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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057322/the-assessment-of-fetal-brain-growth-in-diabetic-pregnancy-using-in-utero-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
M Paddock, R Akram, D A Jarvis, P Armitage, S Song, P Madhuvrata, P D Griffiths
AIM: To assess fetal brain growth over the third trimester in pregnant women with diabetes using in utero magnetic resonance imaging (iuMRI) to determine if greater brain growth occurs in type 1 (T1DM) when compared to gestational (GDM) diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each consented participant was scanned at three fixed times during the third trimester using iuMRI. One hundred and fifty-seven patients were approached, 48 participants were recruited, and 36 complete data sets were analysed...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042157/follicular-dynamics-and-ovulation-time-in-gilts-and-post-weaning-sows
#2
Sara I Williams, R Luzbel de la Sota
Ultrasonography was used to study follicular dynamics from the beginning of estrus to ovulation in pubertal gilts and post-weaning sows. Ultrasound turned out to be a useful tool to determine patterns of growth of preovulatory follicles, to predict ovulation time, and to design protocols for fixed time insemination.
January 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035520/test-retest-reliability-of-the-multifocal-photopic-negative-response
#3
Anthony W Van Alstine, Suresh Viswanathan
PURPOSE: To assess the test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) of normal human subjects. METHODS: Multifocal electroretinograms were recorded from one eye of 61 healthy adult subjects on two separate days using a Visual Evoked Response Imaging System software version 4.3 (EDI, San Mateo, California). The visual stimulus delivered on a 75-Hz monitor consisted of seven equal-sized hexagons each subtending 12° of visual angle...
December 29, 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025385/prognostic-value-of-bone-and-vascular-derived-molecular-biomarkers-in-hemodialysis-and-renal-transplant-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Gernot Pichler, Maria C Haller, Alexander Kainz, Myles Wolf, Josep Redon, Rainer Oberbauer
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing hemodialysis and kidney graft recipients are high-risk populations for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANK ligand, osteopontin (OPN), Klotho protein and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) are bone- and vascular-derived molecular biomarkers that have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular surrogate end points; however, currently available data on the prognostic value of these biomarkers is inconsistent...
December 26, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989269/dietary-tryptophan-depletion-in-humans-using-a-simplified-two-amino-acid-formula-a-pilot-study
#5
Maike Linden, Katrin Helmbold, Janina Kempf, Shabnam Sippas, Christian Filss, Karl-Josef Langen, Albrecht Eisert, Florian Daniel Zepf
BACKGROUND: Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a well-established dietary method in translational brain research used to briefly lower central nervous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) synthesis. A simplified two amino acid ATD formula (ATDPHE/LEU) was developed while reducing the overall amount of amino acids (AAs), with the objective of administration especially in children and adolescents in future studies. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated tryptophan (TRP) influx rates across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after dietary ATDPHE/LEU administration relative to the ATD Moja-De protocol that has been established for use in children and adolescents...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930326/cell-size-and-growth-regulation-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-apical-stem-cell-niche
#6
Lisa Willis, Yassin Refahi, Raymond Wightman, Benoit Landrein, José Teles, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Henrik Jönsson
Cell size and growth kinetics are fundamental cellular properties with important physiological implications. Classical studies on yeast, and recently on bacteria, have identified rules for cell size regulation in single cells, but in the more complex environment of multicellular tissues, data have been lacking. In this study, to characterize cell size and growth regulation in a multicellular context, we developed a 4D imaging pipeline and applied it to track and quantify epidermal cells over 3-4 d in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristems...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924594/adhesion-of-yeast-and-bacteria-to-oral-surfaces
#7
Richard D Cannon, Karl M Lyons, Kenneth Chong, Kathryn Newsham-West, Kyoko Niimi, Ann R Holmes
Colonization of surfaces in the human body by microorganisms is an early, essential, step in the initiation of infectious disease. We have developed in vitro assays to investigate interactions between yeast or bacterial cells and human tissues, fluids, or prostheses. Such assays can be used to identify the adhesins, ligands, and receptors involved in these interactions, for example, by determining which components of the microbe or human tissue/fluid interfere with adherence in the assay. The assays can also be applied to finding ways of preventing adhesion, and subsequent disease, by investigating the effects of different conditions and added compounds on adherence in the in vitro assays...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903655/random-versus-cell-cycle-regulated-replication-initiation-in-bacteria-insights-from-studying-vibrio-cholerae-chromosome-2
#8
REVIEW
Revathy Ramachandran, Jyoti Jha, Johan Paulsson, Dhruba Chattoraj
