keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Contingency

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166320/exercise-alters-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-in-lean-and-obese-humans
#1
Jacob M Allen, Lucy J Mailing, Grace M Niemiro, Rachel Moore, Mark D Cook, Bryan A White, Hannah D Holscher, Jeffrey A Woods
PURPOSE: Exercise is associated with altered gut microbial composition, but studies have not investigated whether the gut microbiota and associated metabolites are modulated by exercise training in humans. We explored the impact of six weeks of endurance exercise on the composition, functional capacity, and metabolic output of the gut microbiota in lean and obese adults with multiple-day dietary controls prior to outcome variable collection. METHODS: Thirty-two lean (n=18 [9 female]) and obese (n=14 [11 female]), previously sedentary subjects participated in six weeks of supervised, endurance-based exercise training (3 days/wk) that progressed from 30 to 60 minutes/day and from moderate (60% of heart rate reserve [HRR]) to vigorous intensity (75% HRR)...
November 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166138/medical-drama-viewing-and-healthy-lifestyle-behaviors-understanding-the-role-of-health-locus-of-control-beliefs-and-education-level
#2
Sungsu Kim, Young Min Baek
The present study advances the understanding of how medical drama viewing influences healthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercising, and consuming vegetables) by examining the role of the health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs and education level. An analysis of nationally representative data reveals that watching medical dramas is positively associated with chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. In addition, healthy lifestyle behaviors are positively associated with the internal HLOC belief and are negatively associated with the chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs...
November 22, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165654/infusions-of-nerve-growth-factor-into-the-developing-frontal-cortex-leads-to-deficits-in-behavioral-flexibility-and-increased-perseverance
#3
Sagar J Desai, Brian L Allman, Nagalingam Rajakumar
In the pursuit of further establishing a neurodevelopmental animal model to investigate the mechanisms underlying impaired executive function, a core and severely debilitating symptom of schizophrenia, we sought to characterize the deficits in behavioral flexibility in adult rats following neonatal infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF) into the medial part of the developing frontal cortex. Our previous studies using this neonatal frontal cortical lesion model have shown that it leads to adult-onset positive and negative symptom-like features, and several neuropathological abnormalities of schizophrenia...
November 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164511/effect-of-partners-disgust-responses-on-psychological-wellbeing-in-cancer-patients
#4
Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
The aim of this study was to explore quantitatively the relationship between disgust responses in cancer patients and their partners, and in turn their relationship to patients' psychological well-being. We recruited 50 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses and their partners from cancer-related groups (e.g., charities). Patients completed questionnaires to determine levels of disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, self-disgust, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Disgust propensity and sensitivity were also assessed in their partners...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163249/are-empowered-employees-more-proactive-the-contingency-of-how-they-evaluate-their-leader
#5
Kui Yin, Lu Xing, Can Li, Yungui Guo
Finding ways to enhance employee proactive behavior is a focal concern for academics and practitioners. Previous studies have found a positive association between empowering leadership and proactive behavior (Martin et al., 2013; Li et al., 2017). However, these studies lack elaboration on mechanisms and do not rule out the effect of employees' proactive personality during empirical testing. We investigate empowering leadership from individual perspective due to the variation of empowerment levels even in the same team...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163113/changes-of-attention-during-value-based-reversal-learning-are-tracked-by-n2pc-and-feedback-related-negativity
#6
Mariann Oemisch, Marcus R Watson, Thilo Womelsdorf, Anna Schubö
Previously learned reward values can have a pronounced impact, behaviorally and neurophysiologically, on the allocation of selective attention. All else constant, stimuli previously associated with a high value gain stronger attentional prioritization than stimuli previously associated with a low value. The N2pc, an ERP component indicative of attentional target selection, has been shown to reflect aspects of this prioritization, by changes of mean amplitudes closely corresponding to selective enhancement of high value target processing and suppression of high value distractor processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163086/adolescent-exposure-to-methylphenidate-increases-impulsive-choice-later-in-life
#7
Zarish Abbas, Arwen Sweet, Giovanni Hernandez, Andreas Arvanitogiannis
