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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103414/a-meta-analysis-of-the-association-between-appraisals-of-trauma-and-posttraumatic-stress-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Ryan Mitchell, Kate Brennan, David Curran, Donncha Hanna, Kevin F W Dyer
Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) place an emphasis on the role of negative appraisals of traumatic events. It is suggested that the way in which the event is appraised determines the extent to which posttraumatic stress symptoms will be experienced. Therefore, a strong relationship between trauma appraisals and symptoms of PTSD might be expected. However, this relationship is not as firmly established in the child and adolescent literature. A systematic literature review of this relationship returned 467 publications, of which 11 met full eligibility criteria...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102840/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-enact-field-cancerization-by-promoting-extratumoral-oxidative-stress
#2
Jeremy Soon Kiat Chan, Ming Jie Tan, Ming Keat Sng, Ziqiang Teo, Terri Phua, Chee Chong Choo, Liang Li, Pengcheng Zhu, Nguan Soon Tan
Histological inspection of visually normal tissue adjacent to neoplastic lesions often reveals multiple foci of cellular abnormalities. This suggests the presence of a regional carcinogenic signal that spreads oncogenic transformation and field cancerization. We observed an abundance of mutagenic reactive oxygen species in the stroma of cryosectioned patient tumor biopsies, indicative of extratumoral oxidative stress. Diffusible hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was elevated in the conditioned medium of cultured skin epithelia at various stages of oncogenic transformation, and H2O2 production increased with greater tumor-forming and metastatic capacity of the studied cell lines...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101928/are-positive-and-negative-reinforcement-different-insights-from-a-free-operant-differential-outcomes-effect
#3
Michael A Magoon, Thomas S Critchfield, Dustin Merrill, M Christopher Newland, W Joel Schneider
Although theoretical discussions typically assume that positive and negative reinforcement differ, the literature contains little unambiguous evidence that they produce differential behavioral effects. To test whether the two types of consequences control behavior differently, we pitted money-gain positive reinforcement and money-loss-avoidance negative reinforcement, scheduled through identically programmed variable-cycle schedules, against each other in concurrent schedules. Contingencies of response-produced feedback, normally different in positive and negative reinforcement, were made symmetrical...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101925/-watch-out-effects-of-instructed-threat-and-avoidance-on-human-free-operant-approach-avoidance-behavior
#4
Michael W Schlund, Kay Treacher, Oli Preston, Sandy K Magee, David M Richman, Adam T Brewer, Gemma Cameron, Simon Dymond
Approach-avoidance paradigms create a competition between appetitive and aversive contingencies and are widely used in nonhuman research on anxiety. Here, we examined how instructions about threat and avoidance impact control by competing contingencies over human approach-avoidance behavior. Additionally, Experiment 1 examined the effects of threat magnitude (money loss amount) and avoidance cost (fixed ratio requirements), whereas Experiment 2 examined the effects of threat information (available, unavailable and inaccurate) on approach-avoidance...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099418/il-17-is-a-neuromodulator-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-sensory-responses
#5
Changchun Chen, Eisuke Itakura, Geoffrey M Nelson, Ming Sheng, Patrick Laurent, Lorenz A Fenk, Rebecca A Butcher, Ramanujan S Hegde, Mario de Bono
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine: it mediates responses to pathogens or tissue damage, and drives autoimmune diseases. Little is known about its role in the nervous system. Here we show that IL-17 has neuromodulator-like properties in Caenorhabditis elegans. IL-17 can act directly on neurons to alter their response properties and contribution to behaviour. Using unbiased genetic screens, we delineate an IL-17 signalling pathway and show that it acts in the RMG hub interneurons. Disrupting IL-17 signalling reduces RMG responsiveness to input from oxygen sensors, and renders sustained escape from 21% oxygen transient and contingent on additional stimuli...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097716/parental-knowledge-of-antibiotic-use-in-children-with-respiratory-infections-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Lourdes Cantarero-Arévalo, Mia Pavelics Hallas, Susanne Kaae
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing global problem. AMR threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics (AB) is the major contributor to the emergence of resistant bacteria in humans. To present and describe characteristics in parents' knowledge about when and how to use AB for an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), their attitudes towards doctors and AB use in general, and their behaviour when their child suffers from an URTI...
