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Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hani M K Mahdi, Bassem Abdullah, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Caleb R Stanley, Ryan C Speelman, Kyle E Rowsey, Dena Kime, Jacob H Daar
The purpose of the study was to evaluate a procedure to generate derived categorical responding by three children with disabilities and to promote the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responses. In the study, three 4-member equivalence classes including three stimuli (A, B, and C) and a category name (D) for each class were trained using a match-to-sample procedure. Test probes were conducted for categorical responding, including both a trained (D-A) and two derived (D-B, D-C) relational responses, as well as the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responding (D-A/B/C) throughout the study...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
John O'Neill, Ruth Anne Rehfeldt, Chris Ninness, Bridget E Muñoz, James Mellor
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of an online stimulus equivalence procedure to that of an assigned reading when learning Skinner's taxonomy of verbal behavior. Twenty-six graduate students participated via an online learning management system. One group was exposed to an online stimulus equivalence procedure (equivalence group) that was designed to teach relations among the names, antecedents, consequences, and examples of each elementary verbal operant. A comparison group (reading group) read a chapter from a popular textbook...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Dióghenes Pimenta, François Tonneau
Human subjects were exposed to AB, AC stimulus pairs and then to matching-to-sample tests of stimulus equivalence (B-A, C-A, B-C, C-B) or to a task in which stimulus compounds (BA, CA, BC, CB) were rated for attractiveness. Matching-to-sample tests revealed emergent B-A, C-A, B-C, and C-B choices, replicating previous results in the literature. The mean proportion of correct, emergent choices increased as a function of exposure to the AB, AC pairs. On the rating task, the liking scores of all stimulus compounds also increased as a function of exposure to the AB, AC pairs...
September 2016: Behavioural Processes
Charlotte L Carp, Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir
Six typically developing children between 5 and 7 years of age underwent match-to-sample training to establish three-member equivalence classes after first acquiring a unique name for each stimulus. Horne and Lowe's (1996) naming hypothesis predicts that under those circumstances, match-to-sample training contingencies may establish intraverbal relations between the unique names, which in turn guide correct responses on a subsequent test for stimulus equivalence. Following training of baseline relations (AB and AC), participants received an equivalence test followed by an intraverbal test...
November 2015: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Tracy E Zinn, M Christopher Newland, Katie E Ritchie
Because it employs an emergent-learning framework, equivalence-based instruction (EBI) is said to be highly efficient, but its presumed benefits must be compared quantitatively with alternative techniques. In a randomized controlled trial, 61 college students attempted to learn 32 pairs of proprietary and generic drug names using computer-based match-to-sample presentations of auditory and written drug names. Students who received EBI experienced pairings based on stimulus equivalence theory, and they mastered the material quickly...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Megan Klabunde, Manish Saggar, Kristin M Hustyi, Ryan G Kelley, Allan L Reiss, Scott S Hall
The neural mechanisms underlying the formation of stimulus equivalence relations are poorly understood, particularly in individuals with specific learning impairments. As part of a larger study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), and age- and IQ-matched controls with intellectual disability, were required to form new equivalence relations in the scanner. Following intensive training on matching fractions to pie charts (A=B relations) and pie charts to decimals (B=C relations) outside the scanner over a 2-day period, participants were tested on the trained (A=B, B=C) relations, as well as emergent symmetry (i...
September 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Margaret M Alter, John C Borrero
Stimulus equivalence procedures have been used to teach course material in higher education in the laboratory and in the classroom. The current study was a systematic replication of Walker, Rehfeldt, and Ninness (2010), who used a stimulus equivalence procedure to train information pertaining to 12 disorders. Specifically, we conducted (a) a written posttest immediately after each training unit and (b) booster training sessions for poor performers. Results showed immediate improvement from pretest to posttest scores after training, but problems with maintenance were noted in the final examination...
2015: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Angel Tabullo, Alberto Yorio, Silvano Zanutto, Alejandro Wainselboim
Semantic priming has been widely observed at both behavioral and electrophysiological levels as reductions in response times and N400 magnitudes respectively. However, the possibility that stimulus relations derived from associative learning elicit N400 priming effects comparable to those found in language has not been properly addressed yet. Equivalence relations emerge after establishing a set of arbitrary and intra-experimentally defined relations through associative learning, thus allowing the study of derived stimulus relations in the absence of semantic content...
May 2015: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Adam H Doughty, Lesley W Leake, M Lee Stoudemire
Wilson and Hayes (1996) and Doughty, Kastner, and Bismark (2011) observed resurgence of past equivalence relations when newer equivalence relations were punished or extinguished, respectively. Their findings support the notion that deriving stimulus relations is a form of operant behavior. Although there is consensus regarding the operant nature of deriving untrained stimulus relations, the necessary and sufficient conditions that establish these relations remain unclear. For example, in the aforementioned work, the resurgent equivalence relations were tested earlier in each study...
