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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525797/to-neglect-or-integrate-contingency-information-from-outside-the-task-frame-that-is-the-question-effects-of-depressed-mood
#1
R M Msetfi, N Byrom, R A Murphy
Evidence shows that there are individual differences in the extent to which people attend to and integrate information into their decisions about the predictive contingencies between events and outcomes. In particular, information about the absence of events or outcomes, presented outside the current task frame, is often neglected. This trend is particularly evident in depression, as well as other psychopathologies, though reasons for information neglect remain unclear. We investigated this phenomenon across two experiments (Experiment 1: N=157; Experiment 2: N=150) in which participants, scoring low and high in the Beck Depression Inventory, were asked to learn a simple predictive relationship between a visual cue and an auditory outcome...
May 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525754/regulated-intron-removal-integrates-motivational-state-and-experience
#2
Jason Gill, Younshim Park, J P McGinnis, Consuelo Perez-Sanchez, Marco Blanchette, Kausik Si
Myriad experiences produce transient memory, yet, contingent on the internal state of the organism and the saliency of the experience, only some memories persist over time. How experience and internal state influence the duration of memory at the molecular level remains unknown. A self-assembled aggregated state of Drosophila Orb2A protein is required specifically for long-lasting memory. We report that in the adult fly brain the mRNA encoding Orb2A protein exists in an unspliced non-protein-coding form. The convergence of experience and internal drive transiently increases the spliced protein-coding Orb2A mRNA...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525291/the-state-of-opioid-agonist-therapy-in-canada-20-years-after-federal-oversight
#3
Joseph K Eibl, Kristen Morin, Esa Leinonen, David C Marsh
Opioid agonist therapy was introduced in Canada in 1959 with the use of methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence. The regulation of methadone was the responsibility of Health Canada until 1995, when oversight was transferred to the provincial health systems. During the more than 20 years since the federal health authority transferred oversight of methadone to the provincial level, methadone programming has evolved differently in every province. The landscape of opioid dependence treatment is varied across the country, with generally increasing treatment capacity in all provinces and dramatic increases in some...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521833/hiv-infection-hypercoagulability-and-ischaemic-stroke-in-adults-at-the-university-teaching-hospital-in-zambia-a-case-control-study
#4
Stanley Zimba, Patrice Mukomena Ntanda, Shabir Lakhi, Masharip Atadzhanov
BACKGROUND: In Zambia, 14.2% of adults have HIV/AIDS. There has been a substantial and significant increase in patients hospitalized for ischaemic stroke with co-existing HIV infection. However, little is known about the mechanism of stroke in these HIV + ve patients let alone studied in our region. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the association of hypercoagulability state in HIV + ve patients with ischaemic stroke. This was achieved by comparing hypercoagulability state markers between HIV + ve ischaemic stroke patients with HIV-ve and HIV + ve patients with and without ischaemic stroke respectively...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521617/fingerprint-based-background-checks-for-personal-care-workers-stakeholder-views-of-policy-criteria
#5
Eric D Raile, Sarah J Swierenga, Toni A Dennis, Lauren A Swanson-Aprill, Lori A Post, Fuad Abujarad
Decision makers face difficult choices when tasked with identifying and implementing appropriate mechanisms for protecting the elderly and other vulnerable adults from abuse. A pilot project involving fingerprint-based criminal history background checks for personal care workers in Michigan has supplied an opportunity to examine one such mechanism. In conjunction with the pilot project, we have conducted a stakeholder analysis with the aim of informing decision makers about stakeholder perceptions of standard policy criteria like effectiveness, efficiency, and equity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521266/neural-mechanisms-of-reward-processing-associated-with-depression-related-personality-traits
#6
Akina Umemoto, Clay B Holroyd
OBJECTIVE: Although impaired reward processing in depression has been well-documented, the exact nature of that deficit remains poorly understood. To investigate the link between depression and the neural mechanisms of reward processing, we examined individual differences in personality. METHODS: We recorded the electroencephalogram from healthy college students engaged in a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. Participants also completed several personality questionnaires that assessed traits related to reward sensitivity, motivation, and depression...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516773/amphiphilic-bodipy-hydroporphyrin-energy-transfer-arrays-with-broadly-tunable-absorption-and-deep-red-near-infrared-emission-in-aqueous-micelles
#7
Adam Meares, Andrius Satraitis, Joshua Akhigbe, Nithya Santhanam, Subramani Swaminathan, Melanie Ehudin, Marcin Ptaszek
BODIPY-hydroporphyrin energy transfer arrays allow for development of family of fluorophores featuring a common excitation band at 500 nm, tunable excitation band in deep red/near-infrared window, and tunable emission. Their biomedical applications are contingent upon retaining their optical properties in aqueous environment. Amphiphilic arrays containing PEG-substituted BODIPY and chlorins or bacteriochlorins were prepared and their optical and fluorescence properties were determined in organic solvents and aqueous surfactants...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516674/selection-by-consequences-behavioral-evolution-and-the-price-equation
#8
William M Baum
Price's equation describes evolution across time in simple mathematical terms. Although it is not a theory, but a derived identity, it is useful as an analytical tool. It affords lucid descriptions of genetic evolution, cultural evolution, and behavioral evolution (often called "selection by consequences") at different levels (e.g., individual vs. group) and at different time scales (local and extended). The importance of the Price equation for behavior analysis lies in its ability to precisely restate selection by consequences, thereby restating, or even replacing, the law of effect...
