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Caspian Tern

Corey A Clatterbuck, Rebecca L Lewison, Nathan G Dodder, Catherine Zeeman, Kenneth Schiff
Seabirds are often cited as sentinels of the marine environment, but are rarely used in traditional ocean and coastal contaminant monitoring. Four classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs, n=68) and three trace elements (mercury, selenium, and arsenic) were measured in the eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni), caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and western gulls (Larus occidentalis) that nest in the Southern California Bight. Building on a periodic five year regional monitoring program, we measured contaminant exposure and assessed the utility of seabirds as regional contaminant biomonitors...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Jeremy N Moore, Lisa L Williams, Keith A Grasman
A broad suite of 87 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including 26 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 23 non-PBDEs halogenated FRs (NPHFRs), 16 organophosphate esters (OPEs), 4 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 5 emerging perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) or precursors, were determined in 30 individual Caspian tern (listed as a threatened species in the U.S. State of Michigan) eggs collected in 2013 and 2014 from Michigan nesting sites on Two Tree Island (St, Mary's River), Charity Reef (Saginaw Bay) and Channel-Shelter Island (a Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) in Saginaw Bay)...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
Garth Herring, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Joshua T Ackerman
Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations...
June 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Raphael A Lavoie, T Kurt Kyser, Vicki L Friesen, Linda M Campbell
Migration patterns are believed to greatly influence concentrations of contaminants in birds due to accumulation in spatially and temporally distinct ecosystems. Two species of fish-eating birds, the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and the Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia) breeding in Lake Ontario were chosen to measure the impact of overwintering location on mercury concentrations ([Hg]). We characterized (1) overwintering areas using stable isotopes of hydrogen (δ(2)H) and band recoveries, and (2) overwintering habitats by combining information from stable isotopes of sulfur (δ(34)S), carbon (δ(13)C), nitrogen (δ(15)N), and δ(2)H in feathers grown during the winter...
January 20, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Raphael A Lavoie, Christopher J Baird, Laura E King, T Kurt Kyser, Vicki L Friesen, Linda M Campbell
Many aquatic fish-eating birds migrate long distances and are exposed to different mercury concentrations ([Hg]) during their annual cycle. Here we examined the importance of migration on [Hg] in two colonial migratory fish-eating bird species. We determined temporal trends of [Hg] and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) during the annual cycle in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) breeding in Lake Ontario by a repeated sampling of breast feathers and blood from recaptured individuals...
December 2, 2014: Environmental Science & Technology
Emily B Cohen, Jeffrey A Hostetler, J Andrew Royle, Peter P Marra
Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity - the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic...
May 2014: Ecology and Evolution
Mohammed Y Shobrak, Abdulhadi A Aloufi
We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder's Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts...
July 2014: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
S V Al'khovskiĭ, D K L'vov, M Iu Shchelkanov, A M Shchetinin, P G Deriabin, A K Gitel'man, A R Botikov, E I Samokhvalov
The Baku virus (BAKV) was originally isolated from the ticks Ornithodoros capensis Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Argasidae) collected from the seagull (Larus argentatus) seating nests on the islands of the Baku archipelago, the Caspian sea. BAKV was assigned to Kemerovo group (KEMV) (Orbivirus, Reoviridae). The BAKV was frequently isolated from the ticks O. coniceps Canestrini, 1980, collected from L. argentatus and tern (Sterna hirundo) nests in Turkmenia and pigeon (Columba livia neglecta) nests in Uzbekistan. In this work, the genome of the BAKV was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing technology...
November 2013: Voprosy Virusologii
Craig E Hebert, David Campbell, Rhona Kindopp, Stuart MacMillan, Pamela Martin, Ewa Neugebauer, Lucy Patterson, Jeff Shatford
Mercury levels were measured in colonial waterbird eggs collected from two sites in northern Alberta and one site in southern Alberta, Canada. Northern sites in the Peace-Athabasca Delta and Lake Athabasca were located in receiving waters of the Athabasca River which drains the oil sands industrial region north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Temporal trends in egg mercury (Hg) levels were assessed as were egg stable nitrogen isotope values as an indicator of dietary change. In northern Alberta, California and Ring-billed Gulls exhibited statistically significant increases in egg Hg concentrations in 2012 compared to data from the earliest year of sampling...
October 15, 2013: Environmental Science & Technology
Christina J Maranto, Julia K Parrish, David P Herman, André E Punt, Julian D Olden, Michael T Brett, Daniel D Roby
Lethal control, which has been used to reduce local abundances of animals in conflict with humans or with endangered species, may not achieve management goals if animal movement is not considered. In populations with emigration and immigration, lethal control may induce compensatory immigration, if the source of attraction remains unchanged. Within the Columbia River Basin (Washington, U.S.A.), avian predators forage at dams because dams tend to reduce rates of emigration of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp...
August 2011: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Gabriel E Machovsky Capuska, Leon Huynen, David Lambert, David Raubenheimer
Ultraviolet-sensitive vision (UVS), believed to have evolved from an ancestral state of violet-sensitive vision (VS), is widespread among terrestrial birds, where it is thought to play a role in orientation, foraging, and sexual selection. Less is known, however, about the distribution and significance of UVS in seabirds. To date UVS has been definitively demonstrated only in two families (Laridae and Sternidae), although indirect evidence has been used to argue for a more widespread occurrence. In this study we analyzed short-wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsin DNA sequences to determine the distribution of ancestral (VS) and derived (UVS) amino acid spectral tuning sites in 16 seabird species representing 8 families with diverse ecological niches...