Bacterial chromosomes initiate replication at a fixed time in the cell cycle, whereas there is generally no particular time for plasmid replication initiation or chromosomal replication initiation from integrated plasmids. In bacteria with divided genomes, the replication system of one of the chromosomes typically resembles that of bacteria with undivided genomes, whereas the remaining chromosomes have plasmid-like replication systems. For example, in Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium with two chromosomes (chromosome 1 [Chr1] and Chr2), the Chr1 system resembles that of the Escherichia coli chromosome, and the Chr2 system resembles that of iteron-based plasmids...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898921/using-estrus-detection-patches-to-optimally-time-insemination-improved-pregnancy-risk-in-suckled-beef-cows-enrolled-in-a-fixed-time-artificial-insemination-program
#9
S L Hill, D M Grieger, K C Olson, J R Jaeger, C R Dahlen, G A Bridges, F Dantas, J E Larson, A M Muth-Spurlock, J K Ahola, M C Fischer, G A Perry, E L Larimore, T L Steckler, W D Whittier, J F Currin, J S Stevenson
A multilocation study examined pregnancy risk (PR) after delaying AI in suckled beef cows from 60 to 75 h when estrus had not been detected by 60 h in response to a 7-d CO-Synch + progesterone insert (CIDR) timed AI (TAI) program (d -7: CIDR insert concurrent with an injection of GnRH; d 0: PGF injection and removal of CIDR insert; and GnRH injection at TAI [60 or 75 h after CIDR removal]). A total of 1,611 suckled beef cows at 15 locations in 9 states (CO, IL, KS, MN, MS, MT, ND, SD, and VA) were enrolled...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898908/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-increased-pregnancy-risk-in-suckled-beef-cows-not-detected-in-estrus-and-subjected-to-a-split-time-artificial-insemination-program
#10
S L Hill, D M Grieger, K C Olson, J R Jaeger, C R Dahlen, M R Crosswhite, N Negrin Pereira, S R Underdahl, B W Neville, J Ahola, M C Fischer, G E Seidel, J S Stevenson
We hypothesized that GnRH would increase pregnancy risk (PR) in a split-time AI program for cows in which estrus was not detected. A total of 1,236 suckled beef cows at 12 locations in 3 states (Colorado, Kansas, and North Dakota) were enrolled. Before applying the fixed-time AI program, BCS was assessed. Cows were treated on d -7 with a progesterone insert concurrent with 100 μg GnRH and on d 0 with 25 mg PGF plus removal of the insert. Estrus-detection patches were affixed to cows at insert removal. Estrus was defined to have occurred when an estrus-detection patch was >50% colored (activated)...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898873/sire-line-of-pigs-affects-weaning-weight-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-offspring
#11
L Vermeulen, S Van Beirendonck, A Bulens, J Van Thielen, B Driessen
Today, early weaning is more frequently applied by the modern pig breeder to obtain more litters per year. In addition, more and more European pig breeders apply a batch management system, which allows weaning to occur at fixed time points but entails that the offspring are treated at the litter level and not as individuals. Both evolutions might result in weaning lightweight piglets, which can cause, e.g., growth retardation of the offspring. Hence, the objective of this research was to improve the weaning weight of piglets of the same age by breeding with a highly conformed sire line...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893278/expected-fitness-gains-of-randomized-search-heuristics-for-the-traveling-salesperson-problem
#12
Samadhi Nallaperuma, Frank Neumann, Dirk Sudholt
Randomized search heuristics are frequently applied to NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. The runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics has contributed tremendously to their theoretical understanding. Recently, randomized search heuristics have been examined regarding their achievable progress within a fixed time budget. We follow this approach and present a fixed budget analysis for an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. We consider the well-known Traveling Salesperson problem (TSP) and analyze the fitness increase that randomized search heuristics are able to achieve within a given fixed time budget...
November 28, 2016: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871103/development-of-an-unbiased-validation-protocol-to-assess-the-biofidelity-of-finite-element-head-models-used-in-prediction-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Chiara Giordano, Svein Kleiven
This study describes a method to identify laboratory test procedures and impact response requirements suitable for assessing the biofidelity of finite element head models used in prediction of traumatic brain injury. The selection of the experimental data and the response requirements were result of a critical evaluation based on the accuracy, reproducibility and relevance of the available experimental data. A weighted averaging procedure was chosen in order to consider different contributions from the various test conditions and target measurements based on experimental error...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859323/no-association-between-frequent-apheresis-donation-and-risk-of-fractures-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis-from-sweden
#14
Katrine Grau, Senthil K Vasan, Klaus Rostgaard, Walter Bialkowski, Rut Norda, Henrik Hjalgrim, Gustaf Edgren
BACKGROUND: Citrate anticoagulation during apheresis induces transient alterations in calcium homeostasis. It is unknown whether the repeated, transient alterations in calcium homeostasis experienced by repeated apheresis donors affects bone turnover to increase fracture risk. Our aim was to investigate the risk of osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic fracture among voluntary, frequent apheresis donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All apheresis donors were identified from the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database (SCANDAT2), which includes information on over 1...
