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P Frange, M Leruez-Ville
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common complication in immunocompromised patients, especially after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation. Therapeutic antiviral options [(val)ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir] are still limited and can expose to severe toxicities. Moreover, prolonged antiviral drug exposure and ongoing viral replication are key factors in the development of antiviral drug resistance. After many years of few tangible advances in terms of new antiviral drugs, we are now experiencing an exciting period characterized by a series of phase III clinical trials incorporating three novel agents: maribavir, brincidofovir, and letermovir...
April 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Richard Bernknopf, David Brookshire, Yusuke Kuwayama, Molly Macauley, Matthew Rodell, Alexandra Thompson, Peter Vail, Benjamin Zaitchik
A decision framework is developed for quantifying the economic value of information (VOI) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission for drought monitoring, with a focus on the potential contributions of groundwater storage and soil moisture measurements from the GRACE Data Assimilation (GRACE-DA) System. The study consists of: (a) the development of a conceptual framework to evaluate the socioeconomic value of GRACE-DA as a contributing source of information to drought monitoring; (b) structured listening sessions to understand the needs of stakeholders who are affected by drought monitoring; (c) econometric analysis based on the conceptual framework that characterizes the contribution of GRACE-DA to the US Drought Monitor (USDM) in capturing the effects of drought on the agricultural sector; and (d) a demonstration of how the improved characterization of drought conditions may influence decisions made in a real-world drought disaster assistance program...
January 2018: Weather, Climate, and Society (Print)
Jacopo Vannucci, Stefano Costi, Alberto Matricardi, Elisa Scarnecchia, Andrea Droghetti
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a multimodal, polyhedral approach to surgical management for patients undergoing surgical therapy. Since ERAS is not a specific procedure, these protocols are not exclusively created for particular clinical settings but they are prone to be adapted to a large variety of healthcare programs after surgery. ERAS Society was the platform in which a new multidisciplinary methodology to promote a fast recovery, a considerable patient involvement and resource optimization has been developed...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Surojit Sen, Budheswar Dehury, Jagajjit Sahu, Sunayana Rathi, Raj Narain Singh Yadav
Euphorbiaceae represents flowering plants family of tropical and sub-tropical region rich in secondary metabolites of economic importance. To understand and assess the genetic makeup among the members, this study was undertaken to characterize and compare SSR markers from publicly available ESTs and GSSs of nine selected species of the family. Mining of SSRs was performed by MISA, primer designing by Primer3, while functional annotation, gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis were performed by Blast2GO...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Toru Matsu-Ura, Andrey A Dovzhenok, Samuel T Coradetti, Krithika R Subramanian, Daniel R Meyer, Jaesang J Kwon, Caleb Kim, Nathan Salomonis, N Louise Glass, Sookkyung Lim, Christian I Hong
Second-generation or lignocellulosic biofuels are a tangible source of renewable energy, which is critical to combat climate change by reducing the carbon footprint. Filamentous fungi secrete cellulose-degrading enzymes called cellulases, which are used for production of lignocellulosic biofuels. However, inefficient production of cellulases is a major obstacle for industrial-scale production of second-generation biofuels. We used computational simulations to design and implement synthetic positive feedback loops to increase gene expression of a key transcription factor, CLR-2, that activates a large number of cellulases in a filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa...
April 6, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Amanda J Wagg, Margie M Callanan, Alexander Hassett
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore how computer mediated communication has been used by a variety of healthcare,professionals to support their patients and discuss the implication that this may have for future practice. DESIGN: A systematized review of the literature. DATA SOURCES: A review of empirical studies within the literature was carried out in April 2016 in CINAHL, MEDLINE, ASSIA, BNI, Psychinfo, and Web of Science databases...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Lauren E Dockery, Anita Motwani, Kai Ding, Mark Doescher, Justin D Dvorak, Kathleen N Moore, Laura L Holman
OBJECTIVES: Patient navigation programs have been shown to positively impact cancer outcomes for minority populations. Little is known regarding the effects of these programs on American Indian (AI) populations. The purpose of this study is to characterize the impact of a patient navigation program on AI cervical cancer patients at a tertiary care center. METHODS: A retrospective review of all AI cervical cancer patients receiving navigation services and a cohort of AI patients treated prior to navigation services was performed...
April 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Amador Priede, Yolanda Andreu, Paula Martínez, Andrea Conchado, María Ruiz-Torres, César González-Blanch
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the factor structure and psychometric properties of the original and abbreviated versions of the Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) in recently-diagnosed cancer patients. METHOD: A sample of 128 newly-diagnosed cancer patients were assessed with the Spanish versions of the MOS-SSS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to analyse six different factor structures. Internal consistency and convergent validity indexes were calculated...
May 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Giuseppe Pezzotti, Wenliang Zhu, Nobuhiko Sugano, Elia Marin, Kengo Yamamoto, Naomichi Nishiike, Tsubasa Hori, Alfredo Rondinella, Bryan J McEntire, Ryan Bock, B Sonny Bal
Experimental evidence demonstrates that a loss of stoichiometry at the surface of oxide bioceramic femoral heads enhances the oxidation rate of polyethylene acetabular liners in artificial hip joints. Contradicting the common notion that ceramics are bioinert, three independent experiments confirmed substantial chemical interactions between the ceramic femoral heads and their polyethylene counterparts. The experiments reported herein included hydrothermal tests, frictional tests, and hip-simulator experiments...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Chris Baber
In this paper I consider how the concept of "affordance" has been adapted from the original writings of Gibson and applied to interaction design. I argue that a clear understanding of affordance shifts the goal of interaction design from one of solely focusing on either the physical object or the capabilities of the person, toward an understanding of interactivity. To do this, I develop the concept of Forms of Engagement, originally proposed to account for tool use. Finally, I extend this concept to interacting with modified tangible user interfaces, or "animate objects...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kaiyan Qiu, Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, Michael C McAlpine
Medical errors are a major concern in clinical practice, suggesting the need for advanced surgical aids for preoperative planning and rehearsal. Conventionally, CT and MRI scans, as well as 3D visualization techniques, have been utilized as the primary tools for surgical planning. While effective, it would be useful if additional aids could be developed and utilized in particularly complex procedures involving unusual anatomical abnormalities that could benefit from tangible objects providing spatial sense, anatomical accuracy, and tactile feedback...
