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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444326/preclinical-evidence-that-5-ht1b-receptor-agonists-show-promise-as-medications-for-psychostimulant-use-disorders
#1
Raul Garcia, Austin R Cotter, Kenneth Leslie, M Foster Olive, Janet L Neisewander
Background: 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) agonists enhance cocaine intake during daily self-administration sessions, but decrease cocaine intake when tested after prolonged abstinence. We examined if 5-HT1BR agonists produce similar abstinence-dependent effects on methamphetamine intake. Methods: Male rats were trained to self-administer methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg, IV) on low (FR5 and VR5) and high (progressive ratio; PR) effort schedules of reinforcement until intake was stable...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434654/compulsive-addiction-like-aggressive-behavior-in-mice
#2
Sam A Golden, Conor Heins, Marco Venniro, Daniele Caprioli, Michelle Zhang, David H Epstein, Yavin Shaham
BACKGROUND: Some people are highly motivated to seek aggressive encounters, and among those who have been incarcerated for such behavior, recidivism rates are high. These observations echo two core features of drug addiction: high motivation to seek addictive substances, despite adverse consequences, and high relapse rates. Here we used established rodent models of drug addiction to determine whether they would be sensitive to "addiction-like" features of aggression in CD-1 mice. METHODS: In experiments 1 and 2, we trained older CD-1 mice to lever press for opportunities to attack younger C57BL6/J mice...
March 17, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433467/modeling-hypohedonia-following-repeated-social-defeat-individual-vulnerability-and-dopaminergic-involvement
#3
Samantha R Spierling, Maegan Mattock, Eric P Zorrilla
Social defeat in rodents putatively can model hypohedonia. The present studies examined models for assessing hypohedonia-like behavior and tested the hypotheses that 1) individual differences in baseline reward sensitivity predict vulnerability, and 2) defeat elicits changes in pharmacological measures of striatal dopaminergic function. Male Wistar rats (n=142) received repeated defeat (3 "triad" blocks of 3 defeats) or control handling. To determine whether defeat influenced consumption of SuperSac (glucose-saccharin) over an isocaloric, less preferred, glucose solution, a 2-choice paradigm was used...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429835/levodopa-prevents-the-reinstatement-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats-via-potentiation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Silvia Antinori, Liana Fattore, Pierluigi Saba, Walter Fratta, Gian Luigi Gessa, Paola Devoto
Dopamine agonists have been proposed as therapeutic tools for cocaine addiction. We have recently demonstrated that indirect dopamine agonists, including levodopa (L-DOPA), markedly increase cocaine-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats leading to the suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. This study was aimed to understand the behavioral and neurochemical effects of L-DOPA on cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking in rats. After reaching a stable pattern of intravenous cocaine self-administration under a continuous fixed ratio (FR-1) schedule of reinforcement, male rats were treated with L-DOPA at different steps of the self-administration protocol...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419649/a-paradigm-for-examining-stress-effects-on-alcohol-motivated-behaviors-in-participants-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#5
Mary E McCaul, Gary S Wand, Elise M Weerts, Xiaoqiang Xu
Although epidemiological research has shown an increase in drinking following stressors and trauma, limited paradigms have been validated to study the relationship between stress and drinking in the human laboratory. The current study developed a progressive ratio (PR) operant procedure to examine the effects of psychosocial stress on alcohol craving and several alcohol-motivated behaviors in persons with alcohol use disorder. Current heavy, nontreatment-seeking drinkers (N = 30) were media-recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment of recent drinking, mood and health...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419646/suvorexant-an-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-motivational-and-hedonic-properties-of-cocaine
#6
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, David J Barker, Jessica K Shaw, Rodrigo A España, John W Muschamp
Orexins ('hypocretins') are peptides produced by neurons of the hypothalamus that project to structures implicated in reward and emotion processing. Converging evidence demonstrates functional roles of orexin signaling in arousal, sleep/wakefulness and motivated behaviors for natural and drug rewards. Suvorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to treat insomnia. In Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and the effects of suvorexant on motivation to self-administer cocaine were measured...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416376/seminal-plasma-removal-by-density-gradient-centrifugation-is-superior-for-goat-sperm-preservation-compared-with-classical-sperm-washing
#7
J Santiago-Moreno, M C Esteso, C Castaño, A Toledano-Díaz, J A Delgadillo, A López-Sebastián
Seminal plasma removal is routine in goat sperm cryopreservation protocols. The classical washing procedure designed to accomplish this usually leaves the pellet resulting from use of this procedure contaminated with dead sperm, debris, and cells other than sperm. This contamination negatively affects viability of sperm after cryopreservation. The present research was conducted to compare the effect on chilled and frozen-thawed goat sperm of the classical washing method to that of a selective washing method involving density gradient centrifugation (DGC)...