February 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096419/stromal-cues-regulate-the-pancreatic-cancer-epigenome-and-metabolome
#7
Mara H Sherman, Ruth T Yu, Tiffany W Tseng, Cristovao M Sousa, Sihao Liu, Morgan L Truitt, Nanhai He, Ning Ding, Christopher Liddle, Annette R Atkins, Mathias Leblanc, Eric A Collisson, John M Asara, Alec C Kimmelman, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
A fibroinflammatory stromal reaction cooperates with oncogenic signaling to influence pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) initiation, progression, and therapeutic outcome, yet the mechanistic underpinning of this crosstalk remains poorly understood. Here we show that stromal cues elicit an adaptive response in the cancer cell including the rapid mobilization of a transcriptional network implicated in accelerated growth, along with anabolic changes of an altered metabolome. The close overlap of stroma-induced changes in vitro with those previously shown to be regulated by oncogenic Kras in vivo suggests that oncogenic Kras signaling-a hallmark and key driver of PDAC-is contingent on stromal inputs...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092814/a-participatory-action-research-study-exploring-women-s-understandings-of-the-concept-of-informed-choice-during-pregnancy-and-childbirth-in-ireland
#8
Denise O'Brien, Michelle M Butler, Mary Casey
OBJECTIVE: to explore women's understandings and definitions of the concept of informed choice during pregnancy and childbirth. METHODS: a three-phase action research approach. In the first phase of the study (reported in this paper), fifteen women were interviewed to establish their understandings and experiences of informed choice. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland in a large maternity hospital. PARTICIPANTS: fifteen postnatal women who gave birth to a live healthy infant, women attended obstetric or midwifery-led care...
January 4, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092749/public-value-at-risk-from-phytophthora-ramorum-and-phytophthora-kernoviae-spread-in-england-and-wales
#9
Ben Drake, Glyn Jones
Heritage gardens, heathland and woodland are increasingly under threat from the non-native tree and plant diseases Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae. However, there exist only limited literature that estimates the public non-market value that may be lost from a continued spread of Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae into these habitats. This paper therefore uses a contingent valuation survey to assess the non-extractive public use and non-use values at risk from an uncontrolled spread of these diseases in England and Wales...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088674/people-s-reasons-for-wanting-to-complete-probation-use-and-predictive-validity-in-an-e-health-intervention
#10
Stephanie A Spohr, Faye S Taxman, Scott T Walters
The criminal justice system tends to emphasize external contingencies (e.g., fees, jail time) to motivate offender compliance. However, people's reasons for desistance vary considerably. This study evaluated the acceptability, utility, and predictive validity of questions that ask about people's reasons for wanting to successfully complete probation. Substance-using probationers (N=113) participated in a web-based computer intervention that targeted substance use and treatment initiation. Questions around seven dimensions of reasons for completing probation were developed to provide tailored feedback during the web-based program...
January 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087997/experience-in-action-moderating-care-in-web-based-patient-feedback
#11
Malte Ziewitz
What does it take to mobilise experiences of care and make them useful for improving services? This article draws on ethnographic fieldwork with a UK-based patient feedback website to develop a critical perspective on patient experience as a contingent accomplishment and a focal point for eliciting, provoking, and respecifying relations of accountability. Following a single posting from the moderation room back to the author and into the wards and offices of the hospital, I show how moderators, carers, and clinical staff respond to and act upon a seemingly stable experience...
December 21, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081260/comparative-genome-sequencing-reveals-within-host-genetic-changes-in-neisseria-meningitidis-during-invasive-disease
#12
Johanna Klughammer, Marcus Dittrich, Jochen Blom, Vera Mitesser, Ulrich Vogel, Matthias Frosch, Alexander Goesmann, Tobias Müller, Christoph Schoen
Some members of the physiological human microbiome occasionally cause life-threatening disease even in immunocompetent individuals. A prime example of such a commensal pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis, which normally resides in the human nasopharynx but is also a leading cause of sepsis and epidemic meningitis. Using N. meningitidis as model organism, we tested the hypothesis that virulence of commensal pathogens is a consequence of within host evolution and selection of invasive variants due to mutations at contingency genes, a mechanism called phase variation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075012/rare-ecomorphological-convergence-on-a-complex-adaptive-landscape-body-size-and-diet-mediate-evolution-of-jaw-shape-in-squirrels-sciuridae
#13
Miriam Leah Zelditch, Ji Ye, Jonathan S Mitchell, Donald L Swiderski
Convergence is widely regarded as compelling evidence for adaptation, often being portrayed as evidence that phenotypic outcomes are predictable from ecology, overriding contingencies of history. However, repeated outcomes may be very rare unless adaptive landscapes are simple, structured by strong ecological and functional constraints. One such constraint may be a limitation on body size because performance often scales with size, allowing species to adapt to challenging functions by modifying only size. When size is constrained, species might adapt by changing shape; convergent shapes may therefore be common when size is limiting and functions are challenging...
