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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921298/female-induced-remote-regulation-of-sperm-physiology-may-provide-opportunities-for-gamete-level-mate-choice
#1
Jukka Kekäläinen, Jonathan P Evans
In sedentary externally fertilizing species, direct interactions between mating partners are limited and pre-fertilization communication between sexes occur largely at the gamete level. Certain combinations of eggs and sperm often have higher fertilization success than others, which may be contingent on egg-derived chemical factors that preferentially attract sperm from compatible males. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying such effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, where differential sperm attraction has recently been shown to be associated with variation in offspring viability...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920967/a-comparison-of-descriptive-and-functional-analyses-of-inappropriate-mealtime-behavior
#2
Carrie S W Borrero, Jennie D England, Ben Sarcia, Julia N Woods
In recent years, rather than being used to assess the potential function of a response, descriptive assessment methods have been applied to evaluate potential consequences or contingencies for problem behavior (Borrero, Woods, Borrero, Masler, & Lesser in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 71-88. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2010.43-71, 2010) or to assist with designing baseline conditions to approximate caregiver behavior (Casey et al. in Behavior Modification, 33, 537-558. doi: 10.1177/0145445509341457, 2009)...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920752/the-effect-of-emotion-and-reward-contingencies-on-relational-memory-in-major-depression-an-eye-movement-study-with-follow-up
#3
Viola L Nemeth, Gergo Csete, Gergely Drotos, Nora Greminger, Zoltan Janka, Laszlo Vecsei, Anita Must
Background: Episodic memory disturbances were found to constitute a potential trait marker for major depression (MD). The recall of positive or rewarding information in a relational context is specifically impaired. Eye-movement recording constitutes a novel, direct approach to examine implicit memory performance. Here we aimed to assess the effect of emotional context and implicit virtual monetary reward or loss on viewing patterns in association with relational memory in a 6-months follow-up study in MD. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with MD and 30 healthy participants were trained to associate a face (happy/sad/neutral) with a background scene...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918881/a-preliminary-investigation-of-a-relapse-prevention-mobile-application-to-maintain-smoking-abstinence-among-individuals-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Terrell A Hicks, Shaun P Thomas, Sarah M Wilson, Patrick S Calhoun, Eric R Kuhn, Jean C Beckham
OBJECTIVES: Smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have increased difficulty achieving and maintaining abstinence. Contingency management approaches to smoking cessation interventions have demonstrated short-term efficacy, but are limited by high rates of relapse. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the usability and feasibility of a smartphone-based smoking cessation application (Stay Quit Coach) designed to prevent relapse among individuals with PTSD. METHODS: Smokers (N = 11) were randomized to 1) QUIT4EVER, an intervention combining mobile contingency management smoking cessation counseling and medications, and Stay Quit Coach or 2) a contact control condition that was identical to QUIT4EVER except Stay Quit Coach was not included...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916378/incidence-and-significance-of-postoperative-complications-occurring-between-discharge-and-30%C3%A2-days-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
John C Woodfield, Wiqqas Jamil, Peter M Sagar
BACKGROUND: Accurate documentation of complications is fundamental to clinical audit and research. While it is established that accurate diagnosis of surgical site infection (SSI) requires follow-up for 30 days; for other complications, there are minimal data quantifying their importance between discharge and 30 days. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, inpatients undergoing general or vascular surgery were reviewed daily for complications by the medical team and a research fellow...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916323/donor-specific-anti-hla-antibodies-with-antibody-mediated-rejection-and-long-term-outcomes-following-heart-transplantation
#6
Kevin J Clerkin, Maryjane A Farr, Susan W Restaino, Emmanuel Zorn, Farhana Latif, Elena R Vasilescu, Charles C Marboe, Paolo C Colombo, Donna M Mancini
BACKGROUND: Donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) are common after heart transplantation and are associated with rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and mortality. A noninvasive diagnostic test for pathologic antibody-mediated rejection (pAMR) does not exist. METHODS: From January 1, 2010, through August 31, 2013, 221 consecutive adult patients underwent heart transplantation and were followed through October 1, 2015. The primary objective was to determine whether the presence of DSA could detect AMR at the time of pathologic diagnosis...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915499/first-trimester-contingent-screening-for-trisomies-21-18-13-is-this-model-cost-efficient-and-feasible-in-pubblic-health-system
#7
Enrico Colosi, Valentina D'Ambrosio, Enrico Periti
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of three different first trimester screening models for trisomies 21, 18 and 13, in terms of detection rate, invasive test rate and final costs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the distribution of risk for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in a population of 20.831 singleton pregnancies based on maternal age, fetal heart rate, nuchal translucency, free beta human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (Combined test)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915368/touch-contingent-visual-motion-perception-tactile-events-drive-visual-motion-perception
#8
Ryo Teraoka, Wataru Teramoto
It has recently been demonstrated that the brain rapidly forms an association between concurrently presented sound sequences and visual motion. Once this association has been formed, the associated sound sequence can drive visual motion perception. This phenomenon is known as "sound-contingent visual motion perception" (SCVM). In the present study, we addressed the possibility of a similar association involving touch instead of audition. In a 9-min exposure session, two circles placed side by side were alternately presented to produce apparent motion in a horizontal direction...
