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A Fielding, Y Fu, E A Franz
What if the brain's response to reward occurs even when there is no reward? Wouldn't that be a further concern for people prone to problem gambling and other forms of addiction, like those related to eating? Electroencephalography was employed to investigate this possibility using probabilistic feedback manipulations and measures of known event-related potentials (ERPs) related to reward processing. We tested the hypothesis-that reward-based ERPs would occur even in the absence of a tangible reward and when manipulations on expectation are implicit...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
Manfred E Beutel, Elmar Brähler, Jörg Wiltink, Matthias Michal, Eva M Klein, Claus Jünger, Philipp S Wild, Thomas Münzel, Maria Blettner, Karl Lackner, Stefan Nickels, Ana N Tibubos
Aim of the study was the development and validation of the psychometric properties of a six-item bi-factorial instrument for the assessment of social support (emotional and tangible support) with a population-based sample. A cross-sectional data set of N = 15,010 participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) in 2007-2012 was divided in two sub-samples. The GHS is a population-based, prospective, observational single-center cohort study in the Rhein-Main-Region in western Mid-Germany. The first sub-sample was used for scale development by performing an exploratory factor analysis...
2017: PloS One
Helen E Jack, Devin Oller, John Kelly, Jessica F Magidson, Sarah E Wakeman
BACKGROUND: Only 10% of people with substance use disorder (SUD) receive treatment, partially due to inadequate access to specialty SUD care and limited management within primary care. "Recovery coaches" (RCs), peers sharing the lived experience of addiction and recovery, are increasingly being integrated into primary care to help reach and treat people experiencing SUD, yet little is known about how their role should be defined or about their clinical integration and impact. METHODS: In order to explore patient and RC perspectives on the RC role, we conducted semi-structured interviews with RCs (n = 5) and their patients (n = 16)...
October 9, 2017: Substance Abuse
Tim Schepers, Dominique Misselyn
Calcaneal fractures are amongst the most complex injuries known to man. Their intricate anatomy and extensive damage after trauma make them difficult to understand and treat. Most surgeons specialized in foot and ankle trauma agree that in most patients surgical managements yields the best result. Functional outcome is largely dependent on preventing complications and restoring anatomy. Reconstruction of height and suntalar joint congruency for example are both associated with improved outcome. Over the years insight in the complex (patho-)anatomy has increased...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Edward S Dove, Susan E Kelly, Federica Lucivero, Mavis Machirori, Sandi Dheensa, Barbara Prainsack
The dominant, individualistic understanding of autonomy that features in clinical practice and research is underpinned by the idea that people are, in their ideal form, independent, self-interested and rational gain-maximising decision-makers. In recent decades, this paradigm has been challenged from various disciplinary and intellectual directions. Proponents of 'relational autonomy' in particular have argued that people's identities, needs, interests - and indeed autonomy - are always also shaped by their relations to others...
September 2017: Clinical Ethics
Oksana Harasemiw, Nancy Newall, Shahin Shooshtari, Corey Mackenzie, Verena Menec
It is well-documented that social isolation is detrimental to health and well-being. What is less clear is what types of social networks allow older adults to get the social support they need to promote health and well-being. In this study, we identified social network types in a national sample of older Canadians and explored whether they are associated with perceived availability of different types of social support (affectionate, emotional, or tangible, and positive social interactions). Data were drawn from the baseline questionnaire of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging for participants aged 65-85 (unweighted n = 8,782)...
January 1, 2017: Research on Aging
Courtney A Polenick, Kira S Birditt, Steven H Zarit
Background and Objectives: Middle-aged adults commonly provide support to grown offspring. Yet little is known about how parental support may be related to parents' marital quality at midlife. This study explored couple patterns of support given to adult children and their implications for marital satisfaction. Research Design and Methods: In a sample of 197 middle-aged couples from Wave 2 of the Family Exchanges Study, we estimated actor-partner interdependence models to evaluate the links between each spouse's reports of tangible and nontangible support given to adult children and their marital satisfaction...
July 12, 2017: Gerontologist
Fabrizio Ferretti, Michele Mariani
Nowadays, obesity and being overweight are among the major global health concerns. Many, diet-related diseases impose high tangible and intangible costs, and threaten the sustainability of health-care systems worldwide. In this study, we model, at the macroeconomic level, the impact of energy intake from different types of carbohydrates on the population's BMI (body mass index). We proceed in three steps. First, we develop a framework to analyse both the consumption choices between simple and complex carbohydrates and the effects of these choices on people health conditions...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dan Lund Hvidtfeldt
The purpose of this article is to explore how the basic conception of 'emergence' informs the study of creativity as a socio-material practice. Initially, the article explicates how creative processes, products and performances involve not only tangible, but also intangible and social elements. Secondly, the theoretical conception of creativity as socio-material and the general philosophical notion of emergence are introduced. Inspired by the idea that a 'whole' is other than the sum of its 'parts' and by examples primarily from the world of music, the article argues that the relationship between subject and object - the main analytical focus of studies on creativity as a socio-material practice - is fundamentally embedded in an emergent process...
