keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Progressive-ratio

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780881/nucleus-accumbens-microcircuit-underlying-d2-msn-driven-increase-in-motivation
#1
Carina Soares-Cunha, Bárbara Coimbra, Ana Verónica Domingues, Nivaldo Vasconcelos, Nuno Sousa, Ana João Rodrigues
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779230/role-of-mu-but-not-delta-or-kappa-opioid-receptors-in-context-induced-reinstatement-of-oxycodone-seeking
#2
Jennifer M Bossert, Jennifer K Hoots, Ida Fredriksson, Sweta Adhikary, Michelle Zhang, Marco Venniro, Yavin Shaham
Relapse to nonmedical use of prescription opioids often occurs after exposure to places previously associated with drug use. Here, we describe a rat model of context-induced reinstatement of oxycodone seeking after repeated cycles of drug self-administration and extinction-induced abstinence. We also determined the role of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, KOR) in this reinstatement. We trained rats to self-administer oxycodone for 6 h/d in Context A; lever pressing was paired with a discrete cue...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777165/hiv-1-proteins-dysregulate-motivational-processes-and-dopamine-circuitry
#3
Sarah J Bertrand, Charles F Mactutus, Steven B Harrod, Landhing M Moran, Rosemarie M Booze
Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760410/motivational-changes-that-develop-in-a-mouse-model-of-inflammation-induced-depression-are-independent-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase
#4
Elisabeth G Vichaya, Geoffroy Laumet, Diana L Christian, Aaron J Grossberg, Darlene J Estrada, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars, Robert Dantzer
Despite years of research, our understanding of the mechanisms by which inflammation induces depression is still limited. As clinical data points to a strong association between depression and motivational alterations, we sought to (1) characterize the motivational changes that are associated with inflammation in mice, and (2) determine if they depend on inflammation-induced activation of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated or spared nerve injured (SNI) wild type (WT) and Ido1 -/- mice underwent behavioral tests of antidepressant activity (e...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733434/beyond-the-breakpoint-reinstatement-renewal-and-resurgence-of-ratio-strained-behavior
#5
Stephanie L Kincaid, Kennon A Lattal
Three experiments were conducted using pigeons to assess the recurrence of responding eliminated by increasing the value of a progressive-ratio schedule to the breakpoint of responding. The procedures used in these assessments were, in successive experiments, reinstatement, renewal and resurgence. Each was effective in returning temporarily the eliminated responding. Reinstatement occurred with both yoked-time and fixed-time food deliveries. Both renewal and resurgence resulted in immediate recurrence of the response, and, as in other experiments investigating resurgence, the key peck response resurged as the alternative response extinguished...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704216/attentional-capacities-prior-to-drug-exposure-predict-motivation-to-self-administer-nicotine
#6
Youna Vandaele, Emilie Noe, Martine Cador, Françoise Dellu-Hagedorn, Stephanie Caille
RATIONALE: Nicotine can enhance attention and attribution of incentive salience to nicotine-associated stimuli. However, it is not clear whether inter-individual differences in attentional capacities prior to any exposure could play a role in vulnerability to nicotine self-administration. We further explored this vulnerability through pre-existing inter-individual differences in attention to a reward-predictive cue in drug-free animals. METHODS: A cued version of the Fixed Consecutive Number schedule (FCN16cue ) of reinforcement task was used to assess attention...
April 27, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703996/knockdown-of-hypocretin-attenuates-extended-access-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#7
Brooke E Schmeichel, Alessandra Matzeu, Pascale Koebel, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Harpreet Sidhu, Roxana Shahryari, Brigitte L Kieffer, George F Koob, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Candice Contet
The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuropeptide system regulates feeding, arousal state, stress responses, and reward, especially under conditions of enhanced motivational relevance. In particular, HCRT neurotransmission facilitates drug-seeking behavior in circumstances that demand increased effort and/or motivation to take the drug. The present study used a shRNA-encoding adeno-associated viral vector to knockdown Hcrt expression throughout the dorsal hypothalamus in adult rats and determine the role of HCRT in cocaine self-administration...
