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Peter Verbrugghe, Jelle Verhoeven, Marnick Clijsters, Dominique Vervoort, Walter Coudyzer, Eric Verbeken, Bart Meuris, Paul Herijgers
BACKGROUND: Aortic abdominal aneurysms are a potentially deathly disease, needing surgical or endovascular treatment. To evaluate potentially new diagnostic tools and treatments a large animal model, which not only resembles the morphological characteristics but also the pathophysiological background, would be useful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rodent animal aneurysm models were extrapolated to sheep. Four groups were created: intraluminal infusion with an elastase-collagenase solution (n=4), infusion with elastase-collagenase solution combined with proximal stenosis (n=7), aortic xenograft (n=3), and elastase-collagenase treated xenograft (n=4)...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Markus Nyberg, Ludvig Lizana
The persistence of a stochastic variable is the probability that it does not cross a given level during a fixed time interval. Although persistence is a simple concept to understand, it is in general hard to calculate. Here we consider zero mean Gaussian stationary processes in discrete time n. Few results are known for the persistence P_{0}(n) in discrete time, except the large time behavior which is characterized by the nontrivial constant θ through P_{0}(n)∼θ^{n}. Using a modified version of the independent interval approximation (IIA) that we developed before, we are able to calculate P_{0}(n) analytically in z-transform space in terms of the autocorrelation function A(n)...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Boris S Kerner
We have revealed physical features of automated driving in the framework of the three-phase traffic theory for which there is no fixed time headway to the preceding vehicle. A comparison with the classical model approach to automated driving for which an automated driving vehicle tries to reach a fixed (desired or "optimal") time headway to the preceding vehicle has been made. It turns out that automated driving in the framework of the three-phase traffic theory can exhibit the following advantages in comparison with the classical model of automated driving: (i) The absence of string instability...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Naser A Naser, Kasim M Alasedi, Zainab A Khan
A new trend describes the development and validation of a simple, sensitive and selective kinetic spectrophotometric methods for the determination of sulfadiazine in pharmaceutical formulations has been conducted. In this paper, sulfadiazine was derivatized as a new organic compound 4(4-sulphophenylazo) pyrogallol, 4-SPAP, by coupling pyrogallol with diazotized sulfadiazine in medium of controlled pH. 4-SPAP was characterized by techniques of FT-IR, H-NMR, GC-Mass, TG and DSC thermal analysis methods. Solvatochromic behavior in solvents of various polarities was also investigated...
May 4, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jennifer R Matos, Julie R McSwain, Bethany J Wolf, J Wesley Doty, Sylvia H Wilson
PURPOSE: Peri-operative hypothermia is associated with increased blood loss, delayed wound healing, and surgical site infections. However, it is not known when or how rapidly hypothermia develops during arthroplasty. This study observed patients undergoing lower extremity arthroplasty to identify the times of greatest heat loss or gain. METHODS: This single-institution prospective observational study enrolled 120 patients undergoing elective knee or hip arthroplasty for peri-operative temporal temperature measurements at ten prespecified intervals...
May 11, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Bernadette Scutellà, Ioan Cristian Trelea, Erwan Bourlès, Fernanda Fonseca, Stephanie Passot
During the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process, mass transfer resistance strongly affects the product temperature, and consequently the final product quality. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the variability of the mass transfer resistance resulting from the dried product layer (Rp ) in a manufacturing batch of vials, and its potential effect on the product temperature, from data obtained in a pilot scale freeze-dryer. Sublimation experiments were run at -25 °C and 10 Pa using two different freezing protocols: with spontaneous or controlled ice nucleation...
May 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Ruben S G M Witlox, Enrico Lopriore, Monique Rijken, Frans J C M Klumper, Dick Oepkes, Jeanine M M van Klink
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate long-term neurodevelopmental and respiratory outcome after fetal therapy for fetal pleural effusion, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and bronchopulmonary sequestration. METHODS: Children ≥18 months of age underwent an assessment of neurologic, motor, and cognitive development. Medical records were reviewed to determine respiratory outcome. Behavioral outcome was assessed using the Child Behavioral Checklist...
