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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405925/parameters-of-time-out-research-update-and-comparison-to-parenting-programs-books-and-online-recommendations
#1
REVIEW
Samantha M Corralejo, Scott A Jensen, Ashley D Greathouse, Leah E Ward
In reviews published more than 30 years ago, eight parameters important to the use of time-out were identified and available research was summarized. The purpose of the current paper is to provide an updated summary of existing research for each parameter of time-out. Within each parameter, we conducted a thorough review of the published literature and identified all peer-reviewed articles addressing each parameter. We identified and summarized a total of 46 articles across the eight parameters, including 32 not cited in previous reviews...
January 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380436/additional-free-reinforcers-increase-persistence-of-problem-behavior-in-a-clinical-context-a-partial-replication-of-laboratory-findings
#2
Gregory A Lieving, Iser G DeLeon, Abbey B Carreau-Webster, Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mandy M Triggs
Behavioral momentum theory is a quantitative framework used to characterize the persistence of behavior during response disruptors as a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. Results of several investigations have shown that alternative reinforcement can increase the resistance to change of a target response during extinction. In the present study, concomitant variable-interval fixed-time schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior were employed to simulate naturalistic situations involving the superimposition of response-independent reinforcers on a baseline schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior, as in the common use of noncontingent reinforcement treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367116/contingency-management-for-college-student-smokers-the-role-of-drinking-as-a-moderator-and-mediator-of-smoking-abstinence-during-treatment
#3
Rachel N Cassidy, Kristina M Jackson, Damaris J Rohsenow, Jennifer W Tidey, Tracy O' L Tevyaw, Nancy P Barnett, Peter M Monti, Mollie E Miller, Suzanne M Colby
INTRODUCTION: Contingency management (CM) is effective for promoting smoking abstinence; however, moderators and mediators of CM treatment efficacy in young adult populations are under-explored. We leveraged fine-grained data from a large randomized controlled trial: 1) to determine whether early attainment of sustained abstinence mediated the effect of treatment on abstinence; 2) to test whether heavy drinking moderated the effect of treatment on abstinence; and 3) to test a serial mediation model of the effects of drinking during early treatment on sustained smoking abstinence...
January 20, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277023/development-of-an-in-vivo-metric-to-aid-visual-inspection-of-single-case-design-data-do-we-need-to-run-more-sessions
#4
Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Todd D Little, Zhanxia Yang
Comparing visual inspection results of graphed data reveals inconsistencies in the interpretation of the same graph among single-case experimental design (SCED) researchers and practitioners. Although several investigators have disseminated structured criteria and visual inspection aids or strategies, inconsistencies in interpreting graphed data continue to exist even for individuals considered to be experts at interpreting SCED graphs. We propose a fail safe k metric that can be used in conjunction with visual inspection, and it can be used in-vivo after each additional data point is collected within a phase to determine the optimal point in time to shift between phases (e...
December 16, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226346/a-multicomponent-approach-to-thinning-reinforcer-delivery-during-noncontingent-reinforcement-schedules
#5
Sarah K Slocum, Emma Grauerholz-Fisher, Kerri P Peters, Timothy R Vollmer
We evaluated a noncontingent reinforcement procedure that involved initially providing three subjects with signaled, continuous access to the functional reinforcer for aggression and slowly increasing the amount of time subjects were exposed to the signaled unavailability of the reinforcer. Additionally, alternative potential reinforcers were available throughout the sessions. Results showed immediate and substantial reductions in aggression for all three subjects. The clinical utility of this intervention is discussed, and future research directions are recommended...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205337/prevention-of-the-development-of-problem-behavior-a-laboratory-model
#6
Tara A Fahmie, Anne C Macaskill, Ellie Kazemi, Uilani C Elmer
Few studies have isolated the preventive efficacy of common behavioral strategies like noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a laboratory model of these two problem behavior prevention strategies. Undergraduate students participated in a computer simulation, in which clicks to a designated area of the computer screen were analogous to the emergence of problem behavior. The responding of participants in a control group, who experienced a percentile schedule used to mimic the shaping of problem behavior, was compared to that of participants in two experimental groups, each with a history of either DRA or NCR...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188725/trial-based-functional-analysis-informs-treatment-for-vocal-scripting
#7
Mandy Rispoli, Matthew Brodhead, Katie Wolfe, Emily Gregori
