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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911301/the-effects-of-noncontingent-music-and-response-interruption-and-redirection-on-vocal-stereotypy
#1
Ashley R Gibbs, Christopher A Tullis, Raven Thomas, Brittany Elkins
Vocal stereotypy is a commonly occurring challenging behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is frequently maintained by automatic reinforcement and often interferes with skill acquisition. Matched stimulation (MS), and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) are two interventions that have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the occurrence of vocal stereotypy with participants with ASD. The current study sought to determine if the combination of MS (noncontingent music) and RIRD was more effective at reducing vocal stereotypy than RIRD alone and if the parents of children with ASD found the combination of MS and RIRD more socially valid than RIRD alone...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876921/sound-attenuation-and-preferred-music-in-the-treatment-of-problem-behavior-maintained-by-escape-from-noise
#2
Tracy L Kettering, Wayne W Fisher, Michael E Kelley, Robert H LaRue
We examined the extent to which different sounds functioned as motivating operations (MO) that evoked problem behavior during a functional analysis for two participants. Results suggested that escape from loud noises reinforced the problem behavior for one participant and escape from arguing reinforced problem behavior for the other participant. Noncontingent delivery of preferred music through sound-attenuating headphones decreased problem behavior without the use of extinction for both participants. We discuss the results in terms of the abolishing effects of the intervention...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672113/increased-cognitive-load-enables-unlearning-in-procedural-category-learning
#3
Matthew J Crossley, W Todd Maddox, F Gregory Ashby
Interventions for drug abuse and other maladaptive habitual behaviors may yield temporary success but are often fragile and relapse is common. This implies that current interventions do not erase or substantially modify the representations that support the underlying addictive behavior-that is, they do not cause true unlearning. One example of an intervention that fails to induce true unlearning comes from Crossley, Ashby, and Maddox (2013, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General), who reported that a sudden shift to random feedback did not cause unlearning of category knowledge obtained through procedural systems, and they also reported results suggesting that this failure is because random feedback is noncontingent on behavior...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561290/pilot-investigation-randomized-controlled-analog-trial-for-alcohol-and-tobacco-smoking-co-addiction-using-contingency-management
#4
Michael F Orr, Crystal Lederhos Smith, Myles Finlay, Samantha C Martin, Olivia Brooks, Oladunni A Oluwoye, Emily Leickly, Michael McDonell, Ekaterina Burduli, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Matt Layton, John M Roll, Sterling M McPherson
Contingency management (CM) is associated with decreases in off-target drug and alcohol use during primary target treatment. The primary hypothesis for this trial was that targeting alcohol use or tobacco smoking would yield increased abstinence in the opposite, nontargeted drug. We used a 2 [CM vs. noncontingent control (NC) for alcohol]×2 (CM vs. NC for smoking tobacco) factorial design, with alcohol intake (through urinary ethyl glucuronide) and tobacco smoking (through urinary cotinine) as the primary outcomes...
March 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500341/impairments-in-action-outcome-learning-in-schizophrenia
#5
Richard W Morris, Chad Cyrzon, Melissa J Green, Mike E Le Pelley, Bernard W Balleine
Learning the causal relation between actions and their outcomes (AO learning) is critical for goal-directed behavior when actions are guided by desire for the outcome. This can be contrasted with habits that are acquired by reinforcement and primed by prevailing stimuli, in which causal learning plays no part. Recently, we demonstrated that goal-directed actions are impaired in schizophrenia; however, whether this deficit exists alongside impairments in habit or reinforcement learning is unknown. The present study distinguished deficits in causal learning from reinforcement learning in schizophrenia...
March 3, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498423/a-comparison-of-procedures-for-unpairing-conditioned-reflexive-motivating-operations
#6
Tracy L Kettering, Nancy A Neef, Michael E Kelley, William L Heward
This study compared the effectiveness of two procedures to reduce behavior evoked by a reflexive conditioned motivating operation (CMO-R). Task demands were shown to evoke escape-maintained problem behavior for 4 students with disabilities. Alternative communication responses were taught as an appropriate method to request escape and this treatment combined with extinction for problem behavior led to decreases in problem behavior for all students. A beeping timer was then arranged to temporally precede the task demand to create a CMO-R that evoked communication responses...
