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Nancy P Barnett, Mark A Celio, Jennifer W Tidey, James G Murphy, Suzanne M Colby, Robert M Swift
AIMS: We tested the efficacy of daily contingent reinforcement for reducing alcohol use compared with (yoked) noncontingent reinforcement (NR) using a transdermal alcohol sensor to detect alcohol use. DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled design with one baseline week, three intervention weeks, and one-month follow up. SETTING: New England, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Heavy drinking adults (47% female) not seeking treatment were randomized to 1) an escalating schedule of cash reinforcement (CR; n =15) for days on which alcohol was neither reported nor detected or 2) yoked NR (n =15)...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
Hanan Frenk, Jeffrey Martin, Cristina Vitouchanskaia, Reuven Dar, Uri Shalev
Nicotine has been proposed to be a primary reinforcer and a reinforcement enhancer. To date, no studies have examined whether nicotine enhances consummatory behaviors or only operant responding (appetitive behaviors). Experiments were designed to test whether contingent and noncontingent nicotine enhance lever pressing for and consumption of fluids in water-deprived rats. Animals were water-deprived throughout all experiments. They were trained to press two levers under a variable interval (VI-20, 1-35s). Their lever pressing and water consumption were measured after noncontingent subcutaneous (s...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Rachel Scalzo, Tonya N Davis
Providing noncontingent access to a stimulus until an individual displays behavioral indicators of satiation has been used to determine when an abolishing operation is in effect, but there has been variation in its application in the literature. Four males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with tangibly maintained challenging behavior participated in this study. Individualized behavioral indicators were identified and verified to determine when each participant was finished playing with his/her preferred item...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Modification
Andrew M Wright, Agustin Zapata, Michael H Baumann, Joshua S Elmore, Alexander F Hoffman, Carl R Lupica
Clinical descriptions of cocaine addiction include compulsive drug seeking and maladaptive decision-making despite substantial aversive consequences. Research suggests that this may result from altered orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function and its participation in outcome-based behavior. Clinical and animal studies also implicate serotonin in the regulation of OFC function in addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine, through self-administration (CSA) or yoked-administration (CYA), alters the regulation of OFC function by 5-HT...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Monika Malinowska, Monika Niewiadomska, Malgorzata Wesierska
The retrosplenial cortex is involved in spatial memory function, but the contribution of its individual areas is not well known. To elucidate the involvement of retrosplenial cortical areas 29c and 30 in spatial memory, we analyzed the expression of c-Fos in these areas in the experimental group of rats that were trained in a spatial place avoidance task, i.e. to avoid shocks presented in an unmarked sector of a stable arena under light conditions. Control rats were trained in the same context as the experimental rats either without (Control-noUS) or with shocks (Control-US) that were delivered in a random, noncontingent manner for three days...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Maria E Secci, Julie A Factor, Charles W Schindler, Leigh V Panlilio
RATIONALE: The choice to seek immediate drug effects instead of more meaningful but delayed rewards is a defining feature of addiction. OBJECTIVES: To develop a rodent model of this behavior, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the prescription opioid oxycodone (50 μg/kg) and delayed delivery of palatable food pellets. RESULTS: Rats preferred food at delays up to 30 s, but they chose oxycodone and food equally at 60-s delay and preferred oxycodone over food at 120-s delay...
December 2016: Psychopharmacology
Damaris J Rohsenow, Rosemarie A Martin, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, Peter M Monti
: Treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) provides an opportunity to use voucher-based treatment for smoking. Nicotine replacement (NRT) could improve outcomes previously observed with vouchers without NRT. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial compared contingent vouchers (CV) for smoking abstinence to noncontingent vouchers (NV), when all received counseling and NRT. Smokers who had not sought smoking treatment (n=340) in residential SUD treatment were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence per exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) after a 5-day smoking reduction period, or vouchers only for breath samples, plus brief advice (four sessions) and 8weeks of NRT...
January 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Lisa R Gerak, Gregory T Collins, Charles P France
Stimulant abuse is a serious public health issue for which there is no effective pharmacotherapy. The serotonin2C [5-hydroxytryptamine2C (5-HT2C)] receptor agonist lorcaserin decreases some abuse-related effects of cocaine in monkeys and might be useful for treating stimulant abuse. The current study investigated the effectiveness of lorcaserin to reduce self-administration of either cocaine or methamphetamine and cocaine-induced reinstatement of extinguished responding. Four rhesus monkeys responded under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule in which the response requirement increased after each cocaine infusion (32-320 μg/kg/infusion)...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Christina R Noel, Yvette Q Getch
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is the response-independent delivery of a reinforcer (Vollmer, Iwata, Zarcone, Smith, and Mazaleski in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 26: 9-21 1993). Two staff members (preservice education majors) implemented NCR procedures for two students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who exhibited problem behavior and attended an after-school program. The amount of training on NCR and procedural fidelity was measured for each staff member, and the effects of the treatment on problem behavior were evaluated...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Camille H Sample, Sabrina Jones, Sara L Hargrave, Leonard E Jarrard, Terry L Davidson
In obesogenic environments food-related external cues are thought to overwhelm internal cues that normally regulate energy intake. We investigated how this shift from external to internal stimulus control might occur. Experiment 1 showed that rats could use stimuli arising from 0 and 4h food deprivation to predict sucrose delivery. Experiment 2 then examined (a) the ability of these deprivation cues to compete with external cues and (b) how consuming a Western-style diet (WD) affects that competition. Rats were trained to use both their deprivation cues and external cues as compound discriminative stimuli...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Jonathan R Miller, Iser G DeLeon, Lisa M Toole, Gregory A Lieving, Melissa J Allman
This study examined whether gambling behavior under conditions of diminishing returns differed between participants with histories of contingent (CD group) and noncontingent (NCD group) token delivery. In Phase 1, CD participants accrued tokens by correctly completing a discrimination task; for NCD participants, token accrual was yoked to token delivery of CD participants. In Phase 2, participants could choose to gamble their tokens or end the experiment and exchange their tokens for money. During the gambling task, participants could bet one token per trial...
