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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276578/persistence-during-and-resurgence-following-noncontingent-reinforcement-implemented-with-and-without-extinction
#1
Valdeep Saini, Wayne W Fisher, Maegan D Pisman
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is typically implemented with extinction (EXT) for destructive behavior reinforced by social consequences and without EXT for destructive behavior reinforced by sensory consequences. Behavioral momentum theory (BMT) predicts that responding will be more persistent, and treatment relapse in the form of response resurgence more likely, when NCR is implemented without EXT due to the greater overall rate of reinforcement associated with this intervention. We used an analogue arrangement to test these predictions of BMT by comparing NCR implemented with and without EXT...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262324/compliance-instead-of-flexibility-on-age-related-differences-in-cognitive-control-during-visual-search
#2
Christine Mertes, Edmund Wascher, Daniel Schneider
The effect of healthy aging on cognitive control of irrelevant visual information was investigated by using event-related potentials. Participants performed a spatial cuing task where an irrelevant color cue that was either contingent (color search) or noncontingent (shape search) on the attentional set was presented before a target with different stimulus-onset asynchronies. In the contingent condition, attentional capture appeared independent of age and persisted over the stimulus-onset asynchronies but was markedly pronounced for elderly people...
May 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177118/noncontingent-reinforcement-for-the-treatment-of-severe-problem-behavior-an-analysis-of-27-consecutive-applications
#3
Cara L Phillips, Julia A Iannaccone, Griffin W Rooker, Louis P Hagopian
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a commonly used treatment for severe problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The current study sought to extend the literature by reporting outcomes achieved with 27 consecutive applications of NCR as the primary treatment for severe problem behavior. All applications of NCR were included regardless of treatment outcome to minimize selection bias favoring successful cases. Participants ranged in age from 5 to 33 years. We analyzed the results across behavioral function and with regard to the use of functional versus alternative reinforcers...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146250/effect-of-selective-inhibition-of-reactivated-nicotine-associated-memories-with-propranolol-on-nicotine-craving
#4
Yan-Xue Xue, Jia-Hui Deng, Ya-Yun Chen, Li-Bo Zhang, Ping Wu, Geng-Di Huang, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Ping Bao, Yu-Mei Wang, Yavin Shaham, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Importance: A relapse into nicotine addiction during abstinence often occurs after the reactivation of nicotine reward memories, either by acute exposure to nicotine (a smoking episode) or by smoking-associated conditioned stimuli (CS). Preclinical studies suggest that drug reward memories can undergo memory reconsolidation after being reactivated, during which they can be weakened or erased by pharmacological or behavioral manipulations. However, translational clinical studies using CS-induced memory retrieval-reconsolidation procedures to decrease drug craving reported inconsistent results...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128442/a-microswitch-based-program-for-promoting-initial-ambulation-responses-an-evaluation-with-two-girls-with-multiple-disabilities
#5
Fabrizio Stasolla, Alessandro O Caffò, Viviana Perilli, Adele Boccasini, Anna Stella, Rita Damiani, Vincenza Albano, Concetta Damato
We assessed the use of a microswitch-based program for promoting ambulation responses by two children with multiple disabilities. The goals of the study were to: (a) evaluate the importance of the contingency between the target behavior (forward step) and the programmed consequence (preferred stimuli), (b) measure effects of the intervention on indices of happiness, and (c) assess the social validation of the procedure using 20 physiotherapists as external raters. The intervention involved the automatic delivery of preferred stimuli contingent on forward steps...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107772/a-preliminary-randomized-controlled-trial-of-contingency-management-for-alcohol-use-reduction-using-a-transdermal-alcohol-sensor
#6
Nancy P Barnett, Mark A Celio, Jennifer W Tidey, James G Murphy, Suzanne M Colby, Robert M Swift
AIMS: We tested the efficacy of daily contingent reinforcement for reducing alcohol use compared with (yoked) non-contingent reinforcement (NR) using a transdermal alcohol sensor to detect alcohol use. DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled design with 1 baseline week, 3 intervention weeks and 1-month follow-up. SETTING: New England, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Heavy drinking adults (46.7% female) not seeking treatment were randomized to (1) an escalating schedule of cash reinforcement (CR; n = 15) for days on which alcohol was neither reported nor detected or (2) yoked NR (n = 15)...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889434/effects-of-contingent-and-noncontingent-nicotine-on-lever-pressing-for-liquids-and-consumption-in-water-deprived-rats