March 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485763/assessing-the-combined-effects-of-resurgence-and-reinstatement-in-children-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Ashley P Liggett, Regina Nastri, Christopher A Podlesnik
Resurgence and reinstatement are laboratory models of relapse following treatments for problem behavior that arrange alternative sources of reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior and noncontingent reinforcement. Resurgence models the elimination or reduction of reinforcers during treatment and reinstatement models the re-presentation of reinforcers previously maintaining problem behavior. The present study examined individual and combined effects of resurgence and reinstatement in a translational model of treatment relapse with three children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder...
March 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405925/parameters-of-time-out-research-update-and-comparison-to-parenting-programs-books-and-online-recommendations
#8
REVIEW
Samantha M Corralejo, Scott A Jensen, Ashley D Greathouse, Leah E Ward
In reviews published more than 30 years ago, eight parameters important to the use of time-out were identified and available research was summarized. The purpose of the current paper is to provide an updated summary of existing research for each parameter of time-out. Within each parameter, we conducted a thorough review of the published literature and identified all peer-reviewed articles addressing each parameter. We identified and summarized a total of 46 articles across the eight parameters, including 32 not cited in previous reviews...
January 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380436/additional-free-reinforcers-increase-persistence-of-problem-behavior-in-a-clinical-context-a-partial-replication-of-laboratory-findings
#9
Gregory A Lieving, Iser G DeLeon, Abbey B Carreau-Webster, Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mandy M Triggs
Behavioral momentum theory is a quantitative framework used to characterize the persistence of behavior during response disruptors as a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. Results of several investigations have shown that alternative reinforcement can increase the resistance to change of a target response during extinction. In the present study, concomitant variable-interval fixed-time schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior were employed to simulate naturalistic situations involving the superimposition of response-independent reinforcers on a baseline schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior, as in the common use of noncontingent reinforcement treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367116/contingency-management-for-college-student-smokers-the-role-of-drinking-as-a-moderator-and-mediator-of-smoking-abstinence-during-treatment
#10
Rachel N Cassidy, Kristina M Jackson, Damaris J Rohsenow, Jennifer W Tidey, Tracy O' L Tevyaw, Nancy P Barnett, Peter M Monti, Mollie E Miller, Suzanne M Colby
INTRODUCTION: Contingency management (CM) is effective for promoting smoking abstinence; however, moderators and mediators of CM treatment efficacy in young adult populations are under-explored. We leveraged fine-grained data from a large randomized controlled trial: 1) to determine whether early attainment of sustained abstinence mediated the effect of treatment on abstinence; 2) to test whether heavy drinking moderated the effect of treatment on abstinence; and 3) to test a serial mediation model of the effects of drinking during early treatment on sustained smoking abstinence...
May 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277023/development-of-an-in-vivo-metric-to-aid-visual-inspection-of-single-case-design-data-do-we-need-to-run-more-sessions
#11
Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Todd D Little, Zhanxia Yang
Comparing visual inspection results of graphed data reveals inconsistencies in the interpretation of the same graph among single-case experimental design (SCED) researchers and practitioners. Although several investigators have disseminated structured criteria and visual inspection aids or strategies, inconsistencies in interpreting graphed data continue to exist even for individuals considered to be experts at interpreting SCED graphs. We propose a fail safe k metric that can be used in conjunction with visual inspection, and it can be used in-vivo after each additional data point is collected within a phase to determine the optimal point in time to shift between phases (e...
March 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226346/a-multicomponent-approach-to-thinning-reinforcer-delivery-during-noncontingent-reinforcement-schedules
#12
Sarah K Slocum, Emma Grauerholz-Fisher, Kerri P Peters, Timothy R Vollmer
We evaluated a noncontingent reinforcement procedure that involved initially providing three subjects with signaled, continuous access to the functional reinforcer for aggression and slowly increasing the amount of time subjects were exposed to the signaled unavailability of the reinforcer. Additionally, alternative potential reinforcers were available throughout the sessions. Results showed immediate and substantial reductions in aggression for all three subjects. The clinical utility of this intervention is discussed, and future research directions are recommended...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205337/prevention-of-the-development-of-problem-behavior-a-laboratory-model
#13
Tara A Fahmie, Anne C Macaskill, Ellie Kazemi, Uilani C Elmer
Few studies have isolated the preventive efficacy of common behavioral strategies like noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a laboratory model of these two problem behavior prevention strategies. Undergraduate students participated in a computer simulation, in which clicks to a designated area of the computer screen were analogous to the emergence of problem behavior. The responding of participants in a control group, who experienced a percentile schedule used to mimic the shaping of problem behavior, was compared to that of participants in two experimental groups, each with a history of either DRA or NCR...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188725/trial-based-functional-analysis-informs-treatment-for-vocal-scripting
#14
Mandy Rispoli, Matthew Brodhead, Katie Wolfe, Emily Gregori
Research on trial-based functional analysis has primarily focused on socially maintained challenging behaviors. However, procedural modifications may be necessary to clarify ambiguous assessment results. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the utility of iterative modifications to trial-based functional analysis on the identification of putative reinforcement and subsequent treatment for vocal scripting. For all participants, modifications to the trial-based functional analysis identified a primary function of automatic reinforcement...