January 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073795/in-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-what-is-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-point-of-care-ultrasonography-for-the-diagnosis-of-abscess-compared-to-the-current-standard-of-care-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
David Barbic, Jordan Chenkin, Dennis D Cho, Tomislav Jelic, Frank X Scheuermeyer
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) in diagnosing abscess in emergency department (ED) patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). The secondary objective was the accuracy of POCUS in the paediatric population subgroup. SETTING: Prospective studies set in emergency departments. PARTICIPANTS: Emergency department patients (adult and paediatric) presenting with SSTI and suspected abscess...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072482/a-systematic-review-of-evidence-relating-to-clinical-supervision-for-nurses-midwives-and-allied-health-professionals
#15
REVIEW
Alex Pollock, Pauline Campbell, Ruth Deery, Mick Fleming, Jean Rankin, Graham Sloan, Helen Cheyne
AIM: To systematically review evidence relating to clinical supervision for nurses, midwives and allied health professionals. BACKGROUND: Since 1902 statutory supervision has been a requirement for UK midwives, but this is due to change. Evidence relating to clinical supervision for nurses and allied health professions could inform a new model of clinical supervision for midwives. DESIGN: A systematic review with a contingent design, comprising a broad map of research relating to clinical supervision and two focussed syntheses answering specific review questions...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071763/starved-epithelial-cells-uptake-extracellular-matrix-for-survival
#16
Taru Muranen, Marcin P Iwanicki, Natasha L Curry, Julie Hwang, Cory D DuBois, Jonathan L Coloff, Daniel S Hitchcock, Clary B Clish, Joan S Brugge, Nada Y Kalaany
Extracellular matrix adhesion is required for normal epithelial cell survival, nutrient uptake and metabolism. This requirement can be overcome by oncogene activation. Interestingly, inhibition of PI3K/mTOR leads to apoptosis of matrix-detached, but not matrix-attached cancer cells, suggesting that matrix-attached cells use alternate mechanisms to maintain nutrient supplies. Here we demonstrate that under conditions of dietary restriction or growth factor starvation, where PI3K/mTOR signalling is decreased, matrix-attached human mammary epithelial cells upregulate and internalize β4-integrin along with its matrix substrate, laminin...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070868/development-of-a-just-in-time-adaptive-intervention-for-smoking-cessation-among-korean-american-emerging-adults
#17
Christian Jules Cerrada, Eldin Dzubur, Kacie C A Blackman, Vickie Mays, Steven Shoptaw, Jimi Huh
PURPOSE: Cigarette smoking is a preventable risk factor that contributes to unnecessary lung cancer burden among Korean Americans and there is limited research on effective smoking cessation strategies for this population. Smartphone-based smoking cessation apps that leverage just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) hold promise for smokers attempting to quit. However, little is known about how to develop and tailor a smoking cessation JITAI for Korean American emerging adult (KAEA) smokers...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070307/global-ecological-success-of-thalassoma-fishes-in-extreme-coral-reef-habitats
#18
Christopher J Fulton, Peter C Wainwright, Andrew S Hoey, David R Bellwood
Phenotypic adaptations can allow organisms to relax abiotic selection and facilitate their ecological success in challenging habitats, yet we have relatively little data for the prevalence of this phenomenon at macroecological scales. Using data on the relative abundance of coral reef wrasses and parrotfishes (f. Labridae) spread across three ocean basins and the Red Sea, we reveal the consistent global dominance of extreme wave-swept habitats by fishes in the genus Thalassoma, with abundances up to 15 times higher than any other labrid...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070254/the-efficacy-of-contingency-management-on-cocaine-craving-using-prize-based-reinforcement-of-abstinence-in-cocaine-users
#19
Bijan Pirnia, Seyed Kazem Rasoulzadeh Tabatabaei, Abbas Tavallaii, Ali Akbar Soleimani, Kambiz Pirnia
INTRODUCTION: Contingency management (CM) is one of the most common therapies in the domain of drug addiction. This study has been carried out with the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of contingency management intervention. METHOD: In an experimental design, between December 15, 2014 and November 20, 2015, fifty men (between 18 and 31 with an average age of 24.6) with a history of cocaine use, were selected voluntarily and were randomly assigned into two groups of CM and control group...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068353/speech-timing-deficit-of-stuttering-evidence-from-contingent-negative-variations
#20
Ning Ning, Danling Peng, Xiangping Liu, Shuang Yang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the speech preparation processes of adults who stutter (AWS). Fifteen AWS and fifteen adults with fluent speech (AFS) participated in the experiment. The event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a foreperiod paradigm. The warning signal (S1) was a color square, and the following imperative stimulus (S2) was either a white square (the Go signal that required participants to name the color of S1) or a white dot (the NoGo signal that prevents participants from speaking)...
2017: PloS One
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