#7
Hanan Frenk, Jeffrey Martin, Cristina Vitouchanskaia, Reuven Dar, Uri Shalev
Nicotine has been proposed to be a primary reinforcer and a reinforcement enhancer. To date, no studies have examined whether nicotine enhances consummatory behaviors or only operant responding (appetitive behaviors). Experiments were designed to test whether contingent and noncontingent nicotine enhance lever pressing for and consumption of fluids in water-deprived rats. Animals were water-deprived throughout all experiments. They were trained to press two levers under a variable interval (VI-20, 1-35s). Their lever pressing and water consumption were measured after noncontingent subcutaneous (s...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760808/analysis-of-behavioral-indicators-as-a-measure-of-satiation
#8
Rachel Scalzo, Tonya N Davis
Providing noncontingent access to a stimulus until an individual displays behavioral indicators of satiation has been used to determine when an abolishing operation is in effect, but there has been variation in its application in the literature. Four males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with tangibly maintained challenging behavior participated in this study. Individualized behavioral indicators were identified and verified to determine when each participant was finished playing with his/her preferred item...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733540/enduring-loss-of-serotonergic-control-of-orbitofrontal-cortex-function-following-contingent-and-noncontingent-cocaine-exposure
#9
Andrew M Wright, Agustin Zapata, Michael H Baumann, Joshua S Elmore, Alexander F Hoffman, Carl R Lupica
Clinical descriptions of cocaine addiction include compulsive drug seeking and maladaptive decision-making despite substantial aversive consequences. Research suggests that this may result from altered orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function and its participation in outcome-based behavior. Clinical and animal studies also implicate serotonin in the regulation of OFC function in addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine, through self-administration (CSA) or yoked-administration (CYA), alters the regulation of OFC function by 5-HT...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685777/spatial-memory-formation-differentially-affects-c-fos-expression-in-retrosplenial-areas-during-place-avoidance-training-in-rats
#10
Monika Malinowska, Monika Niewiadomska, Malgorzata Wesierska
The retrosplenial cortex is involved in spatial memory function, but the contribution of its individual areas is not well known. To elucidate the involvement of retrosplenial cortical areas 29c and 30 in spatial memory, we analyzed the expression of c-Fos in these areas in the experimental group of rats that were trained in a spatial place avoidance task, i.e. to avoid shocks presented in an unmarked sector of a stable arena under light conditions. Control rats were trained in the same context as the experimental rats either without (Control-noUS) or with shocks (Control-US) that were delivered in a random, noncontingent manner for three days...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678551/choice-between-delayed-food-and-immediate-oxycodone-in-rats
#11
Maria E Secci, Julie A Factor, Charles W Schindler, Leigh V Panlilio
RATIONALE: The choice to seek immediate drug effects instead of more meaningful but delayed rewards is a defining feature of addiction. OBJECTIVES: To develop a rodent model of this behavior, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the prescription opioid oxycodone (50 μg/kg) and delayed delivery of palatable food pellets. RESULTS: Rats preferred food at delays up to 30 s, but they chose oxycodone and food equally at 60-s delay and preferred oxycodone over food at 120-s delay...
December 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658756/treating-smokers-in-substance-treatment-with-contingent-vouchers-nicotine-replacement-and-brief-advice-adapted-for-sobriety-settings
#12
Damaris J Rohsenow, Rosemarie A Martin, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, Peter M Monti
Treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) provides an opportunity to use voucher-based treatment for smoking. Nicotine replacement (NRT) could improve outcomes previously observed with vouchers without NRT. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial compared contingent vouchers (CV) for smoking abstinence to noncontingent vouchers (NV), when all received counseling and NRT. Smokers who had not sought smoking treatment (n=340) in residential SUD treatment were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence per exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) after a 5-day smoking reduction period, or vouchers only for breath samples, plus brief advice (four sessions) and 8weeks of NRT...