December 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915364/focusing-on-task-conflict-in-the-stroop-effect
#9
Olga Entel, Joseph Tzelgov
Two types of conflict underlie performance in the Stroop task-informational (between the incongruent word and its ink color) and task (between the relevant color-naming task and the irrelevant word-reading task). We manipulated congruent-to-neutral trial ratio in an attempt to reveal whether task conflict can be monitored and controlled in the absence of an informational conflict. In our first experiment, no incongruent trials were included, thus allowing examination of a pure task conflict situation. The results revealed an impressively large facilitation when most of the stimuli were congruent and a smaller yet significant facilitation when most of the stimuli were neutrals...
December 3, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914637/redo-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair-a-single-center-experience-over-25%C3%A2-years
#10
Rana O Afifi, Harleen K Sandhu, Amy E Trott, Tom C Nguyen, Charles C Miller, Anthony L Estrera, Hazim J Safi
BACKGROUND: Aortic disease is a lifelong, progressive illness that may require repeated intervention over time. We reviewed our 25-year experience with open redo thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (DTAA) repair. Our objectives were to determine patient outcomes after redo repair of DTAA/TAAA and compare them with nonredo repair. We also attempted to identify the risk factors for poor outcome. METHODS: We reviewed all open redo TAAA and DTAA repairs between 1991 and 2014...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914168/short-term-trained-lexical-categories-affect-preattentive-shape-perception-evidence-from-vmm
#11
Mengxia Yu, Ce Mo, Tianyu Zeng, Sasa Zhao, Lei Mo
Perceptual processing of colors and shapes in the right visual field is modulated by the lexical category information of the stimuli, a phenomenon known as the lateralized Whorfian effect. For color stimuli, lateralized Whorfian effect is characterized by preattentive occurrence and dependency on acquired lexical information, but it remains unknown whether these key features are generalizable to other domains of perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether lateralized Whorfian effect in the shape perception domain also depends on acquired lexical category and occurs preattentively using ERPs...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913914/tragedy-in-moral-case-deliberation
#12
Benita Spronk, Margreet Stolper, Guy Widdershoven
In healthcare practice, care providers are confronted with tragic situations, in which they are expected to make choices and decisions that can have far-reaching consequences. This article investigates the role of moral case deliberation (MCD) in dealing with tragic situations. It focuses on experiences of care givers involved in the treatment of a pregnant woman with a brain tumour, and their evaluation of a series of MCD meetings in which the dilemmas around care were discussed. The study was qualitative, focusing on the views and experiences of the participants...
December 2, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913636/the-effect-of-temperature-on-drosophila-hybrid-fitness
#13
Charles J J Miller, Daniel R Matute
Mechanisms of reproductive isolation inhibit gene flow between species and can be broadly sorted into two categories: prezygotic and postzygotic. While comparative studies suggest that prezygotic barriers tend to evolve first, postzygotic barriers are crucial for maintaining species boundaries and impeding gene flow that might otherwise cause incipient species to merge. Most, but not all, postzygotic barriers result from genetic incompatibilities between two or more loci from different species, and occur due to divergent evolution in allopatry...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910997/service-user-satisfaction-with-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-psychosis-associations-with-therapy-outcomes-and-perceptions-of-the-therapist
#14
Caroline Lawlor, Bina Sharma, Mizanur Khondoker, Emmanuelle Peters, Elizabeth Kuipers, Louise Johns
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated service user satisfaction with cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). This study explored its associations with clinical presentation and outcomes, retrospective expectations of progress, perceptions of the therapist, and demographic variables. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-five service users completed self-report questionnaires pre- and post-CBTp in relation to the constructs of interest. Regression analyses explored associations with (1) overall satisfaction with therapy and (2) perceived progress, skills, and knowledge gained...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910975/heterogeneous-pegylation-of-diamond-nanoparticles
#15
Amanda S Barnard
Coating the surfaces of inorganic nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an important step in the development of many nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems. The efficiency with which drug molecules can be loaded on to nanoparticle surfaces is contingent on the concentration, distribution and stability of the PEG coating. In this study the distribution and relative stability of PEG on diamond nanoparticles is predicted, for clean and passivated surface structures, in 3D. This is an ideal exemplar, since PEGylated diamond nanoparticles are already being trialed as carriers for doxorubicin (DOX)...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#16
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909401/implicit-learning-in-transient-global-amnesia-and-the-role-of-stress
#17
Frauke Nees, Martin Griebe, Anne Ebert, Michaela Ruttorf, Benjamin Gerber, Oliver T Wolf, Lothar R Schad, Achim Gass, Kristina Szabo
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning-the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#18
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908748/the-chemotherapeutic-agent-paclitaxel-selectively-impairs-learning-while-sparing-source-memory-and-spatial-memory
#19
Alexandra E Smith, Richard A Slivicki, Andrea G Hohmann, Jonathon D Crystal
: Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of these therapies is undermined by their adverse side-effect profiles such as cognitive deficits that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cognitive side effects occur across a variety of domains, including memory, executive function, and processing speed. Such impairments are exacerbated under cognitive challenges and a subgroup of patients experience long-term impairments...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908200/development-of-an-internet-version-of-the-lidcombe-program-of-early-stuttering-intervention-a-trial-of-part-1
#20
Sabine Van Eerdenbrugh, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow, Sue O'brian, Ross Menzies
PURPOSE: There is evidence that access to treatment for early stuttering is not available for all who need it. An internet version of the Lidcombe Program for early stuttering (Internet-LP) has been developed to deal with this shortfall. The LP is suitable for such development because it is delivered by parents in the child's everyday environment, with training by a speech-language pathologist. A Phase I trial of Internet-LP Part 1, comprising parent training, is reported here. METHOD: Eight parents of pre-schoolers who stutter were recruited and six completed the trial...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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