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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353364/testosterone-and-proactive-reactive-aggression-in-youth-the-moderating-role-of-harsh-discipline
#1
Frances R Chen, Adrian Raine, Douglas A Granger
This study tests a biosocial model of the link between testosterone and proactive-reactive aggression in youth at varying levels of harsh discipline. Given that proactive aggression is used to gain power and status and the importance of social learning in its formation, we hypothesized that testosterone would be associated with proactive aggression at higher levels of harsh discipline, and that this relationship would be more pronounced in boys than girls. Participants (n = 445; 50% male; M age = 11...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353109/shortened-duration-tacrolimus-after-nonmyeloablative-hla-haploidentical-bmt
#2
Yvette L Kasamon, Ephraim J Fuchs, Marianna Zahurak, Gary L Rosner, Heather J Symons, Douglas E Gladstone, Carol Ann Huff, Lode J Swinnen, Robert A Brodsky, William H Matsui, Ivan Borrello, Satish Shanbhag, Kenneth R Cooke, Richard F Ambinder, Leo Luznik, Javier Bolaños-Meade, Richard J Jones
With posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, nonmyeloablative HLA-haploidentical (NMA haplo) and HLA-matched blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) have comparable outcomes. Early discontinuation of immunosuppression may reduce relapse, as well as improve immune reconstitution, but may increase GVHD. We conducted a prospective trial of NMA haplo BMT for patients with hematologic malignancies (median age, 61), evaluating the safety of early discontinuation of tacrolimus...
January 15, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352280/leisure-time-physical-activity-and-prevalence-of-non-communicable-pathologies-and-prescription-medication-in-spain
#3
Pablo Fernandez-Navarro, María Teresa Aragones, Victoria Ley
Our aims were to describe physical activity (PA) behaviour in Spain and to examine its association with the prevalence of some of the major non-communicable diseases and with the use of prescription medication. Individualized secondary data retrieved from the 2014 European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) for Spain were used to conduct a cross-sectional epidemiological study (n = 18926). PA was assessed by two different measures: a specific designed variable for EHIS and a leisure time PA frequency-based query of the national survey...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352163/word-mode-a-crowding-free-reading-protocol-for-individuals-with-macular-disease
#4
Stuart Wallis, Yit Yang, Stephen J Anderson
Central retinal loss through macular disease markedly reduces the ability to read largely because identification of a word using peripheral vision is negatively influenced by nearby text, a phenomenon termed visual crowding. Here, we present a novel peripheral reading protocol, termed Word Mode, that eliminates crowding by presenting each word in isolation but in a position that mimics its natural position in the line of text being read, with each new word elicited using a self-paced button press. We used a gaze-contingent paradigm to simulate a central scotoma in four normally-sighted observers, and measured oral reading speed for text positioned 7...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350573/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-screening-for-adverse-childhood-experiences-in-prenatal-care
#5
Tracy Flanagan, Amy Alabaster, Brigid McCaw, Nicole Stoller, Carey Watson, Kelly C Young-Wolff
INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common among pregnant women and contribute to increased risk for negative perinatal outcomes, yet few clinicians screen prenatal patients for ACEs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of screening for ACEs in standard prenatal care. METHODS: We evaluated a 4-month pilot (March 2016-June 2016) to screen pregnant women (at ∼14-23 weeks of gestation) for ACEs and resiliency in two Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers (N = 480)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349880/beyond-the-realist-turn-a-socio-material-analysis-of-heart-failure-self-care
#6
Allan McDougall, Elizabeth Anne Kinsella, Mark Goldszmidt, Karen Harkness, Patricia Strachan, Lorelei Lingard
For patients living with chronic illnesses, self-care has been linked with positive outcomes such as decreased hospitalisation, longer lifespan, and improved quality of life. However, despite calls for more and better self-care interventions, behaviour change trials have repeatedly fallen short on demonstrating effectiveness. The literature on heart failure (HF) stands as a case in point, and a growing body of HF studies advocate realist approaches to self-care research and policymaking. We label this trend the 'realist turn' in HF self-care...
