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Julie M Elman
Throughout the Fear Project, the author visualizes other people's fears, many of which revolve around health-related issues. Through her illustrations, which accompany the words of her subjects, fears become a tangible representation of what people are most afraid of. The collaboration between the illustrator and the subjects shapes a health narrative that allows the subjects themselves to become more involved in their journey of self-discovery, by telling their own stories in ways that are outside the strict conventions of academia...
October 21, 2016: Health Communication
Kay D Mann, Mark S Pearce, Chris J Seal
Observational evidence suggests that increased whole grain (WG) intake reduces the risks of many non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. More recently, studies have shown that WG intake lowers all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Much of the reported evidence on risk reduction is from US and Scandinavian populations, where there are tangible WG dietary recommendations. At present there is no quantity-specific WG dietary recommendation in the UK, instead we are advised to choose WG or higher fibre versions...
October 21, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Marta R Pereira, Cristian S Dambros, Charles E Zartman
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Resource allocation is difficult to characterize in plants because of the challenges of quantifying gametes and propagules. We surveyed six sympatric, unisexual species in the family Calymperaceae (Bryophyta) to test for trade-offs in prezygotic sexual and asexual expression and density-dependent survivorship of female gametangia. METHODS: We tallied gametangial and asexual propagule output for 1820 shoots from 17 populations of six species at monthly intervals during one year (2010-2011) in a central Amazonian forest...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Botany
Kristin Thomas, Catharina Linderoth, Marcus Bendtsen, Preben Bendtsen, Ulrika Müssener
BACKGROUND: Drinking of alcohol among university students is a global phenomenon; heavy episodic drinking is accepted despite several potential negative consequences. There is emerging evidence that short message service (SMS) text messaging interventions are effective to promote behavior change among students. However, it is still unclear how effectiveness can be optimized through intervention design or how user interest and adherence can be maximized. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop an SMS text message-based intervention targeting alcohol drinking among university students using formative research...
October 20, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Rachel Scalzo, Tonya N Davis
Providing noncontingent access to a stimulus until an individual displays behavioral indicators of satiation has been used to determine when an abolishing operation is in effect, but there has been variation in its application in the literature. Four males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with tangibly maintained challenging behavior participated in this study. Individualized behavioral indicators were identified and verified to determine when each participant was finished playing with his/her preferred item...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Modification
Paloma de Souza Cavalcante Pissinati, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço Haddad, José Carlos Dalmas, Marcela Maria Birolim
The aim was to analyze socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with gains and losses perceived by employees nearing retirement in a public university. In an exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative survey, employees (n = 164) approaching retirement in a public university in northern Paraná State, Brazil, assigned scales of importance to gains and losses. The data were analyzed with simple and multiple linear regression, based on the sizes of the scales, with socio-demographic and occupational variables as predictors...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Aline Kunz, Sabrina Pohlmann, Oliver Heinze, Antje Brandner, Christina Reiß, Martina Kamradt, Joachim Szecsenyi, Dominik Ose
BACKGROUND: The importance of information and communication technology for healthcare is steadily growing. Newly developed tools are addressing different user groups: physicians, other health care professionals, social workers, patients, and family members. Since often many different actors with different expertise and perspectives are involved in the development process it can be a challenge to integrate the user-reported requirements of those heterogeneous user groups. Nevertheless, the understanding and consideration of user requirements is the prerequisite of building a feasible technical solution...
October 18, 2016: JMIR Human Factors
Paige Madison
Fossils are crucial pieces of evidence that illuminate the past. In the case of paleoanthropology, the discipline that studies human evolution, fossils are tangible objects that shape the ways we understand ourselves and our history. But how, exactly, do fossils find their way into these narratives, and into scientific journals and museums? How do they become pieces of evidence? The Forbes skull reveals a fossil that struggled to become a noteworthy piece of evidence. It was twice lost, first in a library cabinet on the Rock of Gibraltar, and later, in a London museum storeroom...
