult black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard, during the chick rearing period...
August 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542258/bycatch-in-the-maldivian-pole-and-line-tuna-fishery
#13
Kelsey I Miller, Ibrahim Nadheeh, A Riyaz Jauharee, R Charles Anderson, M Shiham Adam
Tropical tuna fisheries are among the largest worldwide, with some having significant bycatch issues. However, pole-and-line tuna fisheries are widely believed to have low bycatch rates, although these have rarely been quantified. The Maldives has an important pole-and-line fishery, targeting skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). In the Maldives, 106 pole-and-line tuna fishing days were observed between August 2014 and November 2015. During 161 fishing events, tuna catches amounted to 147 t: 72% by weight was skipjack, 25% yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and 3% other tunas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528412/bioindicators-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-the-sea-of-okhotsk-and-the-western-bering-sea
#14
Vasiliy Yu Tsygankov, Margarita D Boyarova, Olga N Lukyanova, Nadezhda K Khristoforova
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515870/behavioral-responses-to-encounter-of-fishing-boats-in-wandering-albatrosses
#15
Julien Collet, Samantha C Patrick, Henri Weimerskirch
Animals are attracted to human food subsidies worldwide. The behavioral response of individuals to these resources is rarely described in detail, beyond chances of encounters. Seabirds for instance scavenge in large numbers at fishing boats, triggering crucial conservation issues, but how the response to boats varies across encounters is poorly known. Here we examine the behavioral response of wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans), equipped with GPS tags, to longline fishing boats operating near their colony for which we had access to vessel monitoring system data...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515469/the-topobiology-of-chemical-elements-in-seabird-feathers
#16
Nicholas R Howell, Jennifer L Lavers, Sayaka Uematsu, David Paterson, Daryl L Howard, Kathryn Spiers, Martin D de Jonge, Tracey Hanley, Richard Garrett, Richard B Banati
The highly organized morphogenesis of bird feathers holds important phylo- and ontogenetic information on the evolution of birds, organogenesis, tissue regeneration, and the health status of individual animals. Altered topobiological patterns are regularly used as retrospective evidence for disturbed developmental trajectories due to the past exposure to environmental stressors. Using the most advanced high-resolution (5-70 µm) X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM), we describe in the feathers from three species of Procellariiformes hitherto unknown, depositions of elements (Zn, Ca, Br, Cu, Fe) that are independent of pigmentation or any underlying variation in density or polymer structure...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506428/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-heavy-metals-in-the-cispata-bay-colombia-a-marine-tropical-ecosystem
#17
Saudith Burgos-Núñez, Amado Navarro-Frómeta, José Marrugo-Negrete, Germán Enamorado-Montes, Iván Urango-Cárdenas
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were evaluated in shallow sediments, water, fish and seabird samples from the Cispata Bay, Colombia. The heavy metals concentrations in the sediment was in the following order: Cu>Pb>Hg>Cd. The heavy metal concentration was different (p<0.05) in juvenile and adult birds. High concentrations of mercury were registered in the seabird (10.19±4.99mgkg(-1)) and fish (0.67μgg(-1)) samples. The total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 7...
May 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503374/sooty-tern-onychoprion-fuscatus-survival-oil-spills-shrimp-fisheries-and-hurricanes
#18
Ryan M Huang, Oron L Bass, Stuart L Pimm
Migratory seabirds face threats from climate change and a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Although most seabird research has focused on the ecology of individuals at the colony, technological advances now allow researchers to track seabird movements at sea and during migration. We combined telemetry data on Onychoprion fuscatus (sooty terns) with a long-term capture-mark-recapture dataset from the Dry Tortugas National Park to map the movements at sea for this species, calculate estimates of mortality, and investigate the impact of hurricanes on a migratory seabird...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489902/disturbance-of-a-rare-seabird-by-ship-based-tourism-in-a-marine-protected-area
#19
Timothy K Marcella, Scott M Gende, Daniel D Roby, Arthur Allignol
Managers of marine protected areas (MPAs) must often seek ways to allow for visitation while minimizing impacts to the resources they are intended to protect. Using shipboard observers, we quantified the "zone of disturbance" for Kittlitz's and marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris and B. marmoratus) exposed to large cruise ships traveling through Glacier Bay National Park, one of the largest MPAs in North America. In the upper reaches of Glacier Bay, where Kittlitz's murrelets predominated, binary logistic regression models predicted that 61% of all murrelets within 850 m perpendicular distance of a cruise ship were disturbed (defined as flushing or diving), whereas in the lower reaches, where marbled murrelets predominated, this percentage increased to 72%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480009/plasticity-results-in-delayed-breeding-in-a-long-distant-migrant-seabird
#20
F Stephen Dobson, Peter H Becker, Coline M Arnaud, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne Charmantier
A major question for conservationists and evolutionary biologists is whether natural populations can adapt to rapid environmental change through micro-evolution or phenotypic plasticity. Making use of 17 years of data from a colony of a long-distant migratory seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo), we examined phenotypic plasticity and the evolutionary potential of breeding phenology, a key reproductive trait. We found that laying date was strongly heritable (0.27 ± 0.09) and under significant fecundity selection for earlier laying...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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