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oral dysplasia progression

P Morbini, M Benazzo
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is a well-defined entity mostly affecting young to middle-aged male non-smokers. It is generally associated with a favourable outcome, and for this reason a less intensive therapeutic approach has been proposed for this subset of patients. The incidence of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers is rapidly increasing in most Western countries, but detailed epidemiological data are not available for the Italian population. Furthermore, among other head and neck regions, a smaller proportion of oral high-grade dysplasia and cancers seems to depend on HPV infection, whereas its role in laryngeal cancer is recognised as less relevant...
August 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Narendra T Chaudhari, Jagdish V Tupkari, Tabita Joy, Manisha S Ahire
BACKGROUND: Mammalian mismatch repair system is responsible for maintaining genomic stability during repeated duplications, and human MutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) protein constitutes an important part of it. Various isolated studies have reported the altered expression of hMLH1 in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Research is lacking in the quantitative estimation and comparison of hMLH1 expression in OL and OSCC. AIMS: To evaluate, quantify and compare hMLH1 immunoexpression in normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Veeran Veeravarmal, Ravi David Austin, Nagini Siddavaram, Sambanthan Thiruneelakandan, Mohamed Hanifa Mohamed Nassar
CONTEXT: The epithelium atrophy, as the oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) progresses, is believed to be an after effect of stromal fibrosis, hyalinization, decrease in vascularity and cellularity and is considered as "ischemic atrophy." Due to hypoxia, caspase-3 get activation and subsequent decrease in viable cell count can occur. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine caspase-3 expression in various grades of OSMF and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to find out whether upregulation of apoptosis is responsible for the epithelial changes in OSMF...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Stephen Lam, Sumithra J Mandrekar, Yaron Gesthalter, Katie L Allen Ziegler, Drew K Seisler, David E Midthun, Jenny T Mao, Marie Christine Aubry, Annette McWilliams, Don D Sin, Tawimas Shaipanich, Gang Liu, Evan Johnson, Andrea H Bild, Marc E Lenburg, Diana N Ionescu, John Mayo, Eunhee S Yi, Henry Tazelaar, William S Harmsen, Judith J Smith, Avrum E Spira, Jennifer Beane, Paul J Limburg, Eva Szabo
Previous preclinical studies and a phase I clinical trial suggested myo-inositol may be a safe and effective lung cancer chemopreventive agent. We conducted a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, phase IIb study to determine the chemopreventive effects of myo-inositol in smokers with bronchial dysplasia. Smokers with >/= 1 site of dysplasia identified by autofluorescence bronchoscopy-directed biopsy were randomly assigned to receive oral placebo or myo-inositol, 9 g once/day for two weeks, and then twice/day for 6 months...
September 22, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Prashanth Shetty, Shweta Hegde, K S Vinod, Salona Kalra, Prasoon Goyal, Mimansha Patel
INTRODUCTION: A case control study was carried out to evaluate the synergistic effects of habits quantified by habit index and its effect and severity on the clinicopathological features of oral leukoplakia in a cohort of 100 patients visiting Triveni Dental College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients indulging in tobacco-related habits (smoking and smokeless forms) were categorized into two groups: A case/experimental group consisting of 50 patients presenting with oral leukoplakia lesion and a control group consisting of 50 patients with no clinical signs of oral leukoplakia...
2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Lewei Zhang, Tarinee Lubpairee, Denise M Laronde, Miriam P Rosin
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical features associated with progression of primary severe epithelial dysplasia into invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based study. SETTING: Oral dysplasia clinics. PATIENTS: This study involved 118 patients with 118 severe dysplasia who were prospectively enrolled between 1996 and 2014, and the lesions were either completely removed surgically (treated) or actively followed (untreated)...
