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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316990/unpacking-the-differential-impact-of-family-planning-policies-in-china-analysis-of-parity-progression-ratios-from-retrospective-birth-history-data-1971-2005
#1
Min Qin, Jane Falkingham, Sabu S Padmadas
Although China's family planning programme is often referred to in the singular, most notably the One-Child policy, in reality there have been a number of different policies in place simultaneously, targeted at different sub-populations characterized by region and socioeconomic conditions. This study attempted to systematically assess the differential impact of China's family planning programmes over the past 40 years. The contribution of Parity Progression Ratios to fertility change among different sub-populations exposed to various family planning policies over time was assessed...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260792/a-novel-role-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-opcs-and-sox10-in-mediating-cellular-and-behavioral-responses-to-heroin
#2
Jennifer A Martin, Aaron Caccamise, Craig T Werner, Rathipriya Viswanathan, Jessie J Polanco, Andrew F Stewart, Shruthi A Thomas, Fraser J Sim, David M Dietz
Opiate abuse and addiction have become a worldwide epidemic with great societal and financial burdens, highlighting a critical need to understand the neurobiology of opiate addiction. While several studies have focused on drug-dependent changes in neurons, the role of glia in opiate addiction remains largely unstudied. RNA sequencing pathway analysis from the prefrontal cortex of male rats revealed changes in several genes associated with oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation following heroin self-administration...
December 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248527/inhibiting-mesolimbic-dopamine-neurons-reduces-the-initiation-and-maintenance-of-instrumental-responding
#3
Sarah Fischbach-Weiss, Rebecca M Reese, Patricia H Janak
Mesolimbic dopamine perturbations modulate performance of reward-seeking behavior, with tasks requiring high effort being especially vulnerable to disruption of dopamine signaling. Previous work primarily investigated longer-term perturbations such as receptor antagonism and dopamine depletion, which constrain the ability to assess dopamine contributions to effort expenditure in isolation from other behavior events, such as reward consumption. Also unclear is if dopamine is required for both initiation and maintenance when a sequence of multiple instrumental responses is required...
December 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247674/developmental-exposure-to-low-level-ambient-ultrafine-particle-air-pollution-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#4
D A Cory-Slechta, J L Allen, K Conrad, E Marvin, M Sobolewski
Developmental exposures to ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) can produce multiple neuropathological and neurochemical changes that might contribute to persistent alterations in cognitive-type functions. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that developmental UFP exposure produced impairments in learning, memory and impulsive-like behaivors and to determine whether these were selective and thus independent of deficits in other behavioral domains such as motor activity or motivation...
December 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217760/tumor-associated-fatigue-in-cancer-patients-develops-independently-of-interleukin-1-signaling
#5
Aaron J Grossberg, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Diana L Christian, Jessica M Molkentine, Daniel W Vermeer, Phillip S Gross, Paola D Vermeer, John H Lee, Robert Dantzer
Fatigue is the most common symptom of cancer at diagnosis, yet causes and effective treatments remain elusive. As tumors can be highly inflammatory, it is generally accepted that inflammation mediates cancer-related fatigue. However, evidence to support this assertion is mostly correlational. In this study, we directly tested the hypothesis that fatigue results from propagation of tumor-induced inflammation to the brain and activation of the central pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1). The heterotopic syngeneic murine head and neck cancer model (mEER) caused systemic inflammation and increased expression of Il1b in the brain while inducing fatigue-like behaviors characterized by decreased voluntary wheel running and exploratory activity...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217539/inhibition-of-cocaine-and-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-self-administration-by-lorcaserin-is-mediated-by-5-ht2c-receptors-in-rats
#6
Brenda M Gannon, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
Lorcaserin is a serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor-preferring agonist approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Lorcaserin has been shown to decrease cocaine self-administration in rats and monkeys. Although this effect is partially inhibited by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (SB 242084), lorcaserin also has effects at 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors and the relative contribution of these receptors to its anti-cocaine effects has not been investigated. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) the potency and effectiveness of lorcaserin to decrease self-administration of cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a common "bath salts" constituent; and (2) the receptor(s) mediating the effects of lorcaserin on cocaine and MDPV self-administration...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214467/different-functional-domains-measured-by-cocaine-self-administration-under-the-progressive-ratio-and-punishment-schedules-in-male-wistar-rats
#7
Udita Datta, Mariangela Martini, WenLin Sun
BACKGROUND: Current diagnosis of drug addiction like other mental disorders is based on clinical symptoms not on neural pathophysiology and consequently, does not provide useful information on the underlying pathophysiology and may impede the efforts to identify the underlying mechanisms. Identifying the functional deficits that are relevant to addiction and can be traced to the neural systems will greatly facilitate our understanding of the heterogeneity of the condition and improve future diagnosis and treatment...
