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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926860/l-met-activates-arabidopsis-glr-ca-2-channels-upstream-of-ros-production-and-regulates-stomatal-movement
#1
Dongdong Kong, Heng-Cheng Hu, Eiji Okuma, Yuree Lee, Hui Sun Lee, Shintaro Munemasa, Daeshik Cho, Chuanli Ju, Leah Pedoeim, Barbara Rodriguez, Juan Wang, Wonpil Im, Yoshiyuki Murata, Zhen-Ming Pei, June M Kwak
Plant glutamate receptor homologs (GLRs) have long been proposed to function as ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels, but no in planta evidence has been provided. Here, we present genetic evidence that Arabidopsis GLR3.1 and GLR3.5 form Ca(2+) channels activated by L-methionine (L-Met) at physiological concentrations and regulate stomatal apertures and plant growth. The glr3.1/3.5 mutations resulted in a lower cytosolic Ca(2+) level, defective Ca(2+)-induced stomatal closure, and Ca(2+)-deficient growth disorder, all of which involved L-Met...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926651/factors-underlying-the-temporal-increase-in-maternal-mortality-in-the-united-states
#2
K S Joseph, Sarka Lisonkova, Giulia M Muraca, Neda Razaz, Yasser Sabr, Azar Mehrabadi, Enrique F Schisterman
OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors underlying the recent increase in maternal mortality ratios (maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) in the United States. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study with data on maternal deaths and live births in the United States from 1993 to 2014 obtained from the birth and death files of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Underlying causes of death were examined between 1999 and 2014 using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926506/disruption-of-the-association-between-drug-transporter-and-actin-cytoskeleton-abolishes-drug-resistance-in-hypertrophic-scar
#3
Linlin Su, Lanqing Fu, Yan Li, Fangfang Yang, Min Zhang, Dahai Hu
Hypertrophic scar is characterized by the overgrowth of fibroblasts and often considered as a kind of benign skin tumor, thus chemotherapeutic drugs have been used to treat scars. In view of the similarity, this study aims to investigate whether drug resistance in cancer that contributes to the failure of chemotherapy also exists in hypertrophic scar, and what is the possible mechanism. Fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar and normal skin tissues were first compared for their resistance to verapamil and etoposide phosphate...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926492/the-cross-talk-between-autophagy-and-endocytoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-disruption-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Yulong Zhou, Yanqing Wu, Yanlong Liu, Zili He, Shuang Zou, Qingqing Wang, Jiawei Li, Zengming Zheng, Jian Chen, Fenzan Wu, Fanhua Gong, Hongyu Zhang, Huazi Xu, Jian Xiao
Spinal cord injury induces the disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier and triggers a complex array of tissue responses, including endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. However, the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption have not been discussed in acute spinal cord trauma. In the present study, we respectively detected the roles of ER stress and autophagy in blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after spinal cord injury. Besides, we also detected the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress both in vivo and in vitro...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925690/purification-and-characterization-of-a-platelet-aggregation-inhibitor-and-anticoagulant-cc-5_ntase-cd-73-like-from-cerastes-cerastes-venom
#5
Samah Saoud, Fatah Chérifi, Traki Benhassine, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
The present study is the first attempt to report the characterization of a nucleotidase from Cerastes cerastes venom. A 70 kDa 5'-nucleotidase (Cc-5'NTase) was purified to homogeneity. The amino acid sequence of Cc-5'NTase displayed high homology with many nucleotidases. Its activity was optimal at pH 7 with a specific hydrolytic activity toward mono-, di-, and triphosphate adenylated nucleotides. Cc-5'NTase preferentially hydrolyzed ADP and obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Among the metals and inhibitors tested, Ni(2+) and Mg(2+) completely potentiated enzyme activity, whereas EGTA, PMSF, iodoacetamide, vanillic acid, vanillyl mandelic acid, and 1,10-phenanthroline partially abolished its activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925395/persistency-of-enlarged-autolysosomes-underscores-nanoparticle-induced-autophagy-in-hepatocytes
#6
Ji-Qian Zhang, Wei Zhou, Sha-Sha Zhu, Jun Lin, Peng-Fei Wei, Fen-Fen Li, Pei-Pei Jin, Han Yao, Yun-Jiao Zhang, Yi Hu, Yi-Ming Liu, Ming Chen, Zheng-Quan Li, Xue-Sheng Liu, Li Bai, Long-Ping Wen
The diverse biological effects of nanomaterials form the basis for their applications in biomedicine but also cause safety issues. Induction of autophagy is a cellular response after nanoparticles exposure. It may be beneficial in some circumstances, yet autophagy-mediated toxicity raises an alarming concern. Previously, it has been reported that upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) elicit liver damage, with autophagy contributing most of this toxicity. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. This study reveals persistent presence of enlarged autolysosomes in hepatocytes after exposure to UCNs and SiO2 nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo...
