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Shengnan Wang, Chunguang Li
In this paper, we consider a distributed robust optimization (DRO) problem, where multiple agents in a networked system cooperatively minimize a global convex objective function with respect to a global variable under the global constraints. The objective function can be represented by a sum of local objective functions. The global constraints contain some uncertain parameters which are partially known, and can be characterized by some inequality constraints. After problem transformation, we adopt the Lagrangian primal-dual method to solve this problem...
October 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Alison D Cox, Javier Virues-Ortega, Flavia Julio, Toby L Martin
Excessive motion makes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extremely challenging among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The medical risks of sedation establish the need for behavioral interventions to promote motion control among children with ASD undergoing MRI scans. We present a series of experiments aimed at establishing both tolerance of the MRI environment and a level of motion control that would be compatible with a successful MRI. During Study 1, we evaluated the effects of prompting and contingent reinforcement on compliance with a sequence of successive approximations to an MRI using a mock MRI...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Matthew R Capriotti, Jennifer E Turkel, Rachel A Johnson, Flint M Espil, Douglas W Woods
Chronic tic disorders (CTDs) involve motor and/or vocal tics that often cause substantial distress and impairment. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedules of reinforcement produce robust, but incomplete, reductions in tic frequency in youth with CTDs; however, a more robust reduction may be needed to affect durable clinical change. Standard, fixed-amount DRO schedules have not commonly yielded such reductions, so we evaluated a novel, progressive-amount DRO schedule, based on its ability to facilitate sustained abstinence from functionally similar behaviors...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Emily Stamell Ruiz, Pritesh S Karia, Frederick C Morgan, Chrysalyne D Schmults
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the utility of radiologic imaging for prognostic staging of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). OBJECTIVE: Review utilization of radiologic imaging of high-stage CSCCs to evaluate whether imaging impacted management and outcomes. METHODS: Tumors classified as Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) tumor (T) stage T2B or T3 over a 13-year period were reviewed to identify whether imaging was performed and whether results affected treatment...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Dawn A Zemo, Kirk T O'Reilly, Rachel E Mohler, Renae I Magaw, Catalina Espino Devine, Sungwoo Ahn, Asheesh K Tiwary
This paper summarizes the results of a 5-year research study of the nature and toxicity of petroleum biodegradation metabolites in groundwater at fuel release sites that are quantified as diesel-range "Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons" (TPH; aka TPHd, DRO, etc.), unless a silica gel cleanup (SGC) step is used on the sample extract prior to the TPH analysis. This issue is important for site risk management in regulatory jurisdictions that use TPH as a metric; the presence of these metabolites may preclude site closure even if all other factors can be considered "low-risk...
September 14, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Louise Heffernan, Danielle Lyons
The effects of differential reinforcement of other behaviour (DRO) were investigated for the treatment of severe self-injurious nail biting in an individual diagnosed with autism. A functional behaviour assessment (FBA) identified that the behaviour was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Following the implementation of the DRO procedure and access to reinforcing stimuli that were believed to provide similar sensory feedback to that of the self-injurious nail biting, the results indicate that the nail biting was successfully reduced and maintained at near zero levels...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Randal P Quevillon, Brandon L Gray, Sara E Erickson, Elvira D Gonzalez, Gerard A Jacobs
Self-care strategies and system supports employed in preparation for, during, and after disaster relief operations (DROs) are crucial to relief worker well-being and the overall effectiveness of relief efforts. Relief organizations and management must structure DROs in a manner that promotes self-care and workers must implement proper self-care strategies. Proper self-care before, during, and after a DRO can reduce negative reactions to stressful emergency work and promote growth, mastery, and self-efficacy after the experience...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Natashia Swalve, John R Smethells, Marilyn E Carroll
Impulsivity, or a tendency to act without anticipation of future consequences, is associated with drug abuse. Impulsivity is typically separated into two main measures, impulsive action and impulsive choice. Given the association of impulsivity and drug abuse, treatments that reduce impulsivity have been proposed as an effective method for countering drug addiction. Progesterone has emerged as a promising treatment, as it is associated with decreased addiction-related behaviors and impulsive action. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of progesterone (PRO) on impulsive action for food: a Go/No-Go task...