December 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197983/reduced-sensitivity-to-reinforcement-in-adolescent-compared-to-adult-sprague-dawley-rats-of-both-sexes
#8
Emily R Hankosky, Sara R Westbrook, Rachel M Haake, Michela Marinelli, Joshua M Gulley
RATIONALE: Adolescence is a period of considerable development of brain and behavior and is the time during which most drug use is initiated. OBJECTIVE: Age-dependent differences in motivated behaviors may be one of the factors that contribute to heightened vulnerability to developing substance use disorders, so we sought to compare age differences in methamphetamine (METH) and saccharin seeking. METHODS: Beginning during adolescence or adulthood, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer 0...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196318/inactivation-of-nmda-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-during-cocaine-self-administration-prevents-glua1-up-regulation-but-with-paradoxical-increases-in-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#9
Daniel Guzman, Maria B Carreira, Allyson K Friedman, Megumi Adachi, Rachael L Neve, Lisa M Monteggia, Ming-Hu Han, Christopher W Cowan, David W Self
Cocaine self-administration increases expression of GluA1 subunits in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons that subsequently enhance the motivation for cocaine. This increase in GluA1 may be dependent on concomitant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during self-administration, similar to cocaine-induced LTP in the VTA. In this study, we used viral-mediated expression of a dominant negative GluN1 subunit (HSV-dnGluN1) in VTA neurons to study the effect of transient NMDAR inactivation on the GluA1 increases induced by chronic cocaine self-administration in male rats...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193060/using-progressive-ratio-schedules-to-evaluate-tokens-as-generalized-conditioned-reinforcers
#10
Danielle Russell, Einar T Ingvarsson, Jennifer L Haggar, Joshua Jessel
The properties of operant reinforcers are dynamic and dependent on a number of variables, such as schedule and effort. There has been sparse research on the generalized conditioned properties of token reinforcement. We evaluated leisure items, edible items, and tokens using a progressive ratio schedule with three children with diagnoses of ASD and developmental delays. The highest break points occurred during the token reinforcement condition for two out of three participants, but response rates tended to be higher with edibles...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180970/cebranopadol-a-mixed-opioid-agonist-reduces-cocaine-self-administration-through-nociceptin-opioid-and-mu-opioid-receptors
#11
Qianwei Shen, Yulin Deng, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Nazzareno Cannella
Cocaine addiction is a widespread psychiatric condition still waiting for approved efficacious medications. Previous studies suggested that simultaneous activation of nociceptin opioid (NOP) and mu opioid (MOP) receptors could be a successful strategy to treat cocaine addiction, but the paucity of molecules co-activating both receptors with comparable potency has hampered this line of research. Cebranopadol is a non-selective opioid agonist that at nanomolar concentration activates both NOP and MOP receptors and that recently reached phase-III clinical trials for cancer pain treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175446/phencyclidine-increased-while-isolation-rearing-did-not-affect-progressive-ratio-responding-in-rats-investigating-potential-models-of-amotivation-in-schizophrenia
#12
Nurith Amitai, Susan B Powell, Jared W Young
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1% of the global population with heterogeneous symptoms including positive, negative, and cognitive. While treatment for positive symptoms exists, none have been developed to treat negative symptoms. Animal models of schizophrenia are required to test targeted treatments and since patients exhibit reduced effort (breakpoints) for reward in a progressive ratio (PR) task, we examined the PR breakpoints of rats treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine or those reared in isolation - two common manipulations used to induce schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in rodents...