January 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348192/differential-contributions-of-nucleus-accumbens-subregions-to-cue-guided-risk-reward-decision-making-and-implementation-of-conditional-rules
#7
Stan B Floresco, David R Montes, Maric M T Tse, Mieke van Holstein
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node within cortico-limbic circuitry for guiding action selection and cost/benefit decision making in situations involving reward uncertainty. Preclinical studies have typically assessed risk/reward decision making using assays where decisions are guided by internally-generated representations of choice-outcome contingencies. Yet, real-life decisions are often influenced by external stimuli that inform about likelihoods of obtaining rewards. How different subregions of the NAc mediate decision making in such situations is unclear...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347819/presence-of-rigid-red-blood-cells-in-blood-flow-interfere-with-the-vascular-wall-adhesion-of-leukocytes
#8
Mario Gutierrez, Margaret B Fish, Alexander W Golinski, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
The symptoms of many blood diseases can often be attributed to irregularities in cellular dynamics produced by abnormalities in blood cells, particularly red blood cells (RBCs). Contingent on the disease and its severity, RBCs can be afflicted with increased membrane rigidity as seen in malaria and sickle cell disease. Despite this understanding, little experimental work has been conducted towards understanding the effect of RBC rigidity on cellular dynamics in physiologic blood flow. Though many have computationally modeled complex blood flow to postulate how RBC rigidity may disrupt normal hemodynamics, to date, there lacks a clear understanding of how rigid RBCs affect the blood cell segregation behavior in blood flow, known as margination, and the resulting change in the adhesion of white blood cells (WBCs)...
January 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346279/how-neighborhood-effects-vary-childbearing-and-fathering-among-latino-and-african-american-adolescents
#9
Jessica L Lucero, Anna Maria Santiago, George C Galster
This study examines what neighborhood conditions experienced at age 15 and after are associated with teen childbearing and fathering among Latino and African American youth and whether these neighborhood effects vary by gender and/or ethnicity. Administrative and survey data from a natural experiment are used for a sample of 517 Latino and African American youth whose families were quasi-randomly assigned to public housing operated by the Denver (CO) Housing Authority (DHA). Characteristics of the neighborhood initially assigned by DHA to wait list applicants are utilized as identifying instruments for the neighborhood contexts experienced during adolescence...
January 18, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345481/the-influence-of-low-barrier-and-voluntary-service-policies-on-survivor-empowerment-in-a-domestic-violence-housing-organization
#10
Nkiru Nnawulezi, Surbhi Godsay, Cris M Sullivan, Suzanne Marcus, Margaret Hacskaylo
The purpose of community-based domestic violence crisis housing programs (e.g., shelters) is to provide a safe setting that promotes empowerment for survivors of intimate partner violence. For staff to reach this aim, the program must have formal structures and processes in place to support such efforts. This study explored how low-barrier and voluntary service policies influenced staff practices and survivor empowerment. Low-barrier policies require that programs remove barriers that prevent survivors, particularly those who have mental health concerns and/or addictions, from being able to access services...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344943/an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-joint-contribution-of-hpa-axis-activation-and-motivation-to-early-adolescent-depressive-symptoms
#11
Karen D Rudolph, Wendy Troop-Gordon, Haina H Modi, Douglas A Granger
This study examines the interactive contribution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and approach-avoidance motivation systems to longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms across the adolescent transition. In the summer prior to, or fall of, 4th grade, 132 youth (68 girls; 64 boys; M age = 9.46 years) participated in a social challenge task and reported on their depressive symptoms. In the winter of 6th grade, youth completed a semi-structured interview of depression and a self-report measure of approach-avoidance motivations...
January 18, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344925/translating-visual-information-into-action-predictions-statistical-learning-in-action-and-nonaction-contexts
#12
Claire D Monroy, Sarah A Gerson, Sabine Hunnius
Humans are sensitive to the statistical regularities in action sequences carried out by others. In the present eyetracking study, we investigated whether this sensitivity can support the prediction of upcoming actions when observing unfamiliar action sequences. In two between-subjects conditions, we examined whether observers would be more sensitive to statistical regularities in sequences performed by a human agent versus self-propelled 'ghost' events. Secondly, we investigated whether regularities are learned better when they are associated with contingent effects...
January 17, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344831/interaction-network-of-core-aba-signaling-components-in-maize
#13
Ying-Ge Wang, Feng-Ling Fu, Hao-Qiang Yu, Tao Hu, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Yi Tao, Jian-Kang Zhu, Yang Zhao, Wan-Chen Li
We defined a comprehensive core ABA signaling network in monocot maize, including the gene expression, subcellular localization and interaction network of ZmPYLs, ZmPP2Cs, ZmSnRK2s and the putative substrates. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in plant developmental processes and abiotic stress responses. In Arabidopsis, ABA is sensed by the PYL ABA receptors, which leads to binding of the PP2C protein phosphatase and activation of the SnRK2 protein kinases. These components functioning diversely and redundantly in ABA signaling are little known in maize...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344400/the-nursing-legacy-of-the-korea-sisters
#14
Jan-Thore Lockertsen, Åshild Fause
Aim: During the Korean War (1950-1953), the Norwegian government sent a Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) to support the efforts of the United Nations (UN) Army. During the war, 111 Norwegian nurses served in seven contingents, each 6 month, at the Norwegian Field Hospital in Korea. The nurses were nicknamed "The Korea Sisters". The aim of this study is to explore the impact and influence of their wartime nursing on Norwegian post-Korean-War nursing. Design: Qualitative...