April 9, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416255/differences-between-2nd-and-3rd-generation-seric-parathormone-determination-methods-on-mortality-in-haemodialysis-patients
#8
Laura Rodríguez-Osorio, Concepción de la Piedra, Mercedes Rupert, Marta Martín-Fernández, María Luisa González Casaus, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Jesús Egido, Ricardo Villa-Bellosta, Emilio González Parra
Parathormone plays a key role in controlling mineral metabolism. PTH is considered a uremic toxin causing cardiovascular damage and cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. There are two different assays to measure PTH called 2nd generation or intact PTH (iPTH) and 3rd generation or bioPTH (PTHbio). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences in mortality of dialysis patients between both assays to measure PTH, as well as the possible prognostic role of the PTHbio/iPTH ratio. METHODS: 145 haemodialysis patients were included with 2-year monitoring including baseline laboratory test and annually thereafter...
April 14, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393896/effects-of-ibudilast-on-the-subjective-reinforcing-and-analgesic-effects-of-oxycodone-in-recently-detoxified-adults-with-opioid-dependence
#9
Verena E Metz, Jermaine D Jones, Jeanne Manubay, Maria Sullivan, Shanthi Mogali, Andrew Segoshi, Gabriela Madera, Kirk W Johnson, Sandra D Comer
Ibudilast, a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used clinically in Asia for the treatment of asthma and post-stroke dizziness. Recent preclinical studies have suggested that it also inhibits glial cell activation in rodents, and may alter opioid-mediated effects, including analgesia and withdrawal symptoms. The effects of ibudilast on the abuse potential of opioids in humans are largely unknown. The present study was designed to examine the influence of ibudilast on subjective (including drug craving), reinforcing, and analgesic effects of oxycodone in human volunteers diagnosed with opioid dependence (equivalent to moderate-severe opioid use disorder)...
April 10, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392607/in-the-pursuit-of-sons-additional-births-or-sex-selective-abortion-in-pakistan
#10
Batool Zaidi, S Philip Morgan
Even though Pakistan is a highly patriarchal society, it has not featured prominently in studies focusing on sex-selective abortion and sex ratios at birth. But with fertility declining and existing strong son preference-Pakistan has one of the highest desired sex ratios in the world-how will Pakistani families respond? In the pursuit of sons, will they have additional children or resort to sex-selective abortions? Or is there evidence that the pursuit of sons is weakening? Using data from three rounds of the demographic and health survey, we show clear evidence of son preference in fertility intentions, patterns of contraceptive use and parity progression ratios...
December 2016: Population and Development Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382893/adding-a-reward-increases-the-reinforcing-value-of-fruit
#11
Nathalie De Cock, Leentje Vervoort, Patrick Kolsteren, Lieven Huybregts, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Jolien Vangeel, Melissa Notebaert, Kathleen Beullens, Lien Goossens, Lea Maes, Benedicte Deforche, Caroline Braet, Steven Eggermont, John Van Camp, Carl Lachat
Adolescents' snack choices could be altered by increasing the reinforcing value (RV) of healthy snacks compared with unhealthy snacks. This study assessed whether the RV of fruit increased by linking it to a reward and if this increased RV was comparable with the RV of unhealthy snacks alone. Moderation effects of sex, hunger, BMI z-scores and sensitivity to reward were also explored. The RV of snacks was assessed in a sample of 165 adolescents (15·1 (sd 1·5) years, 39·4 % boys and 17·4 % overweight) using a computerised food reinforcement task...
February 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382542/kk-92a-a-novel-gabab-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-attenuates-nicotine-self-administration-and-cue-induced-nicotine-seeking-in-rats
#12
Xia Li, Emmanuel Sturchler, Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Michael Cameron, M G Finn, Patrick Griffin, Patricia McDonald, Athina Markou
RATIONALE: GABAB receptors (GABABR) play a critical role in GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain and are thought to be one of the most promising targets for the treatment of drug addiction. GABABR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have shown promise as potential anti-addictive therapies, as they lack the sedative and muscle relaxant properties of full GABAB receptor agonists such as baclofen. OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed at developing novel, selective, and potent GABABR PAMs with efficacy on abuse-related effects of nicotine...
April 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365197/high-sucrose-diets-in-male-rats-disrupt-aspects-of-decision-making-tasks-motivation-and-spatial-memory-but-not-impulsivity-measured-by-operant-delay-discounting
#13
Alanna Wong, Vimi R Dogra, Amy C Reichelt
Excessive consumption of sugar sweetened drinks is proposed to produce functional changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, leading to perturbations in behavioural control. Impairments in behavioural control have been observed in obese people on tasks that involve making choices, including delay-discounting, indicative of increased impulsivity. In this study we examined the impact of 2h daily access to 10% sucrose (or no sucrose in controls) in young male rats on behavioural tasks reliant on hippocampal function including delay-discounting, T-maze forced choice alternation and place recognition memory, as well as progressive ratio to measure motivation...
