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Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Tamding Wangdi, Gabriel Lock, Cheng Saechao, Manuela Raffatellu, Brian A Cobb, Andreas J Bäumler
Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Typhi differs in its clinical presentation from gastroenteritis caused by S. Typhimurium and other non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. The different clinical presentations are attributed in part to the virulence-associated capsular polysaccharide (Vi antigen) of S. Typhi, which prevents phagocytes from triggering a respiratory burst by preventing antibody-mediated complement activation. Paradoxically, the Vi antigen is absent from S. Paratyphi A, which causes a disease that is indistinguishable from typhoid fever...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Mersad Raeisi, Kondalarao Kotturi, Ian Del Valle, Jan Schulz, Paulina Dornblut, Eric Masson
The self-assembly into dynamic oligomers of Cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]), a positive ditopic Ir(III) bis-terpyridine complex, and a negative ditopic Fe(II) bis-terpyridine complex flanked by four butyrate side chains was assessed to answer a seemingly straightforward question: does CB[8] adopt a social self-sorting pattern by encapsulating both positive and negative units into a hetero-ternary complex? We showed that this is indeed the case, with CB[8] linking a positive Ir unit to a neighboring negative Fe unit whenever possible...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Anders K Nilsson, Chatarina Löfqvist, Svetlana Najm, Gunnel Hellgren, Karin Sävman, Mats X Andersson, Lois E H Smith, Ann Hellström
AIM: Our aim was perform an in-depth analysis of the composition of fatty acids in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm babies. We investigated longitudinal changes in milk fatty acid profiles and the relationship between several types of fatty acids, including omega-3 and omega-6. METHODS: Milk samples were collected at three stages of lactation from 78 mothers who delivered at less than 28 weeks of pregnancy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, from April 2013 to September 2015...
February 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Stanislav A Bondarev, Olga V Bondareva, Galina A Zhouravleva, Andrey V Kajava, Alfonso Valencia
Motivation: Numerous experimental studies have suggested that polypeptide chains of large amyloidogenic regions zig-zag in β-serpentine arrangements. These β-serpentines are stacked axially and form the superpleated β-structure. Despite this progress in the understanding of amyloid folds, the determination of their 3D structure at the atomic level is still a problem due to the polymorphism of these fibrils and incompleteness of experimental structural data. Today, the way to get insight into the atomic structure of amyloids is a combination of experimental studies with bioinformatics...
February 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Shinsuke Hanawa, Akira Mitsuhashi, Makio Shozu
OBJECTIVE: Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, inhibits the endometrial cancer cell growth in vivo by improving the insulin resistance; however, its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and its inhibition restores the insulin resistance. This study investigated the antitumor effect of metformin on endometrial cancer with a focus on PP2A. METHODS: Metformin (1,500-2,250 mg/day) was preoperatively administered to patients with endometrial cancer for 4 to 6 weeks...
2018: PloS One
Robert Harmel, Dorothea Fiedler
Non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of proteins can occur when a nucleophilic or redox-sensitive amino acid side chain encounters a reactive metabolite. In many cases, the biological function of these modifications is limited by their irreversibility, and consequently these non-enzymatic modifications are often considered as indicators of stress and disease. Certain non-enzymatic post-translational modifications, however, can be reversed, which provides an additional layer of regulation and renders these modifications suitable for controlling a diverse set of cellular processes ranging from signaling to metabolism...
February 14, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Fabio Dell'Acqua, Gianni Cristian Iannelli, Marco A Torres, Mario L V Martina
Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Sebastián Cuesta, Josefa Arias, Felipe Gallegos, Jans Alzate-Morales, Lorena Meneses
Lignin peroxidase (LiP) is an important enzyme for degrading aromatic hydrocarbons not only in nature but also in industry. In the presence of H₂O₂, this enzyme can easily decompose lignin and analogue compounds under mild conditions. In this reaction mechanism, LiP catalyzes the C-C cleavage of a propenyl side chain, being able to produce veratraldehyde (VAD) from 1-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl) propene (DMPP). One of the few and complete proposed mechanisms includes several non-enzymatic reactions. In this study, we performed a computational study to gain insight about the non-enzymatic steps involved in the reaction mechanism of VAD formation from DMPP using LiP as a catalyst...
February 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bei-Bei Chen, Zhen-Hua Li, Shan Gao
The aim of this study was to investigate the predicting value of miR-146a/b for acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and COPD, and to explore their associations with inflammatory cytokines in AECOPD and stable COPD patients.One hundred six AECOPD, 122 stable COPD patients, and 110 health volunteers with age and sex matched to total COPD patients (AECOPD and stable COPD) were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from all participants. Relative expression of miR-146a/b was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Suhui Lou, Yanfang Wang, Zujiang Yu, Kelei Guan, Quancheng Kan
BACKGROUND: Curcumin has been used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas (IHs); however, the mechanism underlying the effectiveness of curcumin in IHs remains largely unclear. METHODS: In this study, we isolated primary human hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) from fresh surgical specimens of 3 patients. We treated HemECs by curcumin and investigated the alterations in proliferative and apoptotic signaling pathways with cell counting kit-8, flow cytometry, western blotting, immunofluorescence, and real-time polymerase chain reaction...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dafne Musino, Anne-Caroline Genix, Thomas Chaussée, Laurent Guy, Natalia Meissner, Radosław Kozak, Thomas Bizien, Julian Oberdisse
A new method based on the combination of small-angle scattering, reverse Monte Carlo simulations, and an aggregate recognition algorithm is proposed to characterize the structure of nanoparticle suspensions in solvents and polymer nanocomposites, allowing detailed studies of the impact of different nanoparticle surface modifications. Experimental small-angle scattering is reproduced using simulated annealing of configurations of polydisperse particles in a simulation box compatible with the lowest experimental q-vector...
