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Claudia Campos, Yanerys Leon, Andressa Sleiman, Beatriz Urcuyo
One potential limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that after the functional communication response (FCR) is taught, the response may be emitted at high rates or inappropriate times. Thus, schedule thinning is often necessary. Previous research has demonstrated that multiple schedules can facilitate schedule thinning by establishing discriminative control of the communication response while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. To date, most applied research evaluating the clinical utility of multiple schedules has done so in the context of behavior maintained by positive reinforcement (e...
September 27, 2016: Behavior Modification
Nathan A Call, Sarah J Miller, Joslyn Cynkus Mintz, Joanna Lomas Mevers, Mindy C Scheithauer, Julie E Eshelman, Gracie A Beavers
Unlike potential tangible positive reinforcers, which are typically identified for inclusion in functional analyses empirically using preference assessments, demands are most often selected arbitrarily or based on caregiver report. The present study evaluated the use of a demand assessment with 12 participants who exhibited escape-maintained problem behavior. Participants were exposed to 10 demands, with aversiveness measured by average latency to the first instance of problem behavior. In subsequent functional analyses, results of a demand condition that included the demand with the shortest latency to problem behavior resulted in identification of an escape function for 11 of the participants...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sarah K Slocum, Timothy R Vollmer
Previous research has shown that problem behavior maintained by escape can be treated using positive reinforcement. In the current study, we directly compared functional (escape) and nonfunctional (edible) reinforcers in the treatment of escape-maintained problem behavior for 5 subjects. In the first treatment, compliance produced a break from instructions. In the second treatment, compliance produced a small edible item. Neither treatment included escape extinction. Results suggested that the delivery of a positive reinforcer for compliance was effective for treating escape-maintained problem behavior for all 5 subjects, and the delivery of escape for compliance was ineffective for 3 of the 5 subjects...
September 2015: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Shanna Hagan-Burke, Maria Wynne Gilmour, Stephanie Gerow, William Clay Crowder
In two independent experiments, we (a) examined aspects of academic demands associated with the problem behaviors of two elementary students with behavioral disorders and (b) investigated the effects of academic interventions to decrease problem behaviors and increase task engagement. Preliminary functional behavior assessment data suggested each student participant's problem behaviors functioned to escape/avoid academic demands, and experimental structural analyses performed in naturalistic settings confirmed relations between their problem behaviors and specific features of academic tasks...
January 2015: Behavior Modification
Wendy Machalicek, Andrea McDuffie, Ashley Oakes, Monica Ma, Angela John Thurman, Mandy J Rispoli, Leonard Abbeduto
This study used experimental functional analyses to examine the operant function of challenging behaviors exhibited by 12 males (ages 27-51 months) with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Eight children met criteria for negatively reinforced challenging behavior in the form of escape from demands and/or escape from social interactions. Nine children met criteria for positively reinforced challenging behavior in the form of obtaining access to highly preferred items. Attention was identified as a maintaining consequence for three children...
July 2014: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kaneen B Geiger, James E Carr, Linda A Leblanc
Escape from instructional activities is a common maintaining variable for problem behavior and a number of effective treatments have been developed for this function. Each of these treatments has characteristics that make them optimal for certain environments and clients, but less optimal for others. We summarize the most commonly researched function-based treatments for escape-maintained behavior, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and provide a clinical model for selecting treatments based on client characteristics and the constraints of the therapeutic environment...
2010: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Kelly J Bouxsein, Henry S Roane, Tara Harper
Positive and negative reinforcement are effective for treating escape-maintained destructive behavior. The current study evaluated the separate and combined effects of these contingencies to increase task compliance. Results showed that a combination of positive and negative reinforcement was most effective for increasing compliance.
2011: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Stacy L Carter
The present investigation compared the effects of reinforcing compliance with either positive or negative reinforcement for a participant who displayed escape-maintained problem behavior. The results indicated that positive reinforcement in the form of a highly preferred edible or leisure item produced higher levels of compliance and lower levels of problem behavior when compared to negative reinforcement in the form of escape from demands. In addition, an extinction procedure was unnecessary to achieve high levels of compliance...
2010: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Paul Langthorne, Peter McGill, Mark F O'Reilly, Russell Lang, Wendy Machalicek, Jeffrey Michael Chan, Mandy Rispoli
Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis methodology with 8 children with fragile X. No child met criteria for attention-maintained problem behavior, 5 children met criteria for escape-maintained problem behavior, and 4 children met criteria for tangible-maintained problem behavior...
January 2011: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Rachael D Waller, Thomas S Higbee
Few studies have explored the effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement on escape-maintained behavior of students in a classroom setting. We measured the effects of an FT schedule on the disruptive and appropriate academic behaviors of 2 junior high students in a public school setting. Results demonstrated that FT escape from tasks resulted in a substantial decrease in disruptive behavior and an increase in time engaged in tasks for both participants.