May 7, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Stephanie L Kincaid, Kennon A Lattal
Three experiments were conducted using pigeons to assess the recurrence of responding eliminated by increasing the value of a progressive-ratio schedule to the breakpoint of responding. The procedures used in these assessments were, in successive experiments, reinstatement, renewal and resurgence. Each was effective in returning temporarily the eliminated responding. Reinstatement occurred with both yoked-time and fixed-time food deliveries. Both renewal and resurgence resulted in immediate recurrence of the response, and, as in other experiments investigating resurgence, the key peck response resurged as the alternative response extinguished...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Nicola Oosthuizen, Pedro L P Fontes, Darren D Henry, Francine M Ciriaco, Carla D Sanford, Luara B Canal, Gentil V de Moraes, Nicolas DiLorenzo, John F Currin, Sherrie Clark, William D Whittier, Vitor R G Mercadante, G Cliff Lamb
Our objectives were to determine the effects of the administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) at the initiation of a fixed-time AI (TAI) protocol on concentrations of plasma IGF-1, follicle diameter, embryo/fetal size, and pregnancy rates in replacement beef heifers. Four hundred and fourteen Angus-based beef heifers were enrolled in a completely randomized design at 4 locations from January to July of 2016. All heifers were exposed to the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol where they received a 100-µg injection of GnRH and a CIDR insert on day -9, 25 mg of PGF2α at CIDR removal on day -2, followed by a 100-µg injection of GnRH and TAI 54 ± 2 h later on day 0...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Yuen-Siang Ang, Sanjay Manohar, Olivia Plant, Annika Kienast, Campbell Le Heron, Kinan Muhammed, Michele Hu, Masud Husain
Animals make innumerable decisions every day, each of which involves evaluating potential options for action. But how are options generated? Although much is now known about decision making when a fixed set of potential options is provided, surprisingly little progress has been made on self-generated options. Some researchers have proposed that such abilities might be modulated by dopamine. Here, we used a new measure of option generation that is quantitative, objective, and culture fair to investigate how humans generate different behavioral options...
April 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Javier Labad, Virginia Soria, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Cinto Segalàs, Eva Real, Mikel Urretavizcaya, Aida de Arriba-Arnau, Alex Ferrer, José M Crespo, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Carles Soriano-Mas, Pino Alonso, José M Menchón
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities have been described in both disorders and might play a role in the association between them. We aimed to study the role of HPA axis activity in the comorbidity between OCD and MDD, while controlling for psychopathological dimensions such as anxiety and depressive symptoms. We studied 324 participants belonging to four diagnostic groups: 1) MDD (n = 101), 2) OCD with comorbid MDD (n = 33), 3) OCD without MDD (n = 52), and 4) healthy subjects (n = 138)...
April 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Patricia A Agaba, Becky L Genberg, Atiene S Sagay, Oche O Agbaji, Seema T Meloni, Nancin Y Dadem, Grace O Kolawole, Prosper Okonkwo, Phyllis J Kanki, Norma C Ware
Objective: Differentiated care refers collectively to flexible service models designed to meet the differing needs of HIV-infected persons in resource-scarce settings. Decentralization is one such service model. Retention is a key indicator for monitoring the success of HIV treatment and care programs. We used multiple measures to compare retention in a cohort of patients receiving HIV care at "hub" (central) and "spoke" (decentralized) sites in a large public HIV treatment program in north central Nigeria...