Background: The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is known to temporarily reduce impulsive choice and promote self-control. What is not sufficiently understood is how repeated treatment with MPH affects impulsive choice in the long run, and whether any such effect is contingent on exposure at certain developmental stages. Methods: Using an animal model for impulsive choice, we examined first whether giving MPH through early adolescence alters delay discounting, an operational measure of impulsive choice, later in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161799/risk-of-miscarriage-following-amniocentesis-and-chorionic-villus-sampling-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#8
Jaroslaw Beta, Cristina Lesmes-Heredia, Chiara Bedetti, Ranjit Akolekar
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of miscarriage after amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) based on a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library (2000-2017) was carried out to identify studies reporting complications following CVS or amniocentesis. The inclusion criteria for the systematic review were studies reporting results from large controlled studies (n≥1,000 invasive procedures) and those reporting data for pregnancy loss prior to 24 weeks' gestation...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161228/homelessness-predicts-attrition-but-not-alcohol-abstinence-in-outpatients-experiencing-co-occurring-alcohol-dependence-and-serious-mental-illness
#9
Emily Leickly, Jordan Skalisky, Oladunni Oluwoye, Sterling M McPherson, Debra Srebnik, John M Roll, Richard K Ries, Michael G McDonell
BACKGROUND: Adults experiencing homelessness and serious mental illnesses (SMI) are at an increased risk for poor mental health and treatment outcomes compared to stably housed adults with SMI. The additional problem of alcohol misuse further complicates the difficulties of those living with homelessness and SMI. In this secondary data analysis, we investigated the impact of homelessness on attrition and alcohol use in a contingency management (CM) intervention that rewarded alcohol abstinence in outpatients with SMI...
November 21, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160165/machine-learning-social-learning-and-the-governance-of-self-driving-cars
#10
Jack Stilgoe
Self-driving cars, a quintessentially 'smart' technology, are not born smart. The algorithms that control their movements are learning as the technology emerges. Self-driving cars represent a high-stakes test of the powers of machine learning, as well as a test case for social learning in technology governance. Society is learning about the technology while the technology learns about society. Understanding and governing the politics of this technology means asking 'Who is learning, what are they learning and how are they learning?' Focusing on the successes and failures of social learning around the much-publicized crash of a Tesla Model S in 2016, I argue that trajectories and rhetorics of machine learning in transport pose a substantial governance challenge...
November 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160162/is-college-education-an-equalizer-for-social-disparities-in-health-literacy-a-case-study-in-shanghai-china
#11
Anning Hu, Xiaozhao Yousef Yang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to illustrate the immediate effect of the college education process (across college grades) on the strength of association between parental education and college attendees' health literacy. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted based on data from a random sample of students in one university in Shanghai, China ( N = 574). Exploratory factor analysis was used to generate factors of different dimensions of health literacy...
November 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159999/-economies-of-experience-disambiguation-of-degraded-stimuli-leads-to-a-decreased-dispersion-of-eye-movement-patterns
#12
Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
We demonstrate "economies of experience" in eye-movement patterns-that is, optimization of eye-movement patterns aimed at more efficient and less costly visual processing, similar to the priming-induced formation of sparser cortical representations or reduced reaction times. Participants looked at Mooney-type, degraded stimuli that were difficult to recognize without prior experience, but easily recognizable after exposure to their undegraded versions. As predicted, eye-movement dispersion, velocity, and the number of fixations decreased with each stimulus presentation...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159906/sexual-orientation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
R George, M A Stokes
Clinical impressions suggest a different sexual profile between individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is presently known about the demographics of sexual orientation in ASD. Sexual Orientation was surveyed using the Sell Scale of Sexual Orientation in an international online sample of individuals with ASD (N = 309, M = 90, F= 219), aged (M = 32.30 years, SD = 11.93) and this was compared to sexual orientation of typically-developing individuals (N = 310, M = 84, F= 226), aged (M = 29...
November 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159798/tasks-determine-what-is-learned-in-visual-statistical-learning
#14
Timothy J Vickery, Su Hyoun Park, Jayesh Gupta, Marian E Berryhill
Visual statistical learning (VSL), the unsupervised learning of statistical contingencies across time and space, may play a key role in efficient and predictive encoding of the perceptual world. How VSL capabilities vary as a function of ongoing task demands is still poorly understood. VSL is modulated by selective attention and faces interference from some secondary tasks, but there is little evidence that the types of contingencies learned in VSL are sensitive to task demands. We found a powerful effect of task on what is learned in VSL...