November 2014: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Priscila C Grisante, Julio C de Rose, William J McIlvane
We evaluated emergent stimulus-stimulus relations after two different training procedures. Participants were five typically developing preschool children and three individuals with Down Syndrome. Experiment 1 used two-comparison matching to sample (MTS) to establish AB and BC relations. Experiment 2 used two-comparison and blank-comparison MTS, each on 50% of training trials to establish AB and BC relations. In both experiments, tests for emergent relations (AC, CA) were conducted to assess equivalence class formation...
June 1, 2014: Psychological Record
Anita Munnelly, Georgina Martin, Charlotte Dack, Ann Zedginidze, Louise McHugh
Previous studies have found that social exclusion can cause distress to those excluded. One method used to study social exclusion is through a virtual ball-toss game known as Cyberball. In this game, participants may be excluded from or included in the ball-toss game and typically report lower feelings of self-esteem, control, belonging, and meaningful existence following exclusion. Experiments 1 and 2 sought to explore the transfer of feelings of exclusion and inclusion through stimulus equivalence classes...
September 2014: Learning & Behavior
C Mandell, V Sheen
The role of naming in stimulus equivalence was studied by varying the pronounceability of sample stimulus pseudowords. Experiment 1 compared three conditions: in the first, sample stimuli consisted of phonologically correct pseudowords; in the second, sample stimuli consisted of phonologically incorrect words; in the last, sample stimuli consisted of punctuation marks. Subjects exposed to pronounceable stimuli demonstrated equivalence class formation more quickly and with fewer errors than did other subjects...
June 1994: Behavioural Processes
Nicole L Hausman, John C Borrero, Alyssa Fisher, SungWoo Kahng
The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States (Gordon-Larsen, The, & Adair, 2010). Obesity can be attributed, in part, to overconsumption of energy-dense foods. Given that overeating plays a role in the development of obesity, interventions that teach individuals to identify and consume appropriate portion sizes are warranted. Specifically, interventions that teach individuals to estimate portion sizes correctly without the use of aids may be critical to the success of nutrition education programs...
2014: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
C Sousa, T Matsuzawa
This paper explores the effectiveness of token rewards in maintaining chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in working at intellectually costly tasks, and studies the "saving" behavior of the subjects, investigating the factors that can condition it. Two experiments were run. Tokens were introduced as rewards in a matching-to-sample task and used as exchange tools for food by three adult female chimpanzees. Subjects' performances were maintained at constant high levels of accuracy, suggesting that the tokens were almost equivalent to direct food rewards...
November 2001: Animal Cognition
Abdulrazaq A Imam, Timothy A Warner
Simultaneous protocols typically yield poorer stimulus equivalence outcomes than do other protocols commonly used in equivalence research. Two independent groups of three 3-member equivalence sets of stimuli were used in conditional discrimination procedures in two conditions, one using the standard simultaneous protocol and the other using a hybrid simultaneous training and simple-to-complex testing. Participants completed the two conditions in one long session in Experiment 1, but in separate sessions in Experiment 2...
March 2014: Learning & Behavior
Sean Hughes, Dermot Barnes-Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Joseph E Spradlin, Nancy Brady
The inference that others are subject to private events is almost universal among humans. Since no one has direct access to another person's private events, we have proposed this inference occurs because of: 1) The almost simultaneous occurrence a child's private kinesthetic stimuli and the visual stimuli produced by another person's motor act during imitation of motor acts; 2) The similarity between the child's vocal behavior and that of another person during vocal imitation; and 3) The stimulus equivalence that occurs when the child's behavior and similar behavior of others are given the same name...
October 1, 2008: Revista Internacional de Psicología y Terapia Psicológica, International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy
James G Hopker, Abigail J Foad, Christopher J Beedie, Damian A Coleman, Geoffrey Leach
PURPOSE: This study examined the therapeutic effects of an inert placebo gel on experimentally induced muscle pain in a sports therapy setting. It aimed to investigate the degree to which conditioned analgesia, coupled with an expectation of intervention, was a factor in subsequent analgesia. METHODS: Participants were sixteen male and eight female sports therapy students at a UK University. With institutional ethics board approval and following informed consent procedures, each was exposed to pain stimulus in the lower leg in five conditions, ie, conditioning, prebaseline, experimental (two placebo gel applications), and postbaseline...
2010: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
P M Milner
Hebb's (1949) cell assembly, originally conceived as an explanation for stimulus equivalence, also serves as a neural representation of stimuli. Association between cell assemblies was a major theme of Hebb's book, but the state of physiological knowledge at the time was such that no satisfactory basis for it could he devised. Subsequent theory has been more concerned with the recognition and "attractor" features of the cell assembly than its capacity to represent and associate concepts. This is unfortunate because while generalization is important, so is discrimination, which is not well served by an attractor model...
1996: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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