April 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691605/social-reinforcement-as-alternative-to-sucrose-reinforcement-is-increased-by-nicotine-and-methylphenidate-in-male-fischer-344-rats
#8
Connor D Martin, Heather M Bool, Anthony M George, Katelyn A Carr, Leonard H Epstein, Larry W Hawk, Jerry B Richards
BACKGROUND: Stimulant drugs such as nicotine (NIC) and methylphenidate (MPH) are hypothesized to increase the reinforcing value of sensory stimuli, thus increasing the effectiveness of such reinforcers as alternatives to sucrose reinforcers. METHODS: Inbred Fischer-344 rats (n = 30) were assigned to three groups: saline (SAL; n = 10), nicotine (NIC; n = 10), or methylphenidate (MPH; n = 10). Testing was done in three phases: sucrose only, (SUC), sucrose and drug (SUC/DRUG), and sucrose, drug, and social reinforcement (SUC/DRUG/SOC)...
April 24, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689485/the-effect-of-high-dose-dronabinol-oral-thc-maintenance-on-cannabis-self-administration
#9
Nicolas J Schlienz, Dustin C Lee, Maxine L Stitzer, Ryan Vandrey
BACKGROUND: There is a clear need for advancing the treatment of cannabis use disorders. Prior research has demonstrated that dronabinol (oral THC) can dose-dependently suppress cannabis withdrawal and reduce the acute effects of smoked cannabis. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether high-dose dronabinol could reduce cannabis self-administration among daily users. METHODS: Non-treatment seeking daily cannabis users (N = 13) completed a residential within-subjects crossover study and were administered placebo, low-dose dronabinol (120 mg/day; 40 mg tid), or high-dose dronabinol (180-240 mg/day; 60-80 mg tid) for 12 consecutive days (order counterbalanced)...
April 17, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663595/adult-neurogenesis-affects-motivation-to-obtain-weak-but-not-strong-reward-in-operant-tasks
#10
Rose-Marie Karlsson, Alice S Wang, Anup N Sonti, Heather A Cameron
Decreased motivation to seek rewards is a key feature of mood disorders that correlates with severity and treatment outcome. This anhedonia, or apathy, likely reflects impairment in reward circuitry, but the specific neuronal populations controlling motivation are unclear. Granule neurons generated in the adult hippocampus have been implicated in mood disorders, but are not generally considered as part of reward circuits. We investigated a possible role of these new neurons in motivation to work for food and sucrose rewards in operant conditioning tasks using GFAP-TK pharmacogenetic ablation of adult neurogenesis in both rats and mice...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656049/reinforcing-value-and-hypothetical-behavioral-economic-demand-for-food-and-their-relation-to-bmi
#11
Leonard H Epstein, Rocco A Paluch, Katelyn A Carr, Jennifer L Temple, Warren K Bickel, James MacKillop
Food is a primary reinforcer, and food reinforcement is related to obesity. The reinforcing value of food can be measured by establishing how hard someone will work to get food on progressive-ratio schedules. An alternative way to measure food reinforcement is a hypothetical purchase task which creates behavioral economic demand curves. This paper studies whether reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral demand approaches are assessing the same or unique aspects of food reinforcement for low (LED) and high (HED) energy density foods using a combination of analytic approaches in females of varying BMI...
April 3, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655598/individual-differences-in-the-energizing-effects-of-caffeine-on-effort-based-decision-making-tests-in-rats
#12
Noemí SanMiguel, Marta Pardo, Carla Carratalá-Ros, Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Motivated behavior is characterized by activation and high work output. Nucleus accumbens (Nacb) modulates behavioral activation and effort-based decision-making. Caffeine is widely consumed because of its energizing properties. This methylxanthine is a non-selective adenosine A1 /A2A receptor antagonist. Adenosine receptors are highly concentrated in Nacb. Adenosine agonists injected into Nacb, shift preference towards low effort alternatives. The present studies characterized effort-related effects of caffeine in a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/free reinforcer choice procedure that requires high levels of work output, and generates great variability among different animals...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590554/lateral-septum-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-affects-food-intake-and-motivation-for-sucrose-reinforcement
#13
Sarah J Terrill, Kaylee D Wall, Nelson D Medina, Calyn B Maske, Diana L Williams
The hormone ghrelin promotes eating and is widely considered to be a hunger signal. Ghrelin receptors, growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs), are found in a number of specific regions throughout the brain, including the lateral septum (LS), an area not traditionally associated with the control of feeding. Here we investigated whether GHSRs in the LS play a role in the control of food intake. We examined the feeding effects of ghrelin and the GHSR antagonists ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and JMV 2959), at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575323/clozapine-reduces-nicotine-self-administration-blunts-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking-but-increases-responding-for-food
#14
Andrew R Abela, Zhaoxia Li, Anh D Lê, Paul J Fletcher
People with schizophrenia display significantly higher rates of smoking than the general population, which may be due to an interaction between nicotine and antipsychotic medication. While the conventional antipsychotic drug haloperidol sometimes increases cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenia, there is some evidence suggesting that clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, may reduce nicotine use in these patients. However, the effects of antipsychotic drugs like clozapine on aspects of nicotine self-administration and reinstatement have not been systematically examined...