December 7, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924483/rapid-generation-of-mirna-inhibitor-leads-by-bioinformatics-and-efficient-high-throughput-screening-methods
#7
Christopher L Haga, Sai Pradeep Velagapudi, Jessica L Childs-Disney, Jacqueline Strivelli, Matthew D Disney, Donald G Phinney
The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) has opened an entire new avenue for drug development. These short (15-22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs, which function in RNA silencing and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, have been shown to critically affect numerous pathways in both development and disease progression. Current miRNA drug development focuses on either reintroducing the miRNA into cells through the use of a miRNA mimic or inhibiting its function via use of a synthetic antagomir. Although these methods have shown some success as therapeutics, they face challenges particularly with regard to cellular uptake and for use as systemic reagents...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924253/switching-of-the-positive-feedback-for-ras-activation-by-a-concerted-function-of-sos-membrane-association-domains
#8
Yuki Nakamura, Kayo Hibino, Toshio Yanagida, Yasushi Sako
Son of sevenless (SOS) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that regulates cell behavior by activating the small GTPase RAS. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that an interaction between SOS and the GTP-bound active form of RAS generates a positive feedback loop that propagates RAS activation. However, it remains unclear how the multiple domains of SOS contribute to the regulation of the feedback loop in living cells. Here, we observed single molecules of SOS in living cells to analyze the kinetics and dynamics of SOS behavior...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923986/defense-responses-in-aspen-with-altered-pectin-methylesterase-activity-reveal-the-hormonal-inducers-of-tyloses
#9
Joanna Leśniewska, David Öhman, Magdalena Krzesłowska, Sunita Kushwah, Maria Barciszewska-Pacak, Leszek Kleczkowski, Bjorn Sundberg, Thomas Moritz, Ewa J Mellerowicz
Tyloses are ingrowths of parenchyma cells into the lumen of embolized xylem vessels, thereby protecting the remaining xylem from pathogens. They are found in heartwood, sapwood and in abscission zones, and can be induced by various stresses, but their molecular triggers are unknown. Here we report that down-regulation of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE 1 (PtxtPME1) in aspen triggers the formation of tyloses and activation of oxidative stress. We tested whether any of the oxidative-stress related hormones could induce tyloses in intact plantlets grown in sterile culture...
December 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923917/metadherin-astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-positively-regulates-the-stability-and-function-of-forkhead-box-m1-during-tumorigenesis
#10
Lixuan Yang, Kejun He, Sheng Yan, Yibing Yang, Xinya Gao, Maolei Zhang, Zhibo Xia, Zhengsong Huang, Suyun Huang, Nu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is overexpressed and activates numerous oncoproteins in tumors. However, the mechanism by which the FOXM1 protein aberrantly accumulates in human cancer remains uncertain. This study was designed to clarify the upstream signaling pathway(s) that regulate FOXM1 protein stability and transcriptional activity. METHODS: Mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation were performed to identify the FOXM-metadherin (MTDH) interaction. In vivo and in vitro ubiquitination assays were conducted to test the effect of MTDH on FOXM1 stability...