May 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515890/sex-dependent-infection-causes-nonadditive-effects-on-kissing-bug-fecundity
#9
Carezza Botto-Mahan, Verónica Campos, Rodrigo Medel
The influence of parasites on host reproduction has been widely studied in natural and experimental conditions. Most studies, however, have evaluated the parasite impact on female hosts only, neglecting the contribution of males for host reproduction. This omission is unfortunate as sex-dependent infection may have important implications for host-parasite associations. Here, we evaluate for the first time the independent and nonindependent effects of gender infection on host reproductive success using the kissing bug Mepraia spinolai and the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi as model system...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512435/the-role-of-self-esteem-and-fear-of-negative-evaluation-in-compulsive-buying
#10
Roberta Biolcati
Compulsive buying is a relatively new addictive disorder that interferes with everyday functioning and may result in serious psychological and financial problems (1). A very few data are currently available regarding this behavioral addiction. This study investigated gender differences in the relationships between contingent self-esteem (CSE), fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and compulsive buying. Participants included 240 Italian adults (170 females, M age = 33.80) who responded to self-report questionnaires...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512354/neglect-patients-exhibit-egocentric-or-allocentric-neglect-for-the-same-stimulus-contingent-upon-task-demands
#11
Louise-Ann Leyland, Hayward J Godwin, Valerie Benson, Simon P Liversedge
Hemispatial Neglect (HN) is a failure to allocate attention to a region of space opposite to where damage has occurred in the brain, usually the left side of space. It is widely documented that there are two types of neglect: egocentric neglect (neglect of information falling on the individual's left side) and allocentric neglect (neglect of the left side of each object, regardless of the position of that object in relation to the individual). We set out to address whether neglect presentation could be modified from egocentric to allocentric through manipulating the task demands whilst keeping the physical stimulus constant by measuring the eye movement behaviour of a single group of neglect patients engaged in two different tasks (copying and tracing)...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511154/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-epidemiological-aspects-among-the-population-of-ukraine
#12
Оlena О Оshyvalova, Oleg L Ziukov
INTRODUCTION: In the structure of malignant skin neoplasms, the tumours of epithelial origin take the first place, among them the prevalence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is about 20%. The aim of the work involves the analysis of cSCC epidemiological features among the contingent of the State Scientific Institution "Scientific and Practical Centre of Preventive and Clinical Medicine" of the State Administration (SIS) over 2005-2014 (Ukraine, Kyiv). MATERIAL AND METHODS: For retrospective epidemiological analysis there was used identifying information of patients with cSCC of the contingent of SIS over 2005-2014 in comparison with the data on patients with cSCC of Kyiv city and Kyiv region over the same period of time...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511068/biotechnology-and-the-transformation-of-vaccine-innovation-the-case-of-the-hepatitis-b-vaccines-1968-2000
#13
Farah Huzair, Steve Sturdy
The approval, from 1986, of a series of recombinant hepatitis B vaccines was a landmark both in the growth of biotechnology and in the development of the vaccine innovation system. In this paper, we show how the early development of the hepatitis B vaccines was shaped by a political and economic context that newly favoured commercialisation of academic research, including the appropriation and management of intellectual property; we elucidate the contingent interests and motivations that led new biotechnology companies and established pharmaceutical businesses to invest in developing recombinant vaccines specifically against hepatitis B; and we show how these and other factors combined to make those vaccines an unexpected commercial success...