September 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Alina Plenis, Agnieszka Frolow, Natalia Rekowska, Ilona Olędzka, Piotr Kowalski, Ewa Bień, Małgorzata Anna Krawczyk, Elżbieta Adamkiewicz-Drożynska, Tomasz Bączek
Simple and sensitive liquid chromatography (LC) methods with fluorescence (FL) detection for the determination of bendamustine (BM) in human plasma and urine were developed and validated. The procedure of BM extraction from a plasma sample involved solid-phase extraction with a C18 SPE column, while liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane was applied for a urine sample. In both methods, cinoxacin was used as the internal standard. Chromatographic separations were performed on a Synergi Max-RP column, while FL detector was set at the excitation wavelength of 328 nm and the emission wavelength of 420 nm...
2016: Chromatographia
M Kurzawski, M Kaczmarek, M Kłysz, D Malinowski, A Kazienko, R Kurzawa, M Droździk
Proper function of the blood-testis barrier is pivotal to spermatogenesis. Synchronised action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitors (TIMP) is mandatory to maintain dynamic balance of the barrier. Therefore, the association of functional genetic variants of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 and male infertility was studied. A total of 416 infertile males and 421 healthy subjects were genotyped for 7 SNPs within MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP2 genes, along with the assessment of semen parameters (concentration, motility and morphology of spermatozoa)...
July 12, 2016: Andrologia
Alexandra Protopopova, Dmitri Kisten, Clive Wynne
The aim of this study was to develop a humane alternative to the traditional remote devices that deliver punishers contingent on home-alone dog barking. Specifically, we evaluated the use of remote delivery of food contingent on intervals of not barking during the pet owner's absence. In Experiment 1, 5 dogs with a history of home-alone nuisance barking were recruited. Using an ABAB reversal design, we demonstrated that contingent remote delivery of food decreased home-alone barking for 3 of the dogs. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that it is possible to thin the differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule gradually, resulting in a potentially more acceptable treatment...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Agnieszka Kapłon-Cieślicka, Agata Tymińska, Michał Peller, Paweł Balsam, Krzysztof Ozierański, Michalina Galas, Michał Marchel, Maria G Crespo-Leiro, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Jarosław Drożdż, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Grzegorz Opolski
Compared with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), the diagnosis of HF with preserved EF (HF-PEF) is more challenging. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HF-PEF among patients hospitalized for HF, to evaluate the pertinence of HF-PEF diagnosis and to compare HF-PEF and HF-REF patients with respect to outcomes. The analysis included 661 Polish patients hospitalized for HF, selected from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)-HF Long-Term Registry. Patients with an EF of ≥50% were included in the HF-PEF group and patients with an EF of <50% - in the HF-REF group...
August 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Ali Nasr, Ahmed Gardouh, Mamdouh Ghorab
The main purpose of this study was to develop a solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) of Olmesartan (OLM) for enhancement of its solubility and dissolution rate. In this study, liquid SNEDDS containing Olmesartan was formulated and further developed into a solid form by the spray drying technique using Aerosil 200 as a solid carrier. Based on the preliminary screening of different unloaded SNEDDS formulae, eight formulae of OLM loaded SNEEDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Cremophor RH40 and Transcutol HP as oil, surfactant and cosurfactant, respectively...