March 2010: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joe Reichle, LeAnne Johnson, Emily Monn, Michael Harris
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of explicit and general delay cues when implementing a tolerance for a delay in the delivery of a reinforcement procedure to increase task engagement and decrease escape maintained challenging behavior. Two preschool children with autism participated in an alternating treatments design with changing criterions for task engagement. For both children, descriptive and experimental analyses verified that the challenging behavior functioned to escape instructional task demands...
June 2010: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Andrew W Gardner, David P Wacker, Eric W Boelter
The choice-making behavior of 2 typically developing children who engaged in problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement was evaluated within a concurrent-operants assessment that varied the quality of attention across free-play and demand conditions. The results demonstrated that it was possible to bias responding towards academic demands for both participants by providing high-quality attention, despite the continuous availability of negative reinforcement. The current study extended brief clinical methods with typically developing children and demonstrated how different qualities of attention provided across concurrent schedules could bias responding...
2009: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Gregory E Everett, D Joe Olmi, Ron P Edwards, Daniel H Tingstrom, Heather E Sterling-Turner, Theodore J Christ
The present study evaluates the effectiveness of two time-out (TO) procedures in reducing escape-maintained noncompliance of 4 children. Noncompliant behavioral function was established via a functional assessment (FA), including indirect and direct descriptive procedures and brief confirmatory experimental analyses. Following FA, parents were taught to consequate noncompliance with two different TO procedures, one without and one with escape extinction following TO release. Although results indicate TO without escape extinction is effective in increasing compliance above baseline levels, more optimal levels of compliance were obtained for all 4 children when escape extinction was added to the TO procedures already in place...
July 2007: Behavior Modification
Tiffany Kodak, Dorothea C Lerman, Valerie M Volkert, Nicole Trosclair
Factors that influence choice between qualitatively different reinforcers (e.g., a food item or a break from work) are important to consider when arranging treatments for problem behavior. Previous findings indicate that children who engage in problem behavior maintained by escape from demands may choose a food item over the functional reinforcer during treatment (DeLeon, Neidert, Anders, & Rodriguez-Catter, 2001; Lalli et al., 1999). However, a number of variables may influence choice between concurrently available forms of reinforcement...
2007: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jonathan C Baker, Gregory P Hanley, R Mark Mathews
In the current study, nursing home staff were taught to administer functional analyses to determine the variables maintaining aggression by an elder with dementia. The results indicated that aggression was evoked during bathroom routines and that escape maintained aggression. Staff then reduced aggression to near-zero levels with noncontingent escape. Implications for the assessment and treatment of problem behaviors in nursing home settings are discussed.
2006: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
J S Lalli, F C Mace
We evaluated the effects of extinction and negative reinforcement on the latency of response-class members following requests made to a 15-year-old female with moderate mental retardation and autism. A functional analysis showed that the class members (screams, aggression, and self-injury) were escape maintained. Informal observations suggested that these topographies generally occurred in the sequence listed above and therefore may have been hierarchically related. A therapist provided escape from demands contingent on a specific member of the class to determine the effects on the latency of the members' occurrence...
1995: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
J S Lalli
We evaluated the effects of two daily activity schedules on 2 participants' rates of aberrant behavior and their compliance. Functional analysis identified the operant function of the participants' aberrant behaviors to be escape from tasks. Participants were taught to use stimuli contained in daily schedules, and were tested based on a modified stimulus-equivalence model that consisted of flash cards and activity schedules comprised of words or photographs that corresponded to the participants' daily activities...
1994: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
J Reichle, J McComas
PURPOSE: To establish the conditional use of requests for assistance as an alternative to escape maintained challenging behaviour. METHOD: The study involved a 12-year-old boy with a behaviour disorder. Experiment 1 involved the implementation of a reversal design comparing the learner's performance during "easy" and "difficult" addition problems. Experiment 2 involved the implementation of a quasi-experimental design to establish the conditional use of requests for assistance...
November 4, 2004: Disability and Rehabilitation
Jennifer J McComas, Andrea Thompson, LeAnne Johnson
The effect of presession attention on the later occurrence of problem behavior was examined with elementary-school children with a range of disabilities. Results of analogue functional analyses suggested an escape function, an attention function, or both. Following the analogue functional analyses, the effects of two antecedent conditions (10-min ignore vs. 10-min attention) were compared on problem behavior in subsequent test conditions. For participants who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior, the test condition involved contingent attention for problem behavior...
2003: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Cathryn Romaniuk, Raymond Miltenberger, Carole Conyers, Nicole Jenner, Mandy Jurgens, Crystal Ringenberg
This study assessed whether the function of an individual's problem behavior was related to the effectiveness of an intervention involving choice among tasks. Analogue functional analyses were conducted with 7 students with various diagnoses to determine whether problem behaviors were maintained by escape or attention. Following identification of the function of each student's problem behavior, reversal designs were used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention that allowed the students to choose their own instructional tasks...
2002: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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