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Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Maria Vakali, Merle T Fairhurst, Alisa Mandrigin, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze, Ophelia Deroy
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March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew V Helliwell, Yihong Zhang, Aziza El Harchi, Chunyun Du, Jules C Hancox, Christopher E Dempsey
Cardiac potassium channels encoded by human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) are major targets for structurally diverse drugs associated with acquired long QT syndrome. This study characterized hERG channel inhibition by a minimally structured high affinity hERG inhibitor, Cavalli-2, composed of three phenyl groups linked by polymethylene spacers around a central amino group, chosen to probe the spatial arrangement of side chain groups in the high-affinity drug binding site of the hERG pore. hERG current (IhERG ) recorded at physiological temperature from HEK 293 cells was inhibited with an IC50 of 35...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Carlos Crivelli, Alan J Fridlund
Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our 'facial expressions of emotion' as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior...
March 12, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Aileen V Ireland, Jennifer Finnegan-John, Gill Hubbard, Karen Scanlon, Richard G Kyle
Walking is widely accepted as a safe and effective method of promoting rehabilitation and a return to physical activity after a cancer diagnosis. Little research has considered the therapeutic qualities of landscape in relation to understanding women's recovery from breast cancer, and no study has considered the supportive and therapeutic benefits that walking groups might contribute to their wellbeing. Through a study of a volunteer-led walking group intervention for women living with and beyond breast cancer (Best Foot Forward) we address this gap...
March 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Farah Averill, Thomas G Brown, Robyn D Robertson, Angeline Tchomgang, Djamal Berbiche, Louise Nadeau, Marie Claude Ouimet
OBJECTIVES: In a pilot randomised controlled trial of contingency management (CM) and transdermal alcohol monitoring (TAM) with driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders, perceptions regarding the acceptability of a TAM device, recruitment issues, and the impact of CM and TAM on alcohol use over a six-week period were evaluated. The results aimed to inform the design of future trials and programs involving CM and TAM for DWI remediation. METHODS: TAM devices were affixed to 37 voluntary, community-recruited male DWI offenders with problem alcohol use...
March 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Manuel de la Matta, Alejandro Domínguez
BACKGROUND: Monitoring regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rcSO2) with near-infrared spectroscopy is increasingly being performed in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. It is sometimes difficult to monitor both frontal lobes due to anatomical or space compromises. However, it remains unclarified whether the use of only one lateral or medial probe can provide adequate bilateral monitoring. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of using a single lateral or medial probe to detect substantial desaturations on both sides...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Samuel Ofei-Dodoo, Cassie Scripter, Rick Kellerman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research into the rates of burnout among nonclinical workers is nonexistent at medical education centers (MECs). The first goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of burnout among nonclinical faculty and staff working at a local MEC. The second goal was to identify predictors of burnout using job satisfaction dimensions-supervision, coworkers, contingency rewards, and nature of work. METHODS: The study included a convenience sample of 95 nonclinical faculty and staff working at a local MEC...
March 2018: Family Medicine
Ngwobia Peter Agwu, Kehinde Joseph Awosan, Solomon Ifeanyi Ukwuani, Emmanuel Ugbede Oyibo, Muhammad Aliyu Makusidi, Rotimi Abiodun Ajala
Background: Access to renal replacement therapy by the increasing population of patients with end-stage kidney disease across Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, has become a major public health challenge. Although deceased kidney donation constitutes a viable source, its uptake by patients is contingent on its acceptance by health-care workers. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the awareness and attitude to deceased kidney donation among health-care workers in Sokoto, Nigeria...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
A B Courtemanche, B P Lloyd, J T Tapp
BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a treatment-resistant aberrant behaviour that significantly impacts the lives of people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Direct observations of SIB under naturally occurring conditions can inform the unique structural properties of these behaviours, and the contexts in which they occur. While previous applications of sequential analyses have identified strong temporal associations between instances of SIB, they have relied on methods that do not adequately control for chance sequencing and may mask within-participant variability by pooling data across contexts and response topographies...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Dionysios C Watson, Bryant C Yung, Cristina Bergamaschi, Bhabadeb Chowdhury, Jenifer Bear, Dimitris Stellas, Aizea Morales-Kastresana, Jennifer C Jones, Barbara K Felber, Xiaoyuan Chen, George N Pavlakis
The development of extracellular vesicles (EV) for therapeutic applications is contingent upon the establishment of reproducible, scalable, and high-throughput methods for the production and purification of clinical grade EV. Methods including ultracentrifugation (U/C), ultrafiltration, immunoprecipitation, and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been employed to isolate EV, each facing limitations such as efficiency, particle purity, lengthy processing time, and/or sample volume. We developed a cGMP-compatible method for the scalable production, concentration, and isolation of EV through a strategy involving bioreactor culture, tangential flow filtration (TFF), and preparative SEC...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Lisa C Hiura, Lavinia Tan, Timothy D Hackenberg
The present research measured social reinforcement in rats, using a social-release procedure in which lever presses permitted 10-s access to a familiar social partner. The work requirements for reinforcement increased systematically according to progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. Social and food reinforcement value were compared across blocks of sessions (Experiment 1) and concurrently within the same sessions (Experiment 2). To assess motivational effects, response and reinforcer rates for both reinforcer types were studied under food restriction, social restriction, and combined food and social restriction...