Research on trial-based functional analysis has primarily focused on socially maintained challenging behaviors. However, procedural modifications may be necessary to clarify ambiguous assessment results. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the utility of iterative modifications to trial-based functional analysis on the identification of putative reinforcement and subsequent treatment for vocal scripting. For all participants, modifications to the trial-based functional analysis identified a primary function of automatic reinforcement...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115163/further-evaluation-of-presentation-format-of-competing-stimuli-for-treatment-of-automatically-maintained-challenging-behavior
#8
Casey J Clay, Annie M Clohisy, Alexandra M Ball, Aqdas F Haider, Brittany A Schmitz, SungWoo Kahng
Behavioral interventions have been effective in reducing automatically maintained skin picking for individuals with disabilities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A competing stimulus assessment (CSA) is typically utilized in behavioral intervention and assessment to identify potential stimuli which compete with the reinforcer for various forms of challenging behavior (CB). Treatment evaluations have validated the results of these assessments by demonstrating competing stimuli may reduce levels of CB...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992611/co-viewing-supports-toddlers-word-learning-from-contingent-and-noncontingent-video
#9
Gabrielle A Strouse, Georgene L Troseth, Katherine D O'Doherty, Megan M Saylor
Social cues are one way young children determine that a situation is pedagogical in nature-containing information to be learned and generalized. However, some social cues (e.g., contingent gaze and responsiveness) are missing from prerecorded video, a potential reason why toddlers' language learning from video can be inefficient compared with their learning directly from a person. This study explored two methods for supporting children's word learning from video by adding social-communicative cues. A sample of 88 30-month-olds began their participation with a video training phase...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531302/effects-of-financial-incentives-for-smoking-cessation-on-mood-and-anxiety-symptoms-among-pregnant-and-newly-postpartum-women
#10
Ivori Zvorsky, Joan M Skelly, Stephen T Higgins
Introduction: Financial incentives for smoking cessation increase smoking abstinence and decrease Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores among depression-prone pregnant and postpartum women. The present study is a secondary analysis using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to examine whether this treatment impacts a broader array of mood and anxiety symptoms. Methods: Participants (N = 253) were pregnant cigarette smokers who participated in four controlled clinical trials examining the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation...
May 19, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513826/noncontingent-reinforcement-without-extinction-plus-differential-reinforcement-of-alternative-behavior-during-treatment-of-problem-behavior
#11
Jennifer N Fritz, Lynsey M Jackson, Nicole A Stiefler, Barbara S Wimberly, Amy R Richardson
The effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) without extinction during treatment of problem behavior maintained by social positive reinforcement were evaluated for five individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A continuous NCR schedule was gradually thinned to a fixed-time 5-min schedule. If problem behavior increased during NCR schedule thinning, a continuous NCR schedule was reinstated and NCR schedule thinning was repeated with differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) included...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488927/distinct-motivational-effects-of-contingent-and-noncontingent-rewards
#12
Sanjay G Manohar, Rebecca Dawn Finzi, Daniel Drew, Masud Husain
When rewards are available, people expend more energy, increasing their motivational vigor. In theory, incentives might drive behavior for two distinct reasons: First, they increase expected reward; second, they increase the difference in subjective value between successful and unsuccessful performance, which increases contingency-the degree to which action determines outcome. Previous studies of motivational vigor have never compared these directly. Here, we indexed motivational vigor by measuring the speed of eye movements toward a target after participants heard a cue indicating how outcomes would be determined...
July 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453222/noncontingent-reinforcement-competes-with-response-performance
#13
Michael E Kelley, Cy B Nadler, Catalina Rey, Sarah Cowie, Christopher A Podlesnik
Noncontingent reinforcement is a commonly used procedure to decrease levels of problem behavior. Goals of this intervention are to decrease motivation, responding, and the functional relation between behavior and consequences, but it could also possibly compete with performance of alternative desirable responses. In the current study, we assessed the effects of noncontingent reinforcement arranged from 0% to 100% of sessions on performance of alternative responding across two experiments. Experiment 1 assessed manding (i...
April 28, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449946/factors-that-influence-the-persistence-and-relapse-of-discriminated-behavior-chains
#14
REVIEW
Eric A Thrailkill, Mark E Bouton
Behavior chains are composed of sequences of behaviors that minimally include procurement and then consumption. This review surveys recent research from this laboratory that has examined the properties of discriminated heterogeneous behavior chains. In contrast to another review (Thrailkill and Bouton, 2016a), it discusses work examining what makes chained behavior persistent, and what makes it relapse. Results suggest that responses in a discriminated heterogeneous behavior chain may become associated, so that extinction of either one reduces the strength of the other...