May 2018: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115163/further-evaluation-of-presentation-format-of-competing-stimuli-for-treatment-of-automatically-maintained-challenging-behavior
#15
Casey J Clay, Annie M Clohisy, Alexandra M Ball, Aqdas F Haider, Brittany A Schmitz, SungWoo Kahng
Behavioral interventions have been effective in reducing automatically maintained skin picking for individuals with disabilities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A competing stimulus assessment (CSA) is typically utilized in behavioral intervention and assessment to identify potential stimuli which compete with the reinforcer for various forms of challenging behavior (CB). Treatment evaluations have validated the results of these assessments by demonstrating competing stimuli may reduce levels of CB...
May 2018: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992611/co-viewing-supports-toddlers-word-learning-from-contingent-and-noncontingent-video
#16
Gabrielle A Strouse, Georgene L Troseth, Katherine D O'Doherty, Megan M Saylor
Social cues are one way young children determine that a situation is pedagogical in nature-containing information to be learned and generalized. However, some social cues (e.g., contingent gaze and responsiveness) are missing from prerecorded video, a potential reason why toddlers' language learning from video can be inefficient compared with their learning directly from a person. This study explored two methods for supporting children's word learning from video by adding social-communicative cues. A sample of 88 30-month-olds began their participation with a video training phase...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531302/effects-of-financial-incentives-for-smoking-cessation-on-mood-and-anxiety-symptoms-among-pregnant-and-newly-postpartum-women
#17
Ivori Zvorsky, Joan M Skelly, Stephen T Higgins
Introduction: Financial incentives for smoking cessation increase smoking abstinence and decrease Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores among depression-prone pregnant and postpartum women. The present study is a secondary analysis using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to examine whether this treatment impacts a broader array of mood and anxiety symptoms. Methods: Participants (N = 253) were pregnant cigarette smokers who participated in four controlled clinical trials examining the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation...
April 2, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513826/noncontingent-reinforcement-without-extinction-plus-differential-reinforcement-of-alternative-behavior-during-treatment-of-problem-behavior
#18
Jennifer N Fritz, Lynsey M Jackson, Nicole A Stiefler, Barbara S Wimberly, Amy R Richardson
The effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) without extinction during treatment of problem behavior maintained by social positive reinforcement were evaluated for five individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A continuous NCR schedule was gradually thinned to a fixed-time 5-min schedule. If problem behavior increased during NCR schedule thinning, a continuous NCR schedule was reinstated and NCR schedule thinning was repeated with differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) included...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488927/distinct-motivational-effects-of-contingent-and-noncontingent-rewards
#19
Sanjay G Manohar, Rebecca Dawn Finzi, Daniel Drew, Masud Husain
When rewards are available, people expend more energy, increasing their motivational vigor. In theory, incentives might drive behavior for two distinct reasons: First, they increase expected reward; second, they increase the difference in subjective value between successful and unsuccessful performance, which increases contingency-the degree to which action determines outcome. Previous studies of motivational vigor have never compared these directly. Here, we indexed motivational vigor by measuring the speed of eye movements toward a target after participants heard a cue indicating how outcomes would be determined...
July 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453222/noncontingent-reinforcement-competes-with-response-performance
#20
Michael E Kelley, Cy B Nadler, Catalina Rey, Sarah Cowie, Christopher A Podlesnik
Noncontingent reinforcement is a commonly used procedure to decrease levels of problem behavior. Goals of this intervention are to decrease motivation, responding, and the functional relation between behavior and consequences, but it could also possibly compete with performance of alternative desirable responses. In the current study, we assessed the effects of noncontingent reinforcement arranged from 0% to 100% of sessions on performance of alternative responding across two experiments. Experiment 1 assessed manding (i...
May 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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