October 15, 2016: Endeavour
Maria J O'Connell, Wesley J Kasprow, Robert A Rosenheck
OBJECTIVE: This study examined social network structure and function among a sample of 460 homeless veterans who participated in an experimental trial of the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to HUD-VASH (housing subsidies and case management), case management only, or standard care. Mixed-model longitudinal analysis was used to compare treatment groups on social network outcomes over 18 months...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Ann C Palmenberg
Science is our best current approximation of the way things work. You cannot do science unless you believe there is a discernable truth inherent to the arrangement of our tangible world. The problem is, we in our given time never know where exactly the asymptote lies or how far we are from it. My curiosity about the natural world is innate, but fate has variously gifted me with outstanding personal opportunities to indulge that curiosity through the study of viruses. To a woman of the boomer generation, professional paths were not always open-door, and to a certain extent they still aren't...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Matthew T Brodhead, Mandy J Rispoli
A primary effort of preference assessment research has been to develop strategies to identify potential reinforcers for educational, social, and behavioral programming for individuals with disabilities, including children with autism. However, little attention has been paid to the identification of preferred stimuli children with autism may not have previous experience with. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which a video-based preference assessment may accurately identify preference for novel stimuli...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Pedram Hanafizadeh, Nima Mirkhani, Mohammad Reza Davoudi, Mahtab Masouminia, Keyvan Sadeghy
Coronary arteries, which are branched from the sinuses, have tangible effects on the hemodynamic performance of the bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV), especially in the diastolic phase. To better understand this issue, a computer model of ascending aorta including realistic sinus shapes and coronary arteries has been generated in this study in order to investigate the BMHV performance during diastole. Three-dimensional transient numerical analysis is conducted to simulate the diastolic blood flow through the hinges and in coronary arteries under the assumption of non-Newtonian behavior...
October 2016: Artificial Organs
Mallory Taylor, Joseph R Hageman, Melanie Brown
Physician burnout is a topic of growing importance in today's health care system. Tangible interventions aimed at reducing burnout and promoting wellness are now necessary components of medical training and practice. A study examined the feasibility and impact of a brief mindfulness intervention using a free smartphone application with a resident population. Participants used a free smartphone application to complete a 10-day program in mindfulness meditation, and completed surveys at the end of the program...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Safa Abdalla, Suad Ahmed, Zeinab Swareldahab, Kavi Bhalla
BACKGROUND: Sudan has been undergoing demographic and social changes that could have a tangible impact on population injury rates. However, reliable estimates of injury epidemiology are lacking. We aimed to estimate injury incidence and mortality in urban and rural Sudan, using existing data sources. METHODS: We used the 2008 national census mortality data with mortuary data to construct unintentional and intentional injury mortality estimates in urban and rural areas...
October 11, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Vivian Tam, Jennifer S Edge, Steven J Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Shortages of health workers in low-income countries are exacerbated by the international migration of health workers to more affluent countries. This problem is compounded by the active recruitment of health workers by destination countries, particularly Australia, Canada, UK and USA. The World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a voluntary Code of Practice in May 2010 to mitigate tensions between health workers' right to migrate and the shortage of health workers in source countries...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
Joseph M DeSimone, Sue J Mecham, Crista L Farrell
This article was written to shed light on a series of what some have stated are not so obvious connections that link polymer synthesis in supercritical CO2 to cancer treatment and vaccines, nonflammable polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, and 3D printing. In telling this story, we also attempt to show the value of versatility in applying one's primary area of expertise to address pertinent questions in science and in society. In this Outlook, we attempted to identify key factors to enable a versatile and nimble research effort to take shape in an effort to influence diverse fields and have a tangible impact in the private sector through the translation of discoveries into the marketplace...
September 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
John Duncan Grewar
Bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) are considered the most important orbiviral diseases in Southern Africans countries. The general endemic status makes these diseases challenging to be quanti ed in terms of their economic impact. Using country reported data from BT and AHS outbreaks and cases, as well as international trade data, the economic impact of BT and AHS is evaluated on local, regional, and global scales. Local scale impact in the Southern African region is underestimated as shown by the underreporting of BT and AHS...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
James C Stegen, Allen H Hurlbert, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Xingyuan Chen, Carolyn G Anderson, Rosalie K Chu, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Sarah J Fansler, Nancy J Hess, Malak Tfaily
The number of microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within a community is akin to species richness within plant/animal ("macrobial") systems. A large literature documents OTU richness patterns, drawing comparisons to macrobial theory. There is, however, an unrecognized fundamental disconnect between OTU richness and macrobial theory: OTU richness is commonly estimated on a per-individual basis, while macrobial richness is estimated per-area. Furthermore, the range or extent of sampled environmental conditions can strongly influence a study's outcomes and conclusions, but this is not commonly addressed when studying OTU richness...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Elizabeth Marier, Richard Piers Smith, Johanne Ellis-Iversen, Eamon Watson, Derek Armstrong, Henk Hogeveen, Alasdair J C Cook
This study presents British farmers' perception of, and barriers to, implementing Salmonella control on pig farms. Four farms that had implemented interventions and their 33 close contacts (known to the intervention farmers) took part in interviews before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intervention trials to assess the difference in perception over time. Their results were compared against those from nine randomly selected control farms. The hypothesis was that farms implementing interventions whether or not successful, would influence their close contacts' opinion over time...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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