2018: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Maria Baimas-George, Brian Fleischer, James R Korndorffer, Douglas Slakey, Christopher DuCoin
OBJECTIVE: Residents often make career decisions regarding future practice without adequate knowledge to the realities of professional life. Currently there is a paucity of data regarding economic differences between practice models. This study seeks to illuminate the financial differences of surgical subspecialties between academic and private practice. DESIGN: Data were collected from the Association of American Medical College (AAMC) and the Medical Group Management Association's (MGMA) 2015 reports of average annual salaries...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Penny Tam, Aman P Nijjar, Mark Fok, Chris Little, Alexandra Shingina, Jesse Bittman, Rashmi Raghavan, Nadia A Khan
BACKGROUND: The effect of a multi-faceted handoff strategy in a high volume internal medicine inpatient setting on process and patient outcomes has not been clearly established. We set out to determine if a multi-faceted handoff intervention consisting of education, standardized handoff procedures, including fixed time and location for face-to-face handoff would result in improved rates of handoff compared with usual practice. We also evaluated resident satisfaction, health resource utilization and clinical outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Nicola Oosthuizen, Luara B Canal, Pedro L P Fontes, Carla D Sanford, Nicolas DiLorenzo, Carl R Dahlen, George E Seidel, G Cliff Lamb
To determine the effects of administration of 25 mg of PGF2α 7 d prior to the initiation of the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) fixed-time AI (TAI) protocol, 985 Bos taurus beef heifers were enrolled in a completely randomized design at 9 locations from April to July of 2016. Within location, all heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) CONTROL (n = 496); 100 µg injection of GnRH and a CIDR insert for 7 d [day 7], administration of 25 mg of PGF2α at CIDR removal [day 0], followed by a second injection of GnRH and TAI 54 ± 2 h later; or 2) PRESYNCH (n = 489); same as CONTROL but heifers received an additional injection of 25 mg of PGF2α 7 d prior [day 14] to CIDR insertion...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Kevin Damman, Mauro Gori, Brian Claggett, Pardeep S Jhund, Michele Senni, Martin P Lefkowitz, Margaret F Prescott, Victor C Shi, Jean L Rouleau, Karl Swedberg, Michael R Zile, Milton Packer, Akshay S Desai, Scott D Solomon, John J V McMurray
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the renal effects of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. BACKGROUND: Renal function is frequently impaired in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and may deteriorate further after blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. METHODS: In the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACE inhibition to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial, 8,399 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction were randomized to treatment with sacubitril/valsartan or enalapril...
April 5, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Brittney N Wyatt, Leggy A Arnold, Martin St Maurice
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate (OAA), an important metabolic reaction in a wide range of organisms. Small molecules directed against PC would enable detailed studies on the metabolic role of this enzyme and would have the potential to be developed into pharmacological agents. Currently, specific and potent small molecule regulators of PC are unavailable. To assist in efforts to find, develop, and characterize small molecule effectors of PC, a novel fixed-time assay has been developed based on the reaction of OAA with the diazonium salt, Fast Violet B (FVB), which produces a colored adduct with an absorbance maximum at 530 nm...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Nicola Oosthuizen, Alicia C Lansford, Luara B Canal, Pedro L P Fontes, Carla D Sanford, Carl R Dahlen, Nicolas DiLorenzo, Rick N Funston, G Cliff Lamb
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high concentrate, s.c. PGF2α compared with a conventionally concentrated, i.m. PGF2α in estrus synchronization protocols for heifers. In Exp. 1, 869 Angus-based beef heifers were enrolled at 8 locations. All heifers were exposed to the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) estrus synchronization protocol. On day 7 of the protocol heifers received 100 µg of GnRH i.m., and a CIDR insert for 7 d. On day 0, at CIDR removal, estrous detection patches were applied to heifers and, within location, heifers randomly received 1 of 2 PGF2α treatments: 5 mL of Lutalyse i...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Sooyoung Guak, Kiyoung Lee
Ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations at monitoring stations were often used as an indicator of population exposure to PM in epidemiological studies. The correlation between personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM varied because of diverse time-activity patterns. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 with minimal impact of time-activity pattern on personal exposure. Performance of the MicroPEM, v3.2 was evaluated by collocation with central ambient air monitors for PM10 and PM2...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daniel J Cunningham, David A Shearer, Neil Carter, Scott Drawer, Ben Pollard, Mark Bennett, Robin Eager, Christian J Cook, John Farrell, Mark Russell, Liam P Kilduff
The assessment of competitive movement demands in team sports has traditionally relied upon global positioning system (GPS) analyses presented as fixed-time epochs (e.g., 5-40 min). More recently, presenting game data as a rolling average has become prevalent due to concerns over a loss of sampling resolution associated with the windowing of data over fixed periods. Accordingly, this study compared rolling average (ROLL) and fixed-time (FIXED) epochs for quantifying the peak movement demands of international rugby union match-play as a function of playing position...
2018: PloS One
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