March 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Joanne M Bennett, Piero Calosi, Susana Clusella-Trullas, Brezo Martínez, Jennifer Sunday, Adam C Algar, Miguel B Araújo, Bradford A Hawkins, Sally Keith, Ingolf Kühn, Carsten Rahbek, Laura Rodríguez, Alexander Singer, Fabricio Villalobos, Miguel Ángel Olalla-Tárraga, Ignacio Morales-Castilla
How climate affects species distributions is a longstanding question receiving renewed interest owing to the need to predict the impacts of global warming on biodiversity. Is climate change forcing species to live near their critical thermal limits? Are these limits likely to change through natural selection? These and other important questions can be addressed with models relating geographical distributions of species with climate data, but inferences made with these models are highly contingent on non-climatic factors such as biotic interactions...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Data
Steve Halligan, Sam G Parker, Andrew A Plumb, Alastair C J Windsor
Complex ventral hernia (CVH) describes large, anterior, ventral hernias. The incidence of CVH is rising rapidly due to increasing laparotomy rates in ever older, obese and co-morbid patients. Surgeons with a specific interest in CVH repair are now frequently referring these patients for imaging, normally computed tomography scanning. This review describes what information is required from preoperative imaging and the surgical options and techniques used for CVH repair, so that radiologists understand the postoperative appearances specific to CVH and are aware of the common complications following surgery...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
Lauren Bell, Ann Louise Hunter, Angelos Kyriacou, Annice Mukherjee, Akheel A Syed
BACKGROUND: TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for the autoimmunity of Graves' disease (GD), which is commonly diagnosed clinically. AIM: To evaluate the true positive (sensitivity) and true negative (specificity) rates of clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism compared to the TRAb test. SETTING: University teaching hospital in North West England Participants: Patients in the Endocrinology service who had a TRAb measurement between December 2009 and October 2015 Methods: Electronic patient records were studied retrospectively for a pre-TRAb clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism...
March 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Ben J Glasgow, Tara A McCannel
PURPOSE: Prior studies have shown nuclear reactivity for BAP1 yields prognostic information for paraffin embedded uveal melanomas. Lacking are immunocytochemical studies of BAP1 on fine needle aspiration biopsies of uveal melanoma that correlate with prognosis or other markers of prognosis. Our purpose was to fill this gap. DESIGN: Experimental laboratory study METHODS: Fine needle aspiration biopsies were performed prospectively on 113 patients with uveal melanomas garnering limited subsets of cases for comparison...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Loren Leclezio, Sugnet Gardner-Lubbe, Petrus J de Vries
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with multisystem involvement. The lifetime prevalence of TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND) is in the region of 90% in an apparently unique, individual pattern. This "uniqueness" poses significant challenges for diagnosis, psycho-education, and intervention planning. To date, no studies have explored whether there may be natural clusters of TAND. The purpose of this feasibility study was (1) to investigate the practicability of identifying natural TAND clusters, and (2) to identify appropriate multivariate data analysis techniques for larger-scale studies...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Angela M Getz, Pierre Wijdenes, Saba Riaz, Naweed I Syed
All functions of the nervous system are contingent upon the precise organization of neuronal connections that are initially patterned during development, and then continually modified throughout life. Determining the mechanisms that specify the formation and functional modulation of synaptic circuitry are critical to advancing both our fundamental understanding of the nervous system as well as the various neurodevelopmental, neurological, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders that are met in clinical practice when these processes go awry...
March 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Dominick DePhilippis, Nancy M Petry, Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Sarah B Rosenbach, James R McKay
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Department of Veterans Affairs launched an initiative to expand patients' access to contingency management (CM) for the treatment of substance use disorders, particularly stimulant use disorder. This study evaluates the uptake and effectiveness of the VA initiative by presenting data on participation in coaching, fidelity to key components of the CM protocol, and clinical outcomes (CM attendance and substance use). METHODS: Fifty-five months after the first VA stations began offering CM to patients in June 2011, 94 stations had made CM available to 2060 patients...
February 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves, Mary K Moore, Thea E Smith, Daniel A Crafton, Kelly L Marden
The midsession reversal task has been used to investigate behavioral flexibility and cue use in non-human animals, with results indicating differences in the degree of control by environmental cues across species. For example, time-based control has been found in rats only when tested in a T-maze apparatus and under specific conditions in which position and orientation (i.e., egocentric) cues during the intertrial interval could not be used to aid performance. Other research in an operant setting has shown that rats often produce minimal errors around the reversal location, demonstrating response patterns similar to patterns exhibited by humans and primates in this task...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Stefano Ghirlanda
Building on the work of Ralph Miller and coworkers (Miller and Matzel, 1988; Denniston et al., 2001; Stout and Miller, 2007), I propose a new formalization of the comparator hypothesis that seeks to overcome some shortcomings of existing formalizations. The new model, dubbed ecco for "Error-Correcting COmparisons," retains the comparator process and the learning of CS-CS associations based on contingency. ecco assumes, however, that learning of CS-US associations is driven by total error correction, as first introduced by Rescorla and Wagner (1972)...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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