June 21, 2011: Vision Research
David J Hoffman, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Joshua T Ackerman, Terrence L Adelsbach, Katherine R Stebbins
Bioindicators of oxidative stress were examined in prebreeding and breeding adult and chick Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and in prebreeding adult Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in San Francisco Bay, California. Highest total mercury (THg) concentrations (mean ± standard error; µg/g dry wt) in liver (17.7 ± 1.7), kidney (20.5 ± 1.9), and brain (3.0 ± 0.3) occurred in breeding adult Forster's terns. The THg concentrations in liver were significantly correlated with hepatic depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG):GSH ratio, and decreased hepatic gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in adults of both tern species...
April 2011: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
A Aliakbari, M Savabieasfahani, S M Ghasempouri
Mercury content of egg and eggshell from Whiskered Terns of Anzali wetlands of the Caspian Sea were determined. Mercury levels in egg content of both abandoned (433 ± 4) and non-abandoned (459 ± 15) eggs were 150 times greater than eggshells. Eggshell thickness differed between non-abandoned (0.5 ± 0.03) and abandoned eggs (0.6 ± 0.5) (p < 0.001). No significant association was found between shell Hg and shell thickness in this study. There was significantly more Hg in egg content than in shell (p < 0...
February 2011: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Garth Herring, Joshua T Ackerman, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Terrence L Adelsbach, Mark J Melancon, Katie R Stebbins, David J Hoffman
We measured halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) [polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT)] and P450 [e.g., ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD)] stress in livers from Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) adults and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) adults and chicks in San Francisco Bay (SFB). Penta BDEs and tetra PBDEs composed 46-66% of SigmaPBDE in terns. PCB homologues di, tri, penta, hexa, and hepta composed 93-95% of SigmaPCBs and p'p-DDE composed 82-98% of all SigmaDDTs...
April 2010: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Joshua T Ackerman, Collin A Eagles-Smith
The present study evaluated Se bioaccumulation in four waterbird species (n=206 birds) that breed within San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A.: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Selenium concentrations were variable and influenced by several factors, including species, region, reproductive stage, age, and sex. Adult Se concentrations (microg/g dry wt) in livers ranged from 3.07 to 48...
October 2009: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Collin A Eagles-Smith, Joshua T Ackerman, Susan E W De La Cruz, John Y Takekawa
We evaluated mercury (Hg) in five waterbird species representing three foraging guilds in San Francisco Bay, CA. Fish-eating birds (Forster's and Caspian terns) had the highest Hg concentrations in their tissues, but concentrations in an invertebrate-foraging shorebird (black-necked stilt) were also elevated. Foraging habitat was important for Hg exposure as illustrated by within-guild differences, where species more associated with marshes and salt ponds had higher concentrations than those more associated with open-bay and tidal mudflats...
July 2009: Environmental Pollution
Collin A Eagles-Smith, Joshua T Ackerman, Julie Yee, Terrence L Adelsbach
We assessed methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation in the livers of adults and chicks of four waterbird species that commonly breed in San Francisco Bay: American avocets, black-necked stilts, Caspian terns, and Forster's terns. In adults (all species combined), we found strong evidence for a threshold model where MeHg demethylation occurred above a hepatic total mercury concentration threshold of 8.51 +/- 0.93 microg/g dry weight, and there was a strong decline in %MeHg values as total mercury (THg) concentrations increased above 8...
March 2009: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Francis K Wiese, Julia K Parrish, Christopher W Thompson, Christina Maranto
Predator-prey relationships are often altered as a result of human activities. Where prey are legally protected, conservation action may include lethal predator control. In the Columbia River basin (Pacific Northwest, USA and Canada), piscivorous predators have been implicated in contributing to a lack of recovery of several endangered anadromous salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), and lethal and nonlethal control programs have been instituted against both piscine and avian species. To determine the consequences of avian predation, we used a bioenergetics approach to estimate the consumption of salmonid smolts by waterbirds (Common Merganser, California and Ring-billed Gull, Caspian Tern, Double-crested Cormorant) found in the mid-Columbia River from April through August, 2002-2004...
April 2008: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jianwen She, Arthur Holden, Terrence L Adelsbach, Manon Tanner, Steven E Schwarzbach, Julie L Yee, Kim Hooper
Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n=78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n=76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n=11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n=4)...
August 2008: Chemosphere
Collin A Eagles-Smith, Joshua T Ackerman, Terrence L Adelsbach, John Y Takekawa, A Keith Miles, Robin A Keister
Despite a large body of research concerning mercury (Hg) in birds, no single tissue has been used consistently to assess Hg exposure, and this has hampered comparisons across studies. We evaluated the relationships of Hg concentrations among tissues in four species of waterbirds (American avocets [Recurvirostra americana], black-necked stilts [Himantopus mexicanus], Caspian terns [Hydroprogne caspia; formerly Sterna caspia], and Forster's terns [Sterna forsteri]) and across three life stages (prebreeding adults, breeding adults, and chicks) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA...
October 2008: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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