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Cynthia Lebeaupin, Déborah Vallée, Déborah Rousseau, Stéphanie Patouraux, Stéphanie Bonnafous, Gilbert Adam, Frederic Luciano, Carmelo Luci, Rodolphe Anty, Antonio Iannelli, Sandrine Marchetti, Guido Kroemer, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), raising the possibility that ER stress-dependent metabolic dysfunction, inflammation and cell death underlie the transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), a negative regulator of the ER stress sensor IRE1α, has yet to be explored in NAFLD as a hepatoprotective agent. We hypothesized that the genetic ablation of BI-1 would render the liver vulnerable to NASH due to unrestrained IRE1α signaling...
February 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ciara Herman, Olive Healy, Sinéad Lydon
PURPOSE: Experimental Functional analysis (EFA) is considered the "gold standard" of behavioural assessment and its use is predictive of treatment success. However, EFA has a number of limitations including its lengthy nature, the high level of expertise required, and the reinforcement of challenging behaviour. This study aimed to further validate a novel interview-informed synthesised contingency analysis (IISCA). METHODS: An open-ended interview and brief direct observation informed an IISCA for a young boy with autism who engaged in challenging behaviour...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Jen Tarr, Flora Cornish, Elena Gonzalez-Polledo
Pain is difficult to communicate and translate into language, yet most social research on pain experience uses questionnaires and semi-structured interviews that rely on words. In addition to the mind/body dualism prevalent in pain medicine in these studies pain communication is characterised by further value-laden binaries such as real/unreal, visible/invisible, and psychological/physical. Starting from the position that research methods play a role in constituting their object, this article examines the potential of participatory arts workshops for developing different versions of pain communication...
February 13, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Maurice R Elphick, Olivier Mirabeau, Dan Larhammar
Neuropeptides are a diverse class of neuronal signalling molecules that regulate physiological processes and behaviour in animals. However, determining the relationships and evolutionary origins of the heterogeneous assemblage of neuropeptides identified in a range of phyla has presented a huge challenge for comparative physiologists. Here, we review revolutionary insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling that have been obtained recently through comparative analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data and by 'deorphanisation' of neuropeptide receptors...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Wenqi Liu, Andrew Johnson, Bradley D Smith
One of the major goals of modern supramolecular chemistry, with important practical relevance in many technical fields, is the development of synthetic host/guest partners with ultrahigh affinity and selectivity in water. Currently, most association pairs exhibit micromolar affinity or weaker, and there are very few host/guest systems with Ka > 109 M-1, apparently due to a barrier imposed by enthalpy/entropy compensation. This present study investigated the threading of a water-soluble tetralactam cyclophane by a deep-red fluorescent squaraine guest with flanking polyethyleneglycol chains, an association process that is dominated by a highly favorable enthalpic driving force...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nicholas G Norvell, Tom V Korioth, David R Cagna, Antheunis Versluis
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Artificial markers called fiducials are commonly used to orient digitized surfaces for analysis. However, when these markers are tangible and placed in the region of interest, they may alter surface topography and influence data analysis. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to apply a modified digital surface fitting method based on anatomic landmarks to evaluate denture accuracy and to use 2 different denture processing techniques to evaluate the method...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Olugbenga Oguntunde, Isa M Surajo, Dauda Sulaiman Dauda, Abdulsamad Salihu, Salma Anas-Kolo, Irit Sinai
BACKGROUND: Poor quality of health services and socio-cultural dynamics may severely limit utilization of health services. Facility health committees were established in several states in northern Nigeria to reduce these barriers. The committees were charged with mobilizing communities, improving quality of health services, and promoting utilization of maternal and child health services. This study assessed this intervention. METHODS: To obtain a comprehensive picture of facility health committees' influence on maternal and child health services, we selected 33 facilities in three states in northern Nigeria (Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano) where the intervention was active...
February 9, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Allison Perry, Parastu Kasaie, David W Dowdy, Maunank Shah
Background: The National HIV/AIDS Strategy has set ambitious goals to improve the epidemic in the United States. However, there is a paucity of usable program-level benchmarks tied to population-level epidemiologic goals. Our objective was to define tangible benchmarks for annual rates along the care continuum that are likely to translate to meaningful reductions in incidence. Methods: We used a validated mathematical model of HIV transmission and care engagement to characterize care continuum parameters that would translate into 50% reductions in incidence by 2025, compared with a base case scenario of the current US care continuum...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Kazuko Shem, Steven Barncord, Kara Flavin, Manoj Mohan
Study design: Prospective observational cohort study. Objectives: To assess the effects of gabapentin on neuropsychological variables including memory, attention, and executive function in individuals with spinal cord injury. Setting: Santa Clara Valley Medical Center inpatient spinal cord injury unit. Methods: Ten patients (three females, seven males) with traumatic spinal cord injury underwent testing, with a mean age of 35...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes, Maria Auxiliadora Trevizan, Simone de Godoy, Paula Cristina Nogueira, Carla Aparecida Arena Ventura, Claudia Elizangela Bis Furlan
PURPOSE: To identify the expectations and perceptions of clients concerning the quality of hospital care provided to them and their respective companions at a private Brazilian hospital using SERVQUAL. The SERVQUAL questionnaire can provide information concerning expectations and perceptions of clients. In addition, it is able to identify the participation of frontline employees and how they contribute to the organization's end product (service delivery). METHODS: In total, 172 inpatients for surgical reasons answered the SERVQUAL questionnaire...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Shaina J Sowles, Monique McLeary, Allison Optican, Elizabeth Cahn, Melissa J Krauss, Ellen E Fitzsimmons-Craft, Denise E Wilfley, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg
Pro-eating disorder communities provide a refuge for individuals with eating disorders (EDs) who are ambivalent about seeking treatment. We investigated a pro-ED community on Reddit, an anonymous social networking platform with topical forums, to identify expression of behaviors aligned with ED symptoms and support for these behaviors. A content analysis on four weeks of topic-specific discussion threads (N = 125 comments, 115 replies to comments) was conducted to identify behaviors consistent with ED psychopathology and support for these behaviors (informational, tangible assistance, esteem/emotional support)...