June 2016: Psychological Record
Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer, Patrick W Romani, Amanda N Zangrillo, Todd M Owen
Researchers typically modify individual functional analysis (FA) conditions after results are inconclusive (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) introduced a marked departure from this practice, using an interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA). In the test condition, they delivered multiple contingencies simultaneously (e.g., attention and escape) after each occurrence of problem behavior; in the control condition, they delivered those same reinforcers noncontingently and continuously...
2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Marcella Oonk, James M Krueger, Christopher J Davis
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus...
July 1, 2016: Sleep
Koeun Choi, Heather L Kirkorian
The experiment reported here was designed to examine the effect of contingent interaction with touch-screen devices on toddlers' use of symbolic media (video) during an object-retrieval task. Toddlers (24-36 months old; N = 75) were randomly assigned to watch an animated character hiding on screen either in a no-contingency video (requiring no action), a general-contingency video (accepting touch input anywhere on screen), or a specific-contingency video (requiring touch input on a particular area of interest)...
May 2016: Psychological Science
Valdeep Saini, Brian D Greer, Wayne W Fisher, Katherine R Lichtblau, Andresa A DeSouza, Daniel R Mitteer
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and response blocking are 2 common interventions for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. We implemented NCR and blocking with 1 boy and found this combined intervention to be effective at decreasing high rates of automatically reinforced pica. With another child, we compared the effects of blocking alone to the combined intervention. With the third child, we compared NCR alone and blocking alone to the combined intervention. Results showed that the combined intervention was effective at reducing automatically reinforced problem behavior while moderate to high levels of item engagement maintained...
2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Heather L Kirkorian, Koeun Choi, Tiffany A Pempek
Researchers examined whether contingent experience using a touch screen increased toddlers' ability to learn a word from video. One hundred and sixteen children (24-36 months) watched an on-screen actress label an object: (a) without interacting, (b) with instructions to touch anywhere on the screen, or (c) with instructions to touch a specific spot (location of labeled object). The youngest children learned from contingent video in the absence of reciprocal interactions with a live social partner, but only when contingent video required specific responses that emphasized important information on the screen...
March 2016: Child Development
Nicole M DeRosa, Henry S Roane, Jamie R Bishop, Erica L Silkowski
The current study extends the literature on the assessment and treatment of rumination through the evaluation of a combined reinforcement- and punishment-based intervention. The study included a single participant with a history of rumination maintained by automatic reinforcement, as identified via a functional analysis. Both noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with preferred edible items and punishment, in the form of a facial screen, were implemented separately to evaluate their independent effects on the occurrence of rumination...
2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Wendy K Berg, David P Wacker, Joel E Ringdahl, Jason Stricker, Kelly Vinquist, Anuradha Salil Kumar Dutt, Danielle Dolezal, Jeffrey Luke, Lisa Kemmerer, Jayme Mews
We evaluated the usefulness of 2 assessments to guide treatment selection for individuals whose prior functional analysis indicated that automatic reinforcement maintained their problem behavior. In the 1st assessment, we compared levels of problem behavior during a noncontingent play condition and an alone or ignore condition. In the 2nd, we assessed participants' relative preferences for automatic reinforcement and social reinforcers in a concurrent-operants arrangement. We used the results of these 2 assessments to assign 5 participants to a treatment based on noncontingent access to social reinforcers or to a treatment based on differential access to social reinforcers...
2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Gerhard Jocham, Kay H Brodersen, Alexandra O Constantinescu, Martin C Kahn, Angela M Ianni, Mark E Walton, Matthew F S Rushworth, Timothy E J Behrens
When an organism receives a reward, it is crucial to know which of many candidate actions caused this reward. However, recent work suggests that learning is possible even when this most fundamental assumption is not met. We used novel reward-guided learning paradigms in two fMRI studies to show that humans deploy separable learning mechanisms that operate in parallel. While behavior was dominated by precise contingent learning, it also revealed hallmarks of noncontingent learning strategies. These learning mechanisms were separable behaviorally and neurally...
April 6, 2016: Neuron
Andrew D Coppens, Lucía Alcalá
Collaborative initiative is an important aspect of Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI), and many interrelated family and community practices in LOPI may support children's initiative. In this chapter, we examine two cultural ways of supporting children's helpfulness and responsibility that draw on different cultural paradigms for organizing children's participation in everyday work in U.S. Mexican-heritage and European American communities. European American university students reported having received allowances as a contractual enticement to do assigned chores...
2015: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
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