January 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650954/effects-of-lorcaserin-on-cocaine-and-methamphetamine-self-administration-and-reinstatement-of-responding-previously-maintained-by-cocaine-in-rhesus-monkeys
#13
Lisa R Gerak, Gregory T Collins, Charles P France
Stimulant abuse is a serious public health issue for which there is no effective pharmacotherapy. The serotonin2C [5-hydroxytryptamine2C (5-HT2C)] receptor agonist lorcaserin decreases some abuse-related effects of cocaine in monkeys and might be useful for treating stimulant abuse. The current study investigated the effectiveness of lorcaserin to reduce self-administration of either cocaine or methamphetamine and cocaine-induced reinstatement of extinguished responding. Four rhesus monkeys responded under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule in which the response requirement increased after each cocaine infusion (32-320 μg/kg/infusion)...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622132/noncontingent-reinforcement-in-after-school-settings-to-decrease-classroom-disruptive-behavior-for-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Christina R Noel, Yvette Q Getch
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is the response-independent delivery of a reinforcer (Vollmer, Iwata, Zarcone, Smith, and Mazaleski in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 26: 9-21 1993). Two staff members (preservice education majors) implemented NCR procedures for two students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who exhibited problem behavior and attended an after-school program. The amount of training on NCR and procedural fidelity was measured for each staff member, and the effects of the treatment on problem behavior were evaluated...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312269/western-diet-and-the-weakening-of-the-interoceptive-stimulus-control-of-appetitive-behavior
#15
Camille H Sample, Sabrina Jones, Sara L Hargrave, Leonard E Jarrard, Terry L Davidson
In obesogenic environments food-related external cues are thought to overwhelm internal cues that normally regulate energy intake. We investigated how this shift from external to internal stimulus control might occur. Experiment 1 showed that rats could use stimuli arising from 0 and 4h food deprivation to predict sucrose delivery. Experiment 2 then examined (a) the ability of these deprivation cues to compete with external cues and (b) how consuming a Western-style diet (WD) affects that competition. Rats were trained to use both their deprivation cues and external cues as compound discriminative stimuli...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182088/contingency-enhances-sensitivity-to-loss-in-a-gambling-task-with-diminishing-returns
#16
Jonathan R Miller, Iser G DeLeon, Lisa M Toole, Gregory A Lieving, Melissa J Allman
This study examined whether gambling behavior under conditions of diminishing returns differed between participants with histories of contingent (CD group) and noncontingent (NCD group) token delivery. In Phase 1, CD participants accrued tokens by correctly completing a discrimination task; for NCD participants, token accrual was yoked to token delivery of CD participants. In Phase 2, participants could choose to gamble their tokens or end the experiment and exchange their tokens for money. During the gambling task, participants could bet one token per trial...
June 2016: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174563/comparisons-of-synthesized-and-individual-reinforcement-contingencies-during-functional-analysis
#17
Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer, Patrick W Romani, Amanda N Zangrillo, Todd M Owen
Researchers typically modify individual functional analysis (FA) conditions after results are inconclusive (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) introduced a marked departure from this practice, using an interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA). In the test condition, they delivered multiple contingencies simultaneously (e.g., attention and escape) after each occurrence of problem behavior; in the control condition, they delivered those same reinforcers noncontingently and continuously...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166236/voluntary-sleep-loss-in-rats
#18
Marcella Oonk, James M Krueger, Christopher J Davis
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus...
July 1, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052556/touch-or-watch-to-learn-toddlers-object-retrieval-using-contingent-and-noncontingent-video
#19
Koeun Choi, Heather L Kirkorian
The experiment reported here was designed to examine the effect of contingent interaction with touch-screen devices on toddlers' use of symbolic media (video) during an object-retrieval task. Toddlers (24-36 months old; N = 75) were randomly assigned to watch an animated character hiding on screen either in a no-contingency video (requiring no action), a general-contingency video (accepting touch input anywhere on screen), or a specific-contingency video (requiring touch input on a particular area of interest)...
May 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029496/individual-and-combined-effects-of-noncontingent-reinforcement-and-response-blocking-on-automatically-reinforced-problem-behavior
#20
Valdeep Saini, Brian D Greer, Wayne W Fisher, Katherine R Lichtblau, Andresa A DeSouza, Daniel R Mitteer
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and response blocking are 2 common interventions for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. We implemented NCR and blocking with 1 boy and found this combined intervention to be effective at decreasing high rates of automatically reinforced pica. With another child, we compared the effects of blocking alone to the combined intervention. With the third child, we compared NCR alone and blocking alone to the combined intervention. Results showed that the combined intervention was effective at reducing automatically reinforced problem behavior while moderate to high levels of item engagement maintained...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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