January 27, 2018: Body Image
Reni Aparecida Barsaglini, Beluci Bianca Nunes de Siqueira Soares
This article analyzes the tangible and intangible impacts involved in the experience of young adults diagnosed with a long-term illness, namely Acute Myeloid Leukemia. It follows on from broader research, inspired by the Phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. The data were obtained through in-depth interviews with four young adults, aged between 20 and 28, who were in the maintenance phase of cancer treatment between November 2013 and January 2014 in the State of Mato Grosso. The results focus on striking aspects of the impacts of the experience during the process of becoming aware of the illness in which the diagnosis provoked feelings mobilized by ideas regarding a serious illness...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Emma Corder, Linda Ronnie
Purpose Although private health care is regarded as providing a premium quality experience for both patients and staff alike, it is not without its daily challenges for health professionals. This study aims to explore the psychological contract of nurses to develop a greater understanding of how employee-employer interaction impacts motivation levels. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with thirteen nurses at a private hospital in South Africa. Five nursing managers were interviewed to provide a management perspective...
February 5, 2018: Leadership in Health Services
Kapil Dev Singh, Guillermo Vidal Del Miguel, Martin Thomas Gaugg, Alfredo J Ibañez, Renato Zenobi, Malcolm Kohler, Urs Frey, Pablo M-L Sinues
While there has been progress in making use of breath tests to guide clinical decision making, the full potential of exhaled breath analysis still remains to be exploited. Here we summarize some of the reasons why this is the case, what we have done so far to overcome some of the existing obstacles, and our vision of how we think breath analysis will play a more prominent role in the coming years. In particular, we envision that real-time high-resolution mass spectrometry will provide valuable information in biomarker discovery studies...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Teamur Aghamolaei, Kobra Kahnouji, Seyyed Mehrdad Hosseini Teshnizi, Jalil Ghani
Purpose: The five-dimension service quality (SERVQUAL) scale is one of the most common tools for evaluating gaps between clients' perceptions and expectations. This study aimed to assess the quality of health services in Iran through a meta-analysis of all Iranian studies which used the SERVQUAL tool. Data sources: A systematic literature review has been performed in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Magiran and Scientific Information Database...
February 2, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Wei Chai, Fengyan Gong, Wenlei Zhang, Yan Wen, Lifeng Cui
RATIONALE: Multiple primary cancer (MPC) refers to tumors that occur in one or multiple organs within the same patient at the same time or at different periods. MPC often occurs in the head and neck, but is rarely reported in the female genital system. PATIENT CONCERNS: In the present study, we report 2 rare cases that presented with tangible lower abdominal tumors. DIAGNOSES: Laboratory tests, pelvic ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and fast histopathological examinations during surgery indicated a diagnosis of MPC...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Björn Morén, Torbjörn Larsson, Åsa Carlsson Tedgren
High dose-rate brachytherapy is a method for cancer treatment where the radiation source is placed within the body, inside or close to a tumour. For dose planning, mathematical optimization techniques are being used in practice and the most common approach is to use a linear model which penalizes deviations from specified dose limits for the tumour and for nearby organs. This linear penalty model is easy to solve, but a weakness is the poor correlation of its objective value and the dose-volume objectives that are used clinically to evaluate dose distributions...
January 30, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
C A Mallon, X Le Roux, G S van Doorn, F Dini-Andreote, F Poly, J F Salles
Although many environments like soils are constantly subjected to invasion by alien microbes, invaders usually fail to succeed, succumbing to the robust diversity often found in nature. So far, only successful invasions have been explored, and it remains unknown to what extent an unsuccessful invasion can impact resident communities. Here we hypothesized that unsuccessful invasions can cause impacts to soil functioning by decreasing the diversity and niche breadth of resident bacterial communities, which could cause shifts to community composition and niche structure-an effect that is likely exacerbated when diversity is compromised...
January 26, 2018: ISME Journal
Michael Tobler, Joanna L Kelley, Martin Plath, Rüdiger Riesch
Organisms adapted to physiochemical stressors provide ideal systems to study evolutionary mechanisms that drive adaptation and speciation. This review paper focuses on livebearing fishes of the Poecilia mexicana species complex (Poeciliidae), members of which have repeatedly colonized hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) rich springs. H2 S is a potent respiratory toxicant that creates extreme environmental conditions in aquatic ecosystems. There is also a rich history of research on H2 S in toxicology and biomedicine, which has facilitated the generation of a priori hypotheses about the proximate mechanisms of adaptation...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Benjamin J Smith, John R Monterosso, Cheryl J Wakslak, Antoine Bechara, Stephen J Read
In temporal discounting experiments, subjects are repeatedly presented with option sets in which they must choose between receiving a small amount of money sooner (SmallerSooner) or a larger amount of money at a more distant point in time (LargerLater). Although over 50 temporal discounting experiments using fMRI are described in literature, there has not been a meta-analysis identifying regions activated when subjects choose SmallerSooner versus LargerLater alternatives. Evidence suggests a prefrontal cortex 'abstraction hierarchy', from abstract planning in more anterior regions to concrete processing in posterior regions...
January 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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