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Igor Shuryak, Eric J Hall, David J Brenner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accelerated repopulation (AR) can compromise tumor control after conventional radiotherapy for fast-growing tumors. Standard AR models assume it begins at a fixed time, with repopulation rates independent of the number of clonogens killed. We investigate the validity and significance of an alternative model where onset-time and rate of AR depend on the number of clonogens killed, and thus on dose and dose-fractionation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed tumor control (TCP) from randomized trials for head and neck cancer (HNC, 7283 patients), featuring wide ranges of doses, times, and fractionation-schemes...
March 10, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Nicolas Molinie, Alexis Gautreau
Cell migration is suppressed by confluence in a process called contact inhibition. Relieving contact inhibition upon scratching is one of the simplest ways to induce cell migration in a variety of cell types. Wound healing is probably most relevant to epithelial monolayers, because epithelial cells generally assume a barrier function, which must be restored as fast as possible by the healing process. This versatile assay, however, can also be applied to fibroblasts and to tumor cell types. Furthermore, assessing the cell response to scratch wounding requires no special equipment or reagents...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gessica Araujo Franco, Rogerio Fonseca Guimaraes Peres, Cicero Fleury Guedes Martins, Sydney Taylor Reese, Jose Luiz Moraes Vasconcelos, Ky Garrett Pohler
Pregnancy loss is a major contributing factor to reproductive inefficiency in both the beef and dairy industries. Sires can have a significant influence on the amount of pregnancy loss; however, this relationship is still poorly investigated. The primary objective of this study was to identify sires associated with high or low incidence of pregnancy loss (between d 30 and 100 of gestation) and investigate their effect on concentration of circulating pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). Postpartum multiparous Nelore cows were inseminated artificially at a fixed time (FTAI, d 0) after synchronization of ovulation...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Simon Girel, Fabien Crauste
Unequal partitioning of the molecular content at cell division has been shown to be a source of heterogeneity in a cell population. We propose to model this phenomenon with the help of a scalar, nonlinear impulsive differential equation (IDE). To study the effect of molecular partitioning at cell division on the effector/memory cell-fate decision in a CD8 T-cell lineage, we study an IDE describing the concentration of the protein Tbet in a CD8 T-cell, where impulses are associated to cell division. We discuss how the degree of asymmetry of molecular partitioning can affect the process of cell differentiation and the phenotypical heterogeneity of a cell population...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Shruti Jain, Nazia Nazir, Shipra Singh, Suveer Sharma
Background and Aims: Low-volume high-concentration bupivacaine irrigation of the peritoneal cavity has been reported to be ineffective for short-term analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of intraperitoneal instillation of high-volume low-concentration bupivacaine for post-operative analgesia in LC. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing LC were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomised study...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Domenico De Santis, Damiano Caruso, U Joseph Schoepf, Marwen Eid, Moritz H Albrecht, Taylor M Duguay, Akos Varga-Szemes, Andrea Laghi, Carlo N De Cecco
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the minimum iodine delivery rate (IDR) required to achieve diagnostic coronary attenuation (300 HU) with dual-energy coronary CTA. METHODS: Acquisitions were performed on a circulation phantom with a third- generation dual-source CT scanner. Contrast media was injected for a fixed time whilst IDRs varied from 1.0 to 0.3 gI/s in 0.1-gI/s intervals. Noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstructions from 40 to 90 keV in 5 keV increments were generated...
February 27, 2018: European Radiology
Hany M Elrakhawy, Mohamed A Alassal, Ayman M Shaalan, Ahmed A Awad, Sameh Sayed, Mohammad M Saffan
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction after pulmonary resection in the early postoperative period is documented by reduced RV ejection fraction and increased RV end-diastolic volume index. Supraventricular arrhythmia, particularly atrial fibrillation, is common after pulmonary resection. RV assessment can be done by non-invasive methods and/or invasive approaches such as right cardiac catheterization. Incorporation of a rapid response thermistor to pulmonary artery catheter permits continuous measurements of cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume...
January 15, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
Olle Ten Cate, Larry D Gruppen, Jennifer R Kogan, Lorelei A Lingard, Pim W Teunissen
The introduction of competency-based medical education has shifted thinking from a fixed-time model to one stressing attained competencies, independent of the time needed to arrive at those competencies. In this article, the authors explore theoretical and conceptual issues related to time variability in medical training, starting with the Carroll model from the 1960s that put time in the equation of learning. They discuss mastery learning, deliberate practice, and learning curves.While such behaviorist theories apply well to structured courses and highly structured training settings, learning in the clinical workplace is not well captured in such theories or in the model that Carroll proposed...
March 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Paul S Albert
Prediction of preterm birth as well as characterizing the etiological factors affecting both the recurrence and incidence of preterm birth (defined as gestational age at birth ≤ 37 wk) are important problems in obstetrics. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) consecutive pregnancy study recently examined this question by collecting data on a cohort of women with at least 2 pregnancies over a fixed time interval. Unfortunately, measurement error due to the dating of conception may induce sizable error in computing gestational age at birth...
February 21, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
M Haj, H H W de Gier, M van Veen-van der Hoek, S L Versnel, L N van Adrichem, E B Wolvius, J A Hazelzet, M J Koudstaal
The quality of care for patients with cleft lip and palate is extremely variable across the world. Treatment protocols differ and methods of data registration are not uniform. Improving this care by means of comparative research is challenging. The best treatment programmes can be identified by uniformly registering patient-orientated outcomes and comparing the outcomes with those of other treatment centres. That knowledge can be used to improve one's own care. An international team consisting of specialists and cleft lip and palate patients has developed a set of outcome measures that are considered by patients to be most important...