October 3, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
José Crossa, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Jaime Cuevas, Osval Montesinos-López, Diego Jarquín, Gustavo de Los Campos, Juan Burgueño, Juan M Camacho-González, Sergio Pérez-Elizalde, Yoseph Beyene, Susanne Dreisigacker, Ravi Singh, Xuecai Zhang, Manje Gowda, Manish Roorkiwal, Jessica Rutkoski, Rajeev K Varshney
Genomic selection (GS) facilitates the rapid selection of superior genotypes and accelerates the breeding cycle. In this review, we discuss the history, principles, and basis of GS and genomic-enabled prediction (GP) as well as the genetics and statistical complexities of GP models, including genomic genotype×environment (G×E) interactions. We also examine the accuracy of GP models and methods for two cereal crops and two legume crops based on random cross-validation. GS applied to maize breeding has shown tangible genetic gains...
September 28, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Sergey Ishutov, Franciszek J Hasiuk, Dawn Jobe, Susan Agar
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is capable of transforming intricate digital models into tangible objects, allowing geoscientists to replicate the geometry of 3D pore networks of sedimentary rocks. We provide a refined method for building scalable pore-network models ("proxies") using stereolithography 3D printing that can be used in repeated flow experiments (e.g., core flooding, permeametry, porosimetry). Typically, this workflow involves two steps, model design and 3D printing. In this study, we explore how the addition of post-processing and validation can reduce uncertainty in the 3D-printed proxy accuracy (difference of proxy geometry from the digital model)...
September 28, 2017: Ground Water
John Ovretveit, Brian Mittman, Lisa Rubenstein, David A Ganz
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to enable improvers to use recent knowledge from implementation science to carry out improvement changes more effectively. It also highlights the importance of converting research findings into practical tools and guidance for improvers so as to make research easier to apply in practice. Design/methodology/approach This study provides an illustration of how a quality improvement (QI) team project can make use of recent findings from implementation research so as to make their improvement changes more effective and sustainable...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Jay Fagan, Rob Palkovitz
Nonresidential fathers are challenged to remain involved with their children across time in both direct and indirect ways, including influencing decision-making around important issues such as school attendance and medical care. An analytic sample of 1,350 families with residential mothers and nonresidential fathers was selected from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) to examine the longitudinal relationships between mothers' reports of nonresidential fathers' influence in decision-making and their provision of resources to their children...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Antoine Lassagne, Andras Kemeny, Javier Posselt, Frederic Merienne
This article presents a comparison of different haptic systems, which are designed to simulate flat Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) like touchscreens in virtual environments (VEs) such as CAVEs, and their respective performance. We compare a tangible passive transparent slate to a classic tablet and a sensory substitution system. These systems were tested during a controlled experiment. The performance and impressions from 20 subjects were collected to understand more about the modalities in the given context...
September 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Lindsey Roberts, Jenna M Marx, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
Eating patterns and taste preferences are often established early in life. Many studies have examined how parental feeding practices may affect children's outcomes, including food intake and preference. The current study focused on a common food parenting practice, using food as a reward, and used Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) to examine whether mothers (n = 376) and fathers (n = 117) of children ages 2.8 to 7.5 (M = 4.7; SD = 1.1) grouped into profiles (i.e., subgroups) based on how they use of food as a reward...
September 23, 2017: Appetite
John Conallin, Craig A McLoughlin, Josh Campbell, Roger Knight, Troy Bright, Ian Fisher
The complex nature of freshwater systems provides challenges for incorporating evidence-based techniques into management. This paper investigates the potential of participatory evidence-based techniques to involve local stakeholders and make decisions based on different "knowledge" sources within adaptive management programs. It focuses on the application of thresholds of potential concern (TPC) within strategic adaptive management (SAM) for facilitating inclusive decision-making. The study is based on the case of the Edward-Wakool (E-W) "Fish and Flows" SAM project in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Management
Ryan Plummer, Angela Dzyundzyak, Julia Baird, Örjan Bodin, Derek Armitage, Lisen Schultz
Multi-stakeholder environmental management and governance processes are essential to realize social and ecological outcomes. Participation, collaboration, and learning are emphasized in these processes; to gain insights into how they influence stakeholders' evaluations of outcomes in relation to management and governance interventions we use a path analysis approach to examine their relationships in individuals in four UNESCO Biosphere Reserves. We confirm a model showing that participation in more activities leads to greater ratings of process, and in turn, better evaluations of outcomes...
2017: PloS One
Sara Beth Tung, Jeanne M Donaldson, SungWoo Kahng
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities who engage in problem behavior maintained by access to tangibles may exhibit more problem behavior during certain preference assessments. We compared three common preference assessments to determine which resulted in fewer problem behaviors. The paired stimulus and multiple-stimulus without replacement assessments produced higher rates of problem behavior than the free operant (FO) assessment, suggesting that the FO assessment may be the most appropriate assessment for individuals who engage in problem behavior maintained by access to tangibles...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
K S Jacob
Suicide is a complex phenomenon, often linked to environment. Despite the identification of many social, cultural, economic and political correlates and risk factors, psychiatry continues to argue for curative solutions based on the reductionistic biomedical model, rather than support public health measures to manage the larger sociocultural, economic and political context. While psychiatry and curative medicine help many people, survival of the human body is best explained by the materialist explanation that locates the variation in health and longevity to tangible resources...
May 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Benjamin J Allitt, Victoria P A Johnstone, Katrina L Richards, Edwin B Yan, Ramesh Rajan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a cascade of pathophysiological changes that are both complex and difficult to treat. Progesterone (P4) is a neuroprotective treatment option that has shown excellent preclinical benefits in the treatment of TBI, but these benefits have not translated well in the clinic. We have previously shown that P4 exacerbates the already hypoactive upper cortical responses in the short-term post-TBI and does not reduce upper cortical hyperactivity in the long term, and we concluded that there is no tangible benefit to sensory cortex firing strength...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
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