December 6, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923872/dopamine-directly-increases-mitochondrial-mass-and-thermogenesis-in-brown-adipocytes
#11
Rose Kohlie, Nina Perwitz, Julia Resch, Sebastian Michael Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johannes Klein, Karl Alexander Iwen
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is key to energy homeostasis. By virtue of its thermogenic potential it may dissipate excessive energy, regulate body weight, and increase insulin sensitivity. Catecholamines are critically involved in the regulation of BAT-thermogenesis, yet research has focussed on the effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline. Some evidence suggests a role of dopamine (DA) in BAT-thermogenesis but the cellular mechanisms involved have not been addressed. We employed our extensively characterised murine brown adipocyte cells...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923791/reduced-density-and-altered-regulation-of-rat-atrial-l-type-ca2-current-in-rat-heart-failure
#12
Richard C Bond, Simon M Bryant, Judy J Watson, Jules C Hancox, Clive H Orchard, Andrew F James
Atrial L-type Ca(2+) current (ICaL) downregulation in heart failure contributes to the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation and is proposed to involve reduction in channel phosphorylation by PKA. The regulation of atrial ICaL was examined in heart failure. Anesthetized adult male Wistar rats underwent surgical coronary artery ligation (CAL, N=10) or equivalent sham-operation (Sham, N=12). Left atrial myocytes were isolated ~18 weeks post-surgery and whole-cell currents recorded (holding potential=-80 mV). ICaL activated by depolarizing pulses to voltages from -40 to +50 mV were normalized to cell capacitance and current density-voltage relations plotted...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923220/differential-regulation-of-bmal1-clock-and-endothelial-signaling-in-the-aortic-arch-and-ligated-common-carotid-artery
#13
Xia Shang, Paramita Pati, Ciprian B Anea, David J R Fulton, R Daniel Rudic
The circadian clock is rhythmically expressed in blood vessels, but the interaction between the circadian clock and disturbed blood flow remains unclear. We examined the relationships between BMAL1 and CLOCK and 2 regulators of endothelial function, AKT1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), in vascular regions of altered blood flow. We found that the aortic arch from WT mice exhibited reduced sensitivity to acetylcholine (Ach)-mediated relaxation relative to the thoracic aorta. In Clock-mutant (mut) mice the aorta exhibited a reduced sensitivity to Ach...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923067/chronological-lifespan-in-yeast-is-dependent-on-the-accumulation-of-storage-carbohydrates-mediated-by-yak1-mck1-and-rim15-kinases
#14
Lu Cao, Yingzhi Tang, Zhenzhen Quan, Zhe Zhang, Stephen G Oliver, Nianshu Zhang
Upon starvation for glucose or any other macronutrient, yeast cells exit from the mitotic cell cycle and acquire a set of characteristics that are specific to quiescent cells to ensure longevity. Little is known about the molecular determinants that orchestrate quiescence entry and lifespan extension. Using starvation-specific gene reporters, we screened a subset of the yeast deletion library representing the genes encoding 'signaling' proteins. Apart from the previously characterised Rim15, Mck1 and Yak1 kinases, the SNF1/AMPK complex, the cell wall integrity pathway and a number of cell cycle regulators were shown to be necessary for proper quiescence establishment and for extension of chronological lifespan (CLS), suggesting that entry into quiescence requires the integration of starvation signals transmitted via multiple signaling pathways...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922662/metabolic-reprogramming-and-ampk%C3%AE-1-pathway-activation-by-caulerpin-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#15
Hua Yu, Huiqin Zhang, Mingjun Dong, Zhou Wu, Zhonglei Shen, Yangyang Xie, Zhenfang Kong, Xiaoyu Dai, Binbin Xu
Caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunctions. In this study, the anticancer property of caulerpin was assessed in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that caulerpin inhibited oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and facilitated an early intervention of the mitochondrial function, via inhibiting mitochondrial complex I, accompanied by the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and a surge of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922590/neutrophils-are-essential-in-short-hairpin-rna-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-mediated-antitumor-efficiency
#16
Kuan-Ting Liu, Yao-