November 18, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857684/spatial-localization-of-sources-in-the-rat-subthalamic-motor-region-using-an-inverse-current-source-density-method
#15
Kees J van Dijk, Marcus L F Janssen, Daphne G M Zwartjes, Yasin Temel, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Peter H Veltink, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Tjitske Heida
Objective: In this study we introduce the use of the current source density (CSD) method as a way to visualize the spatial organization of evoked responses in the rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) at fixed time stamps resulting from motor cortex stimulation. This method offers opportunities to visualize neuronal input and study the relation between the synaptic input and the neural output of neural populations. Approach: Motor cortex evoked local field potentials and unit activity were measured in the subthalamic region, with a 3D measurement grid consisting of 320 measurement points and high spatial resolution...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809882/comparative-effects-of-nebivolol-and-carvedilol-on-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-in-older-heart-failure-patients-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Kyungil Park, Tae-Ho Park
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a common and disabling condition in older people. Randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have clearly demonstrated that the long-term use of β-Blockers improves the outcome of patients with HF. However, limited data are available on the treatment of older HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). No study has specifically compared the relative effectiveness of carvedilol and nebivolol in treating HF in older patients with preserved EF...
November 3, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798025/views-of-patients-and-professionals-about-electronic-multicompartment-medication-devices-a-qualitative-study
#17
Jill Hall, Christine Bond, Moira Kinnear, Brian McKinstry
OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceived acceptability, advantages and disadvantages of electronic multicompartment medication devices. DESIGN: Qualitative study using 8 focus groups and 10 individual semistructured interviews. Recordings were transcribed and analysed thematically. Strategies were employed to ensure the findings were credible and trustworthy. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Community pharmacists (n=11), general practitioners (n=9), community nurses (n=12) and social care managers (n=8) were recruited from the National Health Service (NHS) and local authority services...
October 17, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782940/effects-of-obesity-and-leptin-deficiency-on-morphine-pharmacokinetics-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Nicholas M Dalesio, Craig W Hendrix, Douglas Hale McMichael, Carol B Thompson, Carlton K K Lee, Huy Pho, Rafael S Arias, Rachael Rzasa Lynn, Jeffrey Galinkin, Myron Yaster, Robert H Brown, Alan R Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes multiorgan dysfunction, specifically metabolic abnormalities in the liver. Obese patients are opioid-sensitive and have high rates of respiratory complications after surgery. Obesity also has been shown to cause resistance to leptin, an adipose-derived hormone that is key in regulating hunger, metabolism, and respiratory stimulation. We hypothesized that obesity and leptin deficiency impair opioid pharmacokinetics (PK) independently of one another. METHODS: Morphine PK were characterized in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT), diet-induced obese (DIO), and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, and in ob/ob mice given leptin-replacement (LR) therapy...
December 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775651/degree-of-suppression-of-mouse-myoblast-cell-line-c%C3%A2-c12-differentiation-varies-according-to-chondroitin-sulfate-subtype
#19
Katsuhiko Warita, Nana Oshima, Naoko Takeda-Okuda, Jun-Ichi Tamura, Yoshinao Z Hosaka
Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C₂C12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time...
October 21, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774037/uptake-of-silver-nanoparticles-by-monocytic-thp-1-cells-depends-on-particle-size-and-presence-of-serum-proteins
#20
Katja Kettler, Christina Giannakou, Wim H de Jong, A Jan Hendriks, Petra Krystek
Human health risks by silver nanoparticle (AgNP) exposure are likely to increase due to the increasing number of NP-containing products and demonstrated adverse effects in various cell lines. Unfortunately, results from (toxicity) studies are often based on exposure dose and are often measured only at a fixed time point. NP uptake kinetics and the time-dependent internal cellular concentration are often not considered. Macrophages are the first line of defense against invading foreign agents including NPs. How macrophages deal with the particles is essential for potential toxicity of the NPs...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
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