September 2016: Oral Oncology
Chi Thi Kim Nguyen, Takeshi Okamura, Kei-Ichi Morita, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Harada, Yoshio Miki, Toshiyuki Izumo, Kou Kayamori, Akira Yamaguchi, Kei Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: LAMC2 plays an important role in cancer invasion. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the immunoexpression of LAMC2 in different stages of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), early and advanced, and (ii) to evaluate LAMC2 as a marker of malignant transformation in leukoplakia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of LAMC2 was examined by immunohistochemistry in 50 surgical specimens of advanced OSCC assembled as tissue microarrays, and by cDNA microarray in 43 surgical specimens of advanced OSCC...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Elizabeth Philipone, Angela J Yoon, Shuang Wang, Jing Shen, Yen Chen Kevin Ko, Jill M Sink, Andrew Rockafellow, Nathanel A Shammay, Regina M Santella
Leukoplakia is the most common precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Currently, the risk of progression to OSCC is assessed based on histopathologic examination alone. However, this method fails to identify the subset of microscopically innocuous leukoplakia that ultimately transforms to OSCC. The aim of this study was to determine if microRNAs (miRNAs) can be utilized to identify non- and low-grade dysplastic oral lesions at risk for cancer progression. A retrospective study of genome-wide miRNA expression level analyses was performed in the training cohort (n=20) using deep sequencing formalin-fixed paraffin embedded incisional biopsy tissues from patients with oral leukoplakic lesions diagnosed with non- or low-grade dysplasia and known clinical outcome...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Liu Peiqi, Guo Zhaozhong, Yin Yaotian, Jia Jun, Guo Jihua, Jia Rong
OBJECTIVE: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck with high mortality rates. The mechanisms of initiation and development of OSCC remain largely unknown. Dysregulated alternative splicing of pre-mRNA has been associated with OSCC. Splicing factor SRSF3 is a proto-oncogene and overexpressed in multiple cancers. The aim of this study was to uncover the relationship between SRSF3 and carcinogenesis and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Raj Thani Somasundaram, Jatinder Kaur, Iona Leong, Christina MacMillan, Ian J Witterick, Paul G Walfish, Ranju Ralhan
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients with oral dysplasia at high risk of cancer development and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) at increased risk of disease recurrence will enable rigorous personalized treatment. Regulated intramembranous proteolysis of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) resulting in release of its intracellular domain Ep-ICD into cytoplasm and nucleus triggers oncogenic signaling. We analyzed the expression of Ep-ICD in oral dysplasia and cancer and determined its clinical significance in disease progression and prognosis...
2016: BMC Cancer
Ian Cromwell, Dean A Regier, Stuart J Peacock, Catherine F Poh
BACKGROUND: Management of low-grade oral dysplasias (LGDs) is complicated, as only a small percentage of lesions will progress to invasive disease. The current standard of care requires patients to undergo regular monitoring of their lesions, with intervention occurring as a response to meaningful clinical changes. Recent improvements in molecular technologies and understanding of the biology of LGDs may allow clinicians to manage lesions based on their genome-guided risk. METHODS: We used a decision-analytic Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of risk-stratified care using a genomic assay...
September 2016: Oncologist
Tae Jun Kil, Hyun Sil Kim, Hyung Jun Kim, Woong Nam, In-Ho Cha
BACKGROUND: The cancer progression of oral leukoplakia is an important watchpoint in the follow-up observation of the patients. However, potential malignancies of oral leukoplakia cannot be estimated by histopathologic assessment alone. We evaluated genetic abnormalities at the level of copy number variation (CNV) to investigate the risk for developing cancer in oral leukoplakias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study used 27 oral leukoplakias with histological evidence of dysplasia...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
T Al-Dhohorah, M Mashrah, Z Yao, J Huang
We aimed to assess and compare the expression of Dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3), a possible tumor suppressor gene (TSG), in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) using immunohistochemistry. Seventy-five cases of normal oral mucosa (NOM), OLK, OSF, and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied. DKK3 was expressed in all cases of NOM, OLK and OSCC. There was steady increases in the percentage of the positive cells progressing toward OSCC. The expression was localized in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of cell affected by OLK with mild dysplasia and OLK with severe dysplasia...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Gage J Greening, Haley M James, Mary K Dierks, Nontapoth Vongkittiargorn, Samantha M Osterholm, Narasimhan Rajaram, Timothy J Muldoon
Intraepithelial dysplasia of the oral mucosa typically originates in the proliferative cell layer at the basement membrane and extends to the upper epithelial layers as the disease progresses. Detection of malignancies typically occurs upon visual inspection by non-specialists at a late-stage. In this manuscript, we validate a quantitative hybrid imaging and spectroscopy microendoscope to monitor dysplastic progression within the oral cavity microenvironment in a phantom and pre-clinical study. We use an empirical model to quantify optical properties and sampling depth from sub-diffuse reflectance spectra (450-750 nm) at two source-detector separations (374 and 730 μm)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Manish Kumar, Siddharth Mehra, Alok Thakar, Nootan Kumar Shukla, Ajoy Roychoudhary, Mehar Chand Sharma, Ranju Ralhan, Shyam Singh Chauhan
INTRODUCTION: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients are at high risk of loco-regional recurrence and despite the improvement in treatment strategy, 5-year survival rates are about 50%. Identification of patients at high risk of recurrence may enable rigorous personalized post-treatment management. In an earlier proteomics study we observed overexpression of End Binding Protein (EB1) in OSCC. In the present study we investigated the diagnostic and prognostic significance of alterations in expression of EB1 in oral cancer...