November 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158402/structural-insights-into-enzymatic-4-2-aza-cycloaddition-in-thiopeptide-antibiotic-biosynthesis
#15
Dillon P Cogan, Graham A Hudson, Zhengan Zhang, Taras V Pogorelov, Wilfred A van der Donk, Douglas A Mitchell, Satish K Nair
The [4+2] cycloaddition reaction is an enabling transformation in modern synthetic organic chemistry, but there are only limited examples of dedicated natural enzymes that can catalyze this transformation. Thiopeptides (or more formally thiazolyl peptides) are a class of thiazole-containing, highly modified, macrocyclic secondary metabolites made from ribosomally synthesized precursor peptides. The characteristic feature of these natural products is a six-membered nitrogenous heterocycle that is assembled via a formal [4+2] cycloaddition between two dehydroalanine (Dha) residues...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157983/blockade-of-nmda-receptors-blocks-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-conditioned-approach-in-rats
#16
Ewa Galaj, Neal Seepersad, Zena Dakmak, Robert Ranaldi
Conditioned stimuli (CSs) exert motivational effects on both adaptive and pathological reward-related behaviors, including drug taking and seeking. We developed a paradigm that allows us to investigate the neuropharmacology by which previously neutral stimuli acquire the capacity to function as CSs and elicit (intravenous) cocaine conditioned approach and used this paradigm to test the role of NMDA receptor stimulation in the acquisition of cocaine conditioned approach. Rats were injected systemically with the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, before the start of 4 consecutive conditioning sessions, each of which consisted of 20 randomly presented light/tone (CS) presentations paired with cocaine infusion contingent upon nose pokes...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157408/fundamental-computational-constraints-on-the-time-course-of-perception-and-action
#17
Shimon Edelman, Roy Moyal
A cognitive system faced with contingent events that cause rapid changes in sensory data may (i) incrementally incorporate new data into the ongoing perceptual and motor processing; or (ii) restart processing on each new event; or (iii) sample the data and hold onto the sample until its processing is complete, while disregarding any contingent changes. We offer a set of computational first-principles arguments for a hypothesis, according to which any system that contends with certain classes of perception and behavioral control tasks must include the sample-and-hold option (possibly alongside the other two, which may be useful in other tasks)...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157278/ticks-and-the-city-are-there-any-differences-between-city-parks-and-natural-forests-in-terms-of-tick-abundance-and-prevalence-of-spirochaetes
#18
Maciej Kowalec, Tomasz Szewczyk, Renata Welc-Falęciak, Edward Siński, Grzegorz Karbowiak, Anna Bajer
BACKGROUND: Ixodes ricinus ticks are commonly encountered in either natural or urban areas, contributing to Lyme disease agents Borreliella [(Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato)] spp. and Borrelia miyamotoi enzootic cycles in cities. It is an actual problem whether urbanization affects pathogen circulation and therefore risk of infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate main tick-borne disease risk factors in natural, endemic areas of north-east (NE) Poland (Białowieża) and urban areas of central Poland (Warsaw), measuring tick abundance/density, prevalence of infection with spirochaetes and diversity of these pathogens in spring-early summer and late summer-autumn periods between 2012 and 2015...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154890/relating-to-the-experience-of-contingency-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-an-interview-study-in-american-patients
#19
Renske Kruizinga, Najmeh Jafari, Michael Scherer-Rath, Hans Schilderman, Jennifer Bires, Christina Puchalski, Hanneke van Laarhoven
INTRODUCTION: Being diagnosed with incurable cancer can be a life changing experience, evoking different spiritual questions and needs. Confronting a serious life-threatening event that occurs not only often unexpected but can also disrupt a person's self-image and ideals of their personhood. This confrontation makes it difficult for people to integrate it into their personal life story - otherwise referred to as an experience of contingency. Different modes of relating to the contingent life event of having cancer have been studied in a Dutch patient population...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154644/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-adolescent-decision-making-with-the-iowa-gambling-task
#20
Brandon Almy, Michael Kuskowski, Stephen M Malone, Evan Myers, Monica Luciana
Many researchers have used the standard Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess decision-making in adolescence given increased risk-taking during this developmental period. Most studies are cross-sectional and do not observe behavioral trajectories over time, limiting interpretation. This longitudinal study investigated healthy adolescents' and young adults' IGT performance across a 10-year span. A total of 189 individuals (aged 9-23 at baseline) completed a baseline session and were followed at 2-year intervals yielding 5 time-points...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
keyword
keyword
112601
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"