March 28, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
A T Hexter, T Thangarajah, G Blunn, F S Haddad
Aims The success of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) depends on osseointegration at the graft-tunnel interface and intra-articular ligamentization. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of clinical and preclinical studies that evaluated biological augmentation of graft healing in ACLR. Materials and Methods In all, 1879 studies were identified across three databases. Following assessment against strict criteria, 112 studies were included (20 clinical studies; 92 animal studies). Results Seven categories of biological interventions were identified: growth factors, biomaterials, stem cells, gene therapy, autologous tissue, biophysical/environmental, and pharmaceuticals...
March 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Brij B Agarwal, Nayan Agarwal, Neeraj Dhamija, Chintamani
Success in any profession has no well-defined predictors. Knowledge, skills, training, and talent come in plenty but fail at times to achieve the universal goal of success. Some attribute it to luck. Apart from the tangible ingredients of a successful career, the intangibles like luck or something ill-defined is a real challenge. The intangibles seem like a chasm, an abyss, or a phantom obstacle. Presence of a guiding spirit who can handhold you to overcome these is essential for success. The aim of a professional is to learn, earn, and yearn for creativity...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Surgery
Kumiko Sasaki, Koji Tamakoshi
Although qualitative research that focuses on inpatients' experience immediately after surgery has continued to elucidate the efficacy of the nursing service for postoperative recovery, there has been little quantitative research. Our aim was to quantitatively clarify the association between inpatients' perception of the nursing service and the quality of postoperative recovery. Seventy-one digestive cancer patients who underwent surgery were recruited. Participants completed two self-administered questionnaires, including the Japanese version of the 40-item postoperative Quality of Recovery scale (QoR-40J) and the Nursing Service Quality Scale for Japan (NURSERV-J) which has 22 items and five dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy) on postoperative day 3...
February 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Niels Graf, Anna Dichtl, Daniel Deimel, Dirk Sander, Heino Stöver
Background: In Germany, drug use in sexual settings (i.e. chemsex) among men who have sex with men (MSM) has increasingly been the subject of discussion for considerable time. At the same time, however, little is known about this practice. It is against this background that what is currently known about chemsex among MSM in Germany is discussed. Methods: The present study observations are essentially based on the results of two research projects of a qualitative-explorative nature. In-depth interviews with drug-using MSM (n=14), as well as qualitative, problem-centred interviews with drug-using MSM (n=75) and expert interviews (n=27) were conducted within these research projects...
March 27, 2018: Sexual Health
Matthew E Tracy, Vesna Tesic, Tamara Timic Stamenic, Srdjan M Joksimovic, Nicolas Busquet, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Slobodan M Todorovic
Recent data have implicated voltage-gated calcium channels in the regulation of the excitability of neurons within the mesolimbic reward system. While the attention of most research has centered on high voltage L-type calcium channel activity, the presence and role of the low voltage-gated T-type calcium channel (T-channels) has not been well explored. Hence, we investigated T-channel properties in the neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) utilizing wild-type (WT) rats and mice, CaV 3.1 knock-out (KO) mice, and TH-eGFP knock-in (KI) rats in acute horizontal brain slices of adolescent animals...
March 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Sam Nicol, Keith Ward, Danial Stratford, Klaus D Joehnk, Iadine Chadès
Under limited time and resources, ecological managers are under increasing pressure to demonstrate tangible impact of monitoring activities. Value of Information (VOI) has been advocated as an ideal tool to evaluate whether more data is required to improve expected management outcomes. Yet, despite several recent works explaining its value, VOI remains seldom used in practice. Here we provide an example of a successful ecological application of VOI. We apply VOI to a novel multi-objective freshwater management problem and show how to make the best use of expert data through a robust sensitivity analysis...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Kate E Laver, Ivanka J Prichard, Monica Cations, Ivana Osenk, Kay Govin, John D Coveney
OBJECTIVE: To summarise quantitative evaluations of interventions designed to support the careers of women in academia of any discipline. METHOD: A systematic search of English entries in PubMed, CINAHL and Google Scholar was conducted in September 2017. Methodological quality of the studies was independently assessed by two authors using the Joanna Briggs Institute quality appraisal checklists. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity in methods and outcomes; results were synthesised and displayed narratively...
March 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Wolfgang Wagner
This article studies the effect of parliamentary involvement on security policy. Building on Democratic Peace Theory, it examines whether democracies with a parliamentary veto power are indeed less likely to participate in military interventions, than democracies without such a veto power, ceteris paribus. By studying patterns of participation across 25 to 35 countries in five military missions, this paper finds modest evidence for such a parliamentary peace and suggests that it depends on the character of the military mission in question...
February 2018: British Journal of Politics & International Relations
Ibrahim Saleh Al-Busaidi, Gregory Patrick Tarr
PURPOSE: To examine factors associated with successful publications resulting from mandatory public health research training attachment, the Trainee Intern Health Care Evaluation (TIHE) projects, at the University of Otago, Dunedin School of Medicine, New Zealand. METHODS: A total of 227 TIHE projects completed during the period from January 1985 to December 2013 were included in the study. In February 2016, Medline and Google Scholar databases were searched independently by both authors for publications using predefined search criteria...
March 20, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
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