November 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175308/differential-use-of-danger-and-safety-signals-in-an-animal-model-of-anxiety-vulnerability-the-behavioral-economics-of-avoidance
#13
Kevin M Spiegler, Ashley M Fortress, Kevin C H Pang
Differential processing of danger and safety signals may underlie symptoms of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. One symptom common to these disorders is pathological avoidance. The present study examined whether danger and safety signals influence avoidance differently in anxiety-vulnerable Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. SD and WKY rats were tested in a novel progressive ratio avoidance task with and without danger or safety signals. Two components of reinforcement, hedonic value and motivation, were determined by fitting an exponentiated demand equation to the data...
November 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161356/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediates-effort-related-responding-in-rats
#14
Alexandra Münster, Wolfgang Hauber
The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160189/after-fertility-s-nadir-ethnic-differentials-in-parity-specific-behaviours-in-kyrgyzstan
#15
Thomas Spoorenberg
After a swift decline in the 1990s, the countries of Central Asia have experienced significant fertility increases over the last 15 years. These fertility upturns have remained off the radar of demographers. This study examines the recent fertility increase in Kyrgyzstan, focusing on fertility development by parity and among the main ethnic groups, in order to go beyond classic fertility indicators and national averages. Using a sample from the 2009 Census micro-dataset, sibling progression ratios were computed using information on the relationships and dates of birth of children under the age of 15...
November 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158111/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-determines-a-sex-difference-in-cue-conditioned-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#16
Samuel J Hogarth, Emily J Jaehne, Maarten van den Buuse, Elvan Djouma
Alcohol use disorder is a detrimental addictive disease that develops through prolonged ethanol exposure and regular intoxication. However, the changes in the underlying neurobiology leading to alcohol addiction remain unclear. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is implicated in substance abuse disorders including alcoholism. As the vast majority of previous animal model studies have concentrated on males only, the aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous BDNF mediates alcohol seeking in a sex-specific manner...
November 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153928/enhancing-excitability-of-dopamine-neurons-promotes-motivational-behaviour-through-increased-action-initiation
#17
Linde Boekhoudt, Ellen C Wijbrans, Jodie H K Man, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Johannes W de Jong, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Roger A H Adan
Motivational deficits are a key symptom in multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and addiction. A likely neural substrate for these motivational deficits is the brain dopamine (DA) system. In particular, DA signalling in the nucleus accumbens, which originates from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been identified as a crucial substrate for effort-related and activational aspects of motivation. Unravelling how VTA DA neuronal activity relates to motivational behaviours is required to understand how motivational deficits in psychiatry can be specifically targeted...
November 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146502/protracted-motivational-dopamine-related-deficits-following-adolescence-sugar-overconsumption
#18
Fabien Naneix, Florence Darlot, Véronique De Smedt-Peyrusse, Jean-Rémi Pape, Etienne Coutureau, Martine Cador
Adolescence represents a critical period characterized by major neurobiological changes. Chronic stimulation of the reward system during adolescence might constitute an important factor of vulnerability to pathological development. Increasing evidences suggest that adolescent overconsumption of sweet palatable foods impact reward-based processes. However, the neurobiological bases of these deficits remain poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated motivational deficits for palatable foods after sweet diet exposure during adolescence that might involve the dopamine (DA) system, a central actor in incentive processes...
February 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133954/exogenous-ghrelin-administration-increases-alcohol-self-administration-and-modulates-brain-functional-activity-in-heavy-drinking-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#19
M Farokhnia, E N Grodin, M R Lee, E N Oot, A N Blackburn, B L Stangl, M L Schwandt, L A Farinelli, R Momenan, V A Ramchandani, L Leggio
Preclinical evidence suggests that ghrelin, a peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the stomach and a key component of the gut-brain axis, is involved in alcohol seeking as it modulates both central reward and stress pathways. However, whether and how ghrelin administration may impact alcohol intake in humans is not clear. For, we believe, the first time, this was investigated in the present randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study. Participants were non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent heavy-drinking individuals...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100151/aripiprazole-relieves-motivational-anhedonia-in-rats
#20
Simona Scheggi, Teresa Pelliccia, Carla Gambarana, Maria Graziella De Montis
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is considered a relevant feature in depression and psychosis, characterized by poor treatment outcome, and associated with deficits in mesolimbic dopaminergic responsiveness. Clinical studies suggest the potential utility of aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy for resistant depression. Since aripiprazole can stabilize the dopaminergic system, in search of tailored therapeutic strategies for reward dysfunctions, we investigated whether the drug restored motivation toward positive stimuli in a rat model...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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