February 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Krzysztof Ptaszyński
Fluctuations in stochastic systems are usually characterized by full counting statistics, which analyzes the distribution of the number of events taking place in the fixed time interval. In an alternative approach, the distribution of the first-passage times, i.e., the time delays after which the counting variable reaches a certain threshold value, is studied. This paper presents the approach to calculate the first-passage time distribution in systems in which the analyzed current is associated with an arbitrary set of transitions within the Markovian network...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Gabriele Babini, Jacopo Morini, Sofia Barbieri, Giorgio Baiocco, Giovanni Battista Ivaldi, Marco Liotta, Paola Tabarelli de Fatis, Andrea Ottolenghi
The protocol adopted in this work aims at unraveling how X-rays perturb the functioning of the intestinal barrier, focusing on the interplay between colorectal tumor cells and the immune system. Colorectal carcinoma is among the most common type of cancer, typically treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Advantages of radiotherapy in targeting the tumor are well known. However, even limited exposures of healthy tissues are of great concern, particularly regarding the effects on the intestinal barrier and the immune system...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ruoyu Wei, Jinde Cao, Ahmed Alsaedi
This paper investigates the finite-time synchronization and fixed-time synchronization problems of inertial memristive neural networks with time-varying delays. By utilizing the Filippov discontinuous theory and Lyapunov stability theory, several sufficient conditions are derived to ensure finite-time synchronization of inertial memristive neural networks. Then, for the purpose of making the setting time independent of initial condition, we consider the fixed-time synchronization. A novel criterion guaranteeing the fixed-time synchronization of inertial memristive neural networks is derived...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Alexandre B Prata, Jéssica N Drum, Leonardo F Melo, Estela R Araujo, Roberto Sartori
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eCG or hCG on the final growth of the dominant follicle in Nelore (Bos indicus) cows submitted to fixed-time AI (FTAI). Eighty-four lactating cows with body condition score (BCS) of 2.9 (range 1-5) were used. At a random day of the estrous cycle (D0) cows received 2 mg estradiol benzoate and a reused intravaginal progesterone device (1.9 g). At D8, when the device was removed, 0.5 mg cloprostenol and 1 mg estradiol cypionate was given i.m., and cows were randomly assigned to receive on D8 one of the following treatments: Control (no treatment; n = 17), eCG (300 IU i...
January 31, 2018: Theriogenology
L F Melo, P L J Monteiro, A B Nascimento, J N Drum, C Spies, A B Prata, M C Wiltbank, R Sartori
This experiment aimed to compare circulating progesterone (P4), follicular dynamics, and fertility during reuse of intravaginal P4 implants that were sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection in lactating Holstein cows submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). For this, 123 primiparous and 226 multiparous cows from 2 farms, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 163.9 ± 141.9 d in milk, 35.7 ± 11.3 kg of milk/d, and a body condition score of 2.9 ± 0.5, were enrolled in the study. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments using a completely randomized design and each cow received a reused implant (1...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jiarong Li, Haijun Jiang, Cheng Hu, Zhiyong Yu
This paper is devoted to the exponential synchronization, finite time synchronization, and fixed-time synchronization of Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (CGNNs) with discontinuous activations and time-varying delays. Discontinuous feedback controller and Novel adaptive feedback controller are designed to realize global exponential synchronization, finite time synchronization and fixed-time synchronization by adjusting the values of the parameters ω in the controller. Furthermore, the settling time of the fixed-time synchronization derived in this paper is less conservative and more accurate...
January 9, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Gregory A Lieving, Iser G DeLeon, Abbey B Carreau-Webster, Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mandy M Triggs
Behavioral momentum theory is a quantitative framework used to characterize the persistence of behavior during response disruptors as a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. Results of several investigations have shown that alternative reinforcement can increase the resistance to change of a target response during extinction. In the present study, concomitant variable-interval fixed-time schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior were employed to simulate naturalistic situations involving the superimposition of response-independent reinforcers on a baseline schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior, as in the common use of noncontingent reinforcement treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Mingwen Zheng, Lixiang Li, Haipeng Peng, Jinghua Xiao, Yixian Yang, Yanping Zhang, Hui Zhao
This paper mainly studies the globally fixed-time synchronization of a class of coupled neutral-type neural networks with mixed time-varying delays via discontinuous feedback controllers. Compared with the traditional neutral-type neural network model, the model in this paper is more general. A class of general discontinuous feedback controllers are designed. With the help of the definition of fixed-time synchronization, the upper right-hand derivative and a defined simple Lyapunov function, some easily verifiable and extensible synchronization criteria are derived to guarantee the fixed-time synchronization between the drive and response systems...
2018: PloS One
Waqar Haque, Vivek Verma, Mohamad Fakhreddine, E Brian Butler, Bin S Teh, Charles B Simone
PURPOSE: To use the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to compare cardiac-specific mortality (CSM) between left- and right-sided locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients treated with definitive radiation therapy; and to stratify these patients over fixed time intervals to assess for differences in events by treatment era. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The SEER database was queried for patients with stage III NSCLC who received radiation therapy to compare CSM between left- and right-sided primary cases at 5 time intervals: 1988-1992, 1993-1997, 1998-2002, 2003-2007, and 2008-2012...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
V R Kasimanickam, R L Abdel Aziz, H M Williams, R K Kasimanickam
Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) factors influencing calf temperament at weaning, (ii) association between heifer-calf temperament at weaning and temperament at breeding and (iii) effect of heifer-calf temperament on pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (P/AI). In experiment 1, beef cows and their calves (n = 285) from three farms were used. Sire docility estimated progeny difference (EPD) score, birth type (normal or assisted), calf gender, calf behaviour (during 1st 4 weeks) and calf health status (until weaning) were recorded...
January 19, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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