February 14, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Marylène Vandevenne, Mathieu Dondelinger, Sami Yunus, Astrid Freischels, Régine Freischels, Oscar Crasson, Noureddine Rhazi, Pierre Bogaerts, Moreno Galleni, Patrice Filée
Biosensors are becoming increasingly important and implemented in various fields such as pathogen detection, molecular diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and food safety control. In this context, we used β-lactamases as efficient reporter enzymes in several protein-protein interaction studies. Furthermore, their ability to accept insertions of peptides or structured proteins/domains strongly encourages the use of these enzymes to generate chimeric proteins. In a recent study, we inserted a single-domain antibody fragment into the Bacillus licheniformis BlaP β-lactamase...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Marie-Claire Devilder, Mélinda Moyon, Xavier Saulquin, Laetitia Gautreau-Rolland
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are powerful tools useful for both fundamental research and in biomedicine. Their high specificity is indispensable when the antibody needs to distinguish between highly related structures (e.g., a normal protein and a mutated version thereof). The current way of generating such discriminative mAbs involves extensive screening of multiple Ab-producing B cells, which is both costly and time consuming. We propose here a rapid and cost-effective method for the generation of discriminative, fully human mAbs starting from human blood circulating B lymphocytes...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Melanie K B Wills, Andrea M Kirby, Vett K Lloyd
Lyme disease is a serious vector-borne infection that is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato family of spirochetes, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. The primary etiological agent in North America is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. As geographic risk regions expand, it is prudent to support robust surveillance programs that can measure tick infection rates, and communicate findings to clinicians, veterinarians, and the general public. The molecular technique of nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) has long been used for this purpose, and it remains a central, inexpensive, and robust approach in the detection of Borrelia in both ticks and wildlife...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ilan Weinreb, Justin A Bishop, Simion I Chiosea, Raja R Seethala, Bayardo Perez-Ordonez, Lei Zhang, Yun-Shao Sung, Chun-Liang Chen, Adel Assaad, Bahram R Oliai, Cristina R Antonescu
Intraductal carcinoma (IC) is the World Health Organization designation for lesions previously called low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma. The relationship of IC to salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is controversial, but currently these are considered distinct entities. It is hypothesized that IC and SDC should have different genomic signatures that may be identifiable by next-generation sequencing. A total of 23 ICs were identified: 14 pure IC and 9 invasive carcinomas with an intraductal component. Five invasive carcinomas were subjected to next-generation paired-end RNA sequencing...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Anna Luiza Marques Ayres da Silva, Sérgio Médici Eston, Wilson Siguemasa Iramina, Diego Diegues Francisca
Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aimed to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. If so, the results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain the concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) were documented...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Elena Petracovschi, Laurent Calvez, Laurent Cormier, David LE Coq, Jincheng Du
The short and medium range structures of the 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 (or Ge23.5Ga11.8Se64.7) chalcogenide glasses have been studied by combining ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and experimental neutron diffraction studies. Structure factor and total correlation function were calculated from glass structures generated from AIMD simulations and compared with neutron diffraction experiments showing reasonable agreement. The atom structures of the ternary chalcogenide glasses were analyzed in detailed and it was found that gallium atoms are four-fold coordinated by selenium and form [GaSe4] tetrahedra...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Hao Zhang, Jing-Sheng Liu, He-Xin Zhang, Eun-Bin Ko, Jae-Hyeong Park, Young-Kwon Moon, Byeong-Kwang Shin, Xue-Quan Zhang, Keun-Byoung Yoon
A facile coagglomeration method for preparing a long alkyl chain modified graphene oxide (MGO)/MgCl2-supported Ti-based Ziegler-Natta catalyst was reported. The effects of MGO on the catalyst morphology and activity for ethylene polymerization were examined. The resultant polyethylene (PE)/MGO nanocomposites exhibited a layered morphology, with the MGO fillers being well dispersed and exhibiting strong interfacial adhesion to the PE matrix. The thermal stability and mechanical properties of the PE were significantly enhanced with the introduction of a small amount of the MGO filler...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Tao Jiang, Ho-Man Kan, Komal Rajpura, Erica J Carbone, Yingcui Li, Kevin W-H Lo
Osteoarthritis is a severe and debilitating joint disease, which is characterized as results from damage and degeneration of the articular cartilage of the joint surfaces. The incidence of osteoarthritis is growing increasingly high while current treatment methods remain suboptimal. The major issue for current osteoarthritic medications is that patients frequently experience adverse, nonspecific side effects that are not a direct result of the specific pharmacological action of the drug. The treatment processes could be made more effective, safe, and comfortable if it were possible to deliver the drugs specifically to cartilage tissue...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Yang Fu, Weilai Xiong, Jianying Wang, Jinghua Li, Tao Mei, Xianbao Wang
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based graphene aerogel (GA) confined shaped-stabilized phase change materials (PCMs) are simply prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. Three-dimensional GA inserted by PEG molecule chains, as a supporting material, obtained by reducing graphene oxide sheets, is used to keep their stabilized shape during a phase change process. The volume of GA is obviously expended after adding PEG, and only 9.8 wt% of GA make the composite achieve high energy efficiency without leakage during their phase change because of hydrogen bonding widely existing in the GA/PEG composites (GA-PCMs)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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