August 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Bangalore Nagarajachar Raghunandan, Karpagaselvi Sanjai, Jayalakshmi Kumaraswamy, Lokesh Papaiah, Bhavna Pandey, Bellur MadhavaRao Jyothi
BACKGROUND: Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. The telomeres become shorter with each cycle of replication and reach a critical limit; most cells die or enter stage of replicative senescence. Telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for all the cells that exhibit limitless replicative potential. It has been postulated that reactivation of telomerase expression is necessary for the continuous proliferation of neoplastic cells to attain immortality...
January 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Juan C Cuevas Gonzalez, Luis A Gaitan Cepeda, Socorro A Borges Yanez, Alejandro Donohue Cornejo, Ana D Mori Estevez, Elba Rosa Leyva Huerta
BACKGROUND: The use of p16 and p53 as biomarkers of malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and biological behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is controversial. AIM: To determine the immunoexpression of p16 and p53 in OED and OSCC and to establish their possible relation to histopathological grading of OED/OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six OEDs (40 mild, 36 moderate, and 20 severe dysplasia); and 112 OSCCs (64 well-differentiated, 38 moderately differentiated, and 10 poorly differentiated) coming from archives of four centers of oral pathology were included...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Kafil Akhtar, Anjum Ara, Shahid A Siddiqui, Rana K Sherwani
OBJECTIVES: We sought to study the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and vimentin in precancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx and to use the specific pattern of expression to predict invasiveness. METHODS: This cross-sectional study looked at 87 cases of oral and oropharyngeal lesions obtained between December 2012 and November 2014 in the Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, India...
May 2016: Oman Medical Journal
Vanessa Barbaro, Annamaria Assunta Nasti, Paolo Raffa, Angelo Migliorati, Patrizia Nespeca, Stefano Ferrari, Elisa Palumbo, Marina Bertolin, Claudia Breda, Francesco Miceli, Antonella Russo, Luciana Caenazzo, Diego Ponzin, Giorgio Palù, Cristina Parolin, Enzo Di Iorio
UNLABELLED: : Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the p63 gene. To date, approximately 40 different p63 mutations have been identified, all heterozygous. No definitive treatments are available to counteract and resolve the progressive corneal degeneration due to a premature aging of limbal epithelial stem cells. Here, we describe a unique case of a young female patient, aged 18 years, with EEC and corneal dysfunction, who was, surprisingly, homozygous for a novel and de novo R311K missense mutation in the p63 gene...
August 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Rathan S Jadav, Dharmika Kumar, Natasha Buwa, Shubhra Ganguli, Sitalakshmi R Thampatty, Nagaraj Balasubramanian, Rashna Bhandari
Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, IP6K2 also has an essential role in cancer cell apoptosis, and mice lacking this protein are more susceptible to the development of aerodigestive tract carcinoma upon treatment with the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO)...
August 2016: Cellular Signalling
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