May 13, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507618/correlation-between-soil-transmitted-helminth-infection-and-eosinophil-levels-among-primary-school-children-in-medan
#14
Dewi Masyithah Darlan, Zaimah Z Tala, Cellya Amanta, Syah Mirsya Warli, Nurfida K Arrasyid
BACKGROUND: Soil Transmitted Helminth infection is one of most prevalent health problems worldwide, especially in environments with poor sanitation. Based on World Health Organisation (WHO) data, more than 2 billion people, or 24% of the world's population, are infected with intestinal parasite. The highest prevalence is located in areas of poor sanitation and unsafe water supplies. In Indonesia, the prevalence of parasite infections is 15% of the entire population. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Soil Transmitted Helminth infection on levels of eosinophils among primary school children...
April 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507512/changes-in-dopamine-transmission-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-and-core-during-ethanol-and-sucrose-self-administration
#15
Valentina Bassareo, Flavia Cucca, Roberto Frau, Gaetano Di Chiara
Ethanol, like other substances of abuse, preferentially increases dopamine (DA) transmission in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) following passive administration. It remains unclear, however, whether ethanol also increases NAc DA transmission following operant oral self-administration (SA). The NAc is made-up of a ventro-medial compartment, the shell and a dorso-lateral one, the core, where DA transmission responds differentially following exposure to drugs of abuse. Previous studies from our laboratory investigated changes in dialysate DA in the NAc shell and core of rats responding for sucrose pellets and for drugs of abuse...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506704/a-method-to-achieve-extended-cannabis-abstinence-in-cannabis-dependent-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-non-psychiatric-controls
#16
Rachel A Rabin, Karolina Kozak, Konstantine K Zakzanis, Gary Remington, Cristiana Stefan, Alan J Budney, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are common in schizophrenia (~25%) compared to the general population (~3%). Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component in cannabis is fat-soluble, resulting in an extended period for cannabinoid elimination. While detection of cannabinoids in urine is indicative of prior cannabis exposure, time of last use is difficult to verify sustained abstinence for extended periods (e.g., 28-days) in chronic cannabis users. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of a sustained cannabis abstinence paradigm in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505735/statistical-physics-of-the-symmetric-group
#17
Mobolaji Williams
Ordered chains (such as chains of amino acids) are ubiquitous in biological cells, and these chains perform specific functions contingent on the sequence of their components. Using the existence and general properties of such sequences as a theoretical motivation, we study the statistical physics of systems whose state space is defined by the possible permutations of an ordered list, i.e., the symmetric group, and whose energy is a function of how certain permutations deviate from some chosen correct ordering...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504524/healthy-aging-is-associated-with-decreased-risk-taking-in-motor-decision-making
#18
Matteo Valsecchi, Jutta Billino, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Healthy aging is associated with changes in both cognitive abilities, including decision-making, and motor control. Previous research has shown that young healthy observers are close to optimal when they perform a motor equivalent of economic decision-making tasks that are known to produce suboptimal decision patterns. We tested both younger (age 20-29) and older (age 60-79) adults in such a task, which involved rapid manual aiming and monetary rewards and punishments contingent on hitting different areas on a touch screen...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502406/steering-the-conversation-a-linguistic-exploration-of-natural-language-interactions-with-a-digital-assistant-during-simulated-driving
#19
David R Large, Leigh Clark, Annie Quandt, Gary Burnett, Lee Skrypchuk
Given the proliferation of 'intelligent' and 'socially-aware' digital assistants embodying everyday mobile technology - and the undeniable logic that utilising voice-activated controls and interfaces in cars reduces the visual and manual distraction of interacting with in-vehicle devices - it appears inevitable that next generation vehicles will be embodied by digital assistants and utilise spoken language as a method of interaction. From a design perspective, defining the language and interaction style that a digital driving assistant should adopt is contingent on the role that they play within the social fabric and context in which they are situated...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501676/does-the-implementation-of-evidence-based-and-culturally-competent-practices-reduce-disparities-in-addiction-treatment-outcomes
#20
Erick G Guerrero, Bryan R Garner, Benjamin Cook, Yinfei Kong
RATIONALE: Research is limited on the extent to which implementation of evidence-based and culturally responsive practices reduces outcome disparities in substance use disorder treatment. We examined the role of contingency management treatment (CMT), medication-assisted treatment (MAT), and culturally competent practices on Mexican Americans' rate of successful completion of treatment. METHODS: We analyzed a concatenated dataset from 153 publicly funded substance use disorder treatment programs in Los Angeles County, California, in 2011 and 2013...
May 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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