March 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365196/female-sprague-dawley-rats-display-greater-appetitive-and-consummatory-responses-to-alcohol
#14
Steven J Nieto, Therese A Kosten
The narrowing of the gender gap in alcohol drinking patterns is a concern because women are more susceptible to adverse health consequences of alcohol use. Animal models of alcohol-seeking and -consuming are useful to delineate sex differences to test for effective sex-specific pharmacological treatments. We investigated potential sex differences in appetitive and consummatory responses to alcohol. Appetitive behaviors included numbers of head entries into the dipper access area and active lever presses. Consummatory behaviors included number of reinforcers delivered and consumed...
March 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347737/sex-differences-in-alcohol-self-administration-and-relapse-like-behavior-in-long-evans-rats
#15
Patrick A Randall, Robert T Stewart, Joyce Besheer
Alcohol use disorders are a costly public health dilemma. Complicating this issue is the general lack of basic research assessing sex differences in many aspects of alcohol seeking and taking behaviors. The current experiments sought to decrease this gap in our understanding of sex differences in alcohol use disorders by assessing both male and female Long-Evans rats in parallel on alcohol self-administration, relapse-like behavior following abstinence and extinction, and motivation to respond for the standard alcohol solution and a quinine-adulterated alcohol solution...
March 25, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342089/voluntary-induction-and-maintenance-of-alcohol-dependence-in-rats-using-alcohol-vapor-self-administration
#16
Giordano de Guglielmo, Marsida Kallupi, Maury D Cole, Olivier George
RATIONALE: A major issue in the addiction field is the limited number of animal models of the voluntary induction and maintenance of alcohol dependence in outbred rats. OBJECTIVES: To address this issue, we developed a novel apparatus that vaporizes alcohol for 2-10 min after an active nosepoke response. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were allowed to self-administer alcohol vapor for 8 h/day every other day for 24 sessions (escalated) or eight sessions (non-escalated)...
March 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334294/an-examination-of-the-role-of-l-glutamate-and-inosine-5-monophosphate-in-hedonic-taste-guided-behavior-by-mice-lacking-the-t1r1-t1r3-receptor
#17
Ginger D Blonde, Alan C Spector
The heterodimeric T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is considered critical for normal signaling of L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides in the oral cavity. However, some taste-guided responsiveness remains in mice lacking one subunit of the receptor, suggesting that other receptors are sufficient to support some behaviors. Here, mice lacking both receptor subunits (KO) and wild-type (WT, both n = 13) mice were tested in a battery of behavioral tests. Mice were trained and tested in gustometers with a concentration series of Maltrin-580, a maltodextrin, in a brief-access test (10-s trials) as a positive control...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318841/acquisition-of-nicotine-self-administration-in-amphetamine-and-phencyclidine-models-of-schizophrenia-a-role-for-stress
#18
Paul J Fletcher, Zhaoxia Li, Kathleen M Coen, Anh D Lê
Nicotine use and dependence is very high in patients with schizophrenia. One possible reason is that altered dopamine or glutamate activity in schizophrenia enhances the reinforcing effectiveness of nicotine. We used animal models to test the hypothesis that a hyperdopaminergic state (induced by repeated intermittent injections of amphetamine) or altered glutamate function (subchronic injection of phencyclidine, PCP) facilitates spontaneous acquisition of nicotine self-administration in rats. In Experiment 1 animals in an amphetamine-induced sensitized state (AISS) did not differ from saline-injected controls in their acquisition and maintenance of nicotine self-administration...
March 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287790/cocaine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats-perinatally-exposed-to-pcbs-evaluating-drug-use-in-an-animal-model-of-environmental-contaminant-exposure
#19
Mellessa M Miller, Abby E Meyer, Jenna L N Sprowles, Helen J K Sable
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely impact human health. Ortho-substituted PCBs affect the nervous system, including the brain dopaminergic system. The reinforcing effects of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this study used a preclinical (i.e., rodent) model to evaluate whether developmental contaminant exposure altered intravenous self-administration (IV SA) for the psychostimulant cocaine. Long-Evans rats were perinatally exposed to 6 or 3 mg/kg/day of PCBs throughout gestation and lactation and compared with nonexposed controls...
April 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276573/preference-and-reinforcer-efficacy-of-high-and-low-tech-items-a-comparison-of-item-type-and-duration-of-access
#20
Audrey N Hoffmann, Andrew L Samaha, Sarah E Bloom, Megan A Boyle
This study examined the interactions of stimulus type (high- vs. low-tech) and magnitude (duration of access) on preference and reinforcer efficacy. Two preference assessments were conducted to identify highly preferred high-tech and low-tech items for each participant. A subsequent assessment examined preference for those items when provided at 30-s and 600-s durations. We then evaluated reinforcer efficacy for those same items when provided for a range of durations using progressive-ratio schedules. Results suggested item type and access duration interacted to influence preference and reinforcer efficacy...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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