January 2018: Nursing Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342076/neuromorphic-vibrotactile-stimulation-of-fingertips-for-encoding-object-stiffness-in-telepresence-sensory-substitution-and-augmentation-applications
#15
Francesca Sorgini, Luca Massari, Jessica D'Abbraccio, Eduardo Palermo, Arianna Menciassi, Petar B Petrovic, Alberto Mazzoni, Maria Chiara Carrozza, Fiona N Newell, Calogero M Oddo
We present a tactile telepresence system for real-time transmission of information about object stiffness to the human fingertips. Experimental tests were performed across two laboratories (Italy and Ireland). In the Italian laboratory, a mechatronic sensing platform indented different rubber samples. Information about rubber stiffness was converted into on-off events using a neuronal spiking model and sent to a vibrotactile glove in the Irish laboratory. Participants discriminated the variation of the stiffness of stimuli according to a two-alternative forced choice protocol...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341338/human-teeth-biobank-microbiological-analysis-of-the-teeth-storage-solution
#16
Fabiana Almeida Curylofo-Zotti, Francine Lorencetti-Silva, Jéssica de Almeida Coelho, Rachel Maciel Monteiro, Evandro Watanabe, Silmara Aparecida Milori Corona
The cross-infections may occur during handling of dental elements, affecting the health of dental practitioners and researchers. This study aimed to analyze the influence of the storage medium temperature on the bacterial contingent of the human teeth used for research purposes. Thirty human teeth were donated to the Human Teeth Biobank immediately after extraction. The teeth were cleaned with tap water and neutral soap. The teeth were randomly distributed according to the temperature of the storage solution (deionized water): at 4 °C (refrigerator) or at -10 °C (freezer) and were stored individually in sterile vials during 60 days...
January 17, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340495/validation-of-the-stop-bang-questionnaire-as-a-means-of-screening-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-adults-in-brazil
#17
Ricardo Luiz de Menezes Duarte, Lorena Barbosa de Moraes Fonseca, Flavio José Magalhães-da-Silveira, Erika Aparecida da Silveira, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi
OBJECTIVE: To validate the Portuguese-language version of the STOP-Bang (acronym for Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender) questionnaire, culturally adapted for use in Brazil, as a means of screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults. METHODS: In this validation study, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age, recruited between May of 2015 and November of 2016. All patients completed the STOP-Bang questionnaire and underwent overnight polysomnography...
November 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340490/accuracy-of-closed-pleural-biopsy-in-the-diagnosis-of-malignant-pleural-effusion
#18
Renata Báez-Saldaña, Uriel Rumbo-Nava, Araceli Escobar-Rojas, Patricia Castillo-González, Santiago León-Dueñas, Teresa Aguirre-Pérez, María Eugenia Vázquez-Manríquez
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that closed pleural biopsy (CPB) has a sensitivity of less than 60% for diagnosing malignancy. Therefore, controversy has recently emerged regarding the value of CPB as a diagnostic test. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of CPB in diagnosing malignancy in patients with pleural effusion. METHODS: This was a prospective 8-year study of individuals who underwent CPB to establish the etiology of pleural effusion...
November 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340102/the-impact-of-antibiotic-usage-on-the-efficacy-of-chemoimmunotherapy-is-contingent-on-the-source-of-tumor-reactive-t-cells
#19
Michal P Kuczma, Zhi-Chun Ding, Tao Li, Tsadik Habtetsion, Tingting Chen, Zhonglin Hao, Locke Bryan, Nagendra Singh, James N Kochenderfer, Gang Zhou
In recent years the combined use of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, collectively termed chemoimmunotherapy, has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients with cancer. Antibiotics are commonly used to reduce infection-related complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Intriguingly, accumulating evidence has implicated gut microbiota as a critical determinant of host antitumor immune responses, raising the question as to whether the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics would invariably diminish tumor response to chemoimmunotherapies...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339559/evidence-of-structure-and-persistence-in-motivational-attraction-to-serial-pavlovian-cues
#20
Elizabeth B Smedley, Kyle S Smith
Sign-tracking is a form of autoshaping where animals develop conditioned responding directed toward stimuli predictive of an outcome even though the outcome is not contingent on the animal's behavior. Sign-tracking behaviors are thought to arise out of the attribution of incentive salience (i.e., motivational value) to reward-predictive cues. It is not known how incentive salience would be attributed to serially occurring cues, despite cues often occurring in a sequence in the real world as reward approaches...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
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