August 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276578/persistence-during-and-resurgence-following-noncontingent-reinforcement-implemented-with-and-without-extinction
#15
Valdeep Saini, Wayne W Fisher, Maegan D Pisman
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is typically implemented with extinction (EXT) for destructive behavior reinforced by social consequences and without EXT for destructive behavior reinforced by sensory consequences. Behavioral momentum theory (BMT) predicts that responding will be more persistent, and treatment relapse in the form of response resurgence more likely, when NCR is implemented without EXT due to the greater overall rate of reinforcement associated with this intervention. We used an analogue arrangement to test these predictions of BMT by comparing NCR implemented with and without EXT...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262324/compliance-instead-of-flexibility-on-age-related-differences-in-cognitive-control-during-visual-search
#16
Christine Mertes, Edmund Wascher, Daniel Schneider
The effect of healthy aging on cognitive control of irrelevant visual information was investigated by using event-related potentials. Participants performed a spatial cuing task where an irrelevant color cue that was either contingent (color search) or noncontingent (shape search) on the attentional set was presented before a target with different stimulus-onset asynchronies. In the contingent condition, attentional capture appeared independent of age and persisted over the stimulus-onset asynchronies but was markedly pronounced for elderly people...
May 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177118/noncontingent-reinforcement-for-the-treatment-of-severe-problem-behavior-an-analysis-of-27-consecutive-applications
#17
Cara L Phillips, Julia A Iannaccone, Griffin W Rooker, Louis P Hagopian
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a commonly used treatment for severe problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The current study sought to extend the literature by reporting outcomes achieved with 27 consecutive applications of NCR as the primary treatment for severe problem behavior. All applications of NCR were included regardless of treatment outcome to minimize selection bias favoring successful cases. Participants ranged in age from 5 to 33 years. We analyzed the results across behavioral function and with regard to the use of functional versus alternative reinforcers...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146250/effect-of-selective-inhibition-of-reactivated-nicotine-associated-memories-with-propranolol-on-nicotine-craving
#18
Yan-Xue Xue, Jia-Hui Deng, Ya-Yun Chen, Li-Bo Zhang, Ping Wu, Geng-Di Huang, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Ping Bao, Yu-Mei Wang, Yavin Shaham, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Importance: A relapse into nicotine addiction during abstinence often occurs after the reactivation of nicotine reward memories, either by acute exposure to nicotine (a smoking episode) or by smoking-associated conditioned stimuli (CS). Preclinical studies suggest that drug reward memories can undergo memory reconsolidation after being reactivated, during which they can be weakened or erased by pharmacological or behavioral manipulations. However, translational clinical studies using CS-induced memory retrieval-reconsolidation procedures to decrease drug craving reported inconsistent results...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128442/a-microswitch-based-program-for-promoting-initial-ambulation-responses-an-evaluation-with-two-girls-with-multiple-disabilities
#19
Fabrizio Stasolla, Alessandro O Caffò, Viviana Perilli, Adele Boccasini, Anna Stella, Rita Damiani, Vincenza Albano, Concetta Damato
We assessed the use of a microswitch-based program for promoting ambulation responses by two children with multiple disabilities. The goals of the study were to: (a) evaluate the importance of the contingency between the target behavior (forward step) and the programmed consequence (preferred stimuli), (b) measure effects of the intervention on indices of happiness, and (c) assess the social validation of the procedure using 20 physiotherapists as external raters. The intervention involved the automatic delivery of preferred stimuli contingent on forward steps...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107772/a-preliminary-randomized-controlled-trial-of-contingency-management-for-alcohol-use-reduction-using-a-transdermal-alcohol-sensor
#20
Nancy P Barnett, Mark A Celio, Jennifer W Tidey, James G Murphy, Suzanne M Colby, Robert M Swift
AIMS: We tested the efficacy of daily contingent reinforcement for reducing alcohol use compared with (yoked) non-contingent reinforcement (NR) using a transdermal alcohol sensor to detect alcohol use. DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled design with 1 baseline week, 3 intervention weeks and 1-month follow-up. SETTING: New England, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Heavy drinking adults (46.7% female) not seeking treatment were randomized to (1) an escalating schedule of cash reinforcement (CR; n = 15) for days on which alcohol was neither reported nor detected or (2) yoked NR (n = 15)...
June 2017: Addiction
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