March 25, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535019/to-free-or-not-to-free-social-reinforcement-effects-in-the-social-release-paradigm-with-rats
#15
Lisa C Hiura, Lavinia Tan, Timothy D Hackenberg
The present research measured social reinforcement in rats, using a social-release procedure in which lever presses permitted 10-s access to a familiar social partner. The work requirements for reinforcement increased systematically according to progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. Social and food reinforcement value were compared across blocks of sessions (Experiment 1) and concurrently within the same sessions (Experiment 2). To assess motivational effects, response and reinforcer rates for both reinforcer types were studied under food restriction, social restriction, and combined food and social restriction...
March 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533738/intragastric-nutrient-infusion-reduces-motivation-for-food-in-male-and-female-rats
#16
Calyn B Maske, Gregory C Loney, Nicole Lilly, Sarah J Terrill, Diana L Williams
The idea that gut-derived satiation signals influence food reward has recently gained traction, but this hypothesis is largely based on studies focused on neural circuitry, not the peripherally released signals. Here, we directly tested the hypothesis that intragastric (IG) nutrient infusion can suppress motivation for food. In a series of experiments, IG sucrose infusion (15 kcal) significantly and reliably reduced operant responding for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Moreover, food deprivation for 24 h before the test session did not prevent the suppressive effect of nutrients...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520592/decrease-of-cocaine-but-not-heroin-self-administration-and-relapse-by-the-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-masitinib-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
A Belin-Rauscent, J Lacoste, O Hermine, A Moussy, B J Everitt, David Belin
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence shows that cocaine, and also heroin, influence several tyrosine kinases, expressed in neurons and in non-neuronal populations such as microglia, astrocytes and mast-cells. Drug-induced activation of mast cells both triggers inflammatory processes in the brain mediated by the glial cells they activate, and facilitates histamine release which may directly influence the dopamine system. Thus, by triggering the activation and degranulation of mast cells dependent on the tyrosine kinase c-kit and Fyn, the latter being also involved in NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity, cocaine and heroin may indirectly influence the neural mechanisms that mediate their reinforcing properties...
May 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486222/naltrexone-alters-alcohol-self-administration-behaviors-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-in-a-sex-dependent-manner-in-rats
#18
Steven J Nieto, Cana B Quave, Therese A Kosten
BACKGROUND: The mu-opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), is a FDA-approved treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD); however, the data on whether it differentially affects males vs. females are mixed. NTX increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity that associates with subjective responses to alcohol and craving in individuals with AUD. The present study tested for sex differences in the ability of NTX to decrease appetitive and consummatory behaviors in rats in operant alcohol self-administration...
April 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427608/comparison-between-male-and-female-rats-in-a-model-of-self-administration-of-a-chocolate-flavored-beverage-behavioral-and-neurochemical-studies
#19
Andrea Contini, Fabrizio Sanna, Paola Maccioni, Giancarlo Colombo, Antonio Argiolas
The existence of sex differences was studied in a rat model of operant self-administration of a chocolate-flavored beverage (CFB), which possesses strong reinforcing properties and is avidly consumed by rats. Whether these differences occurred concomitantly to changes in extracellular dopamine in the dialysate obtained from the nucleus accumbens, was assessed by intracerebral microdialysis. Male, ovariectomized and intact female rats showed similar self-administration profiles, with minor differences in both acquisition and maintenance phases...
May 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423710/intravenous-cocaine-self-administration-in-a-panel-of-inbred-mouse-strains-differing-in-acute-locomotor-sensitivity-to-cocaine
#20
Amanda J Roberts, Linzy Casal, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Trey Thompson, Lisa M Tarantino
RATIONALE: Initial sensitivity to drugs of abuse often predicts subsequent use and abuse, but this relationship is not always observed in human studies. Moreover, studies examining the relationship between initial locomotor sensitivity and the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs in animal models have also been equivocal. Understanding the relationship between initial drug effects and propensity to continue use, potentially resulting in the development of a substance use disorder, may help to identify key targets for prevention and treatment...
April 2018: Psychopharmacology
keyword
keyword
112603
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"