2016: Pharmaceutics
Anna Bronova, Thomas Droß, Robert Glaum, Heiko Lueken, Manfred Speldrich, Werner Urland
Emerald-green single crystals of U(PO4)Cl were grown by chemical vapor transport in a temperature gradient (1000 → 900 °C). The crystal structure of U(PO4)Cl (Cmcm, Z = 4, a = 5.2289(7) Å, b = 11.709(2) Å, c = 6.9991(8) Å) consists of a three-dimensional network of [PO4] tetrahedra and bicapped octahedral [U(IV)O6Cl2] groups. Polarized absorption spectra measured for two perpendicular polarization directions show a large number of well-resolved electronic transitions. These transitions can be fully assigned on the basis of a detailed ligand-field treatment within the framework of the angular overlap model...
July 18, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
H Arimoto, M Yanai, M Egawa
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Near-infrared (NIR) light with high water absorption enables us to visualize the water content distribution appeared in the superficial skin layer. The light penetration depth with the wavelength of 1920 nm is almost 100 μm from the skin surface. Thus, the water distribution in the stratum corneum can be effectively imaged by detecting the wavelength band around 1920 nm. The aim of this article was to measure the time-lapse behavior of the tiny droplet of the moisturizer spreading on the skin surface by imaging in 1920 nm wavelength band for investigating the correlation with the traditional index of the skin condition such as the water content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL)...
June 23, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
Olga Motyl, Marek Droździk
Drug treatment during pregnancy is often inevitable. The number of pregnant women in need of pharmacotherapy continues to grow, partly due to advanced diagnostic tests and partly due to advanced maternal age. Obviously, knowledge about the function of drug transporters in the placenta allows for a more accurate analysis of drug penetration (and other xenobiotics) through the placental barrier, and therefore safer pharmacotherapy. The paper provides information on the role of drug transporters in the pharmacotherapy of pregnancy-associated pathologies which require long-term treatment, e...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Mary-Cathrine Leewis, Ondrej Uhlik, Serena Fraraccio, Kelly McFarlin, Anastasia Kottara, Catherine Glover, Tomas Macek, Mary Beth Leigh
Despite decades of research there is limited understanding of how vegetation impacts the ability of microbial communities to process organic contaminants in soil. Using a combination of traditional and molecular assays, we examined how phytoremediation with willow and/or fertilization affected the microbial community present and active in the transformation of diesel contaminants. In a pot study, willow had a significant role in structuring the total bacterial community and resulted in significant decreases in diesel range organics (DRO)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Vineet Mohanty, Amar Shah, Elise Allender, M Rizwan Siddiqui, Sarah Monick, Shunsuke Ichi, Barbara Mania-Farnell, David G McLone, Tadanori Tomita, Chandra Shekhar Mayanil
Prenatal folic acid (FA) supplementation prevents neural tube defects. Folate receptor alpha (FRα) is critical for embryonic development, including neural crest (NC) development. Previously we showed that FRα translocates to the nucleus in response to FA, where it acts as a transcription factor. In this study we examined if FA through interaction with FRα regulates stem cell characteristics of cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs)-critical for normal development. We hypothesized that FRα up-regulates coding genes and simultaneously down-regulates non-coding miRNA which targets coding genes in CNCCs...
June 14, 2016: Stem Cells
Joshua Jessel, Einar T Ingvarsson
Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) has been applied to reduce problem behavior in various forms across different populations. We review DRO research from the last 5 years, with a focus on studies that enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DRO. We also discuss implications for practitioners and applied researchers.
June 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Luming Zhuang, Ying Sun, Mi Hu, Chenxi Wu, Xiaojin La, Xinhong Chen, Yu Feng, Xingjun Wang, Yujia Hu, Lei Xue
Reproductive behaviour is important for animals to keep their species existing on Earth. A key question is how to generate more and healthier progenies by choosing optimal mates. In Drosophila melanogaster, males use multiple sensory cues, including vision, olfaction and gustation, to achieve reproductive success. These sensory inputs are important, yet not all these different modalities are simultaneously required for courtship behaviour to occur. Moreover, the roles of these sensory inputs for male courtship choice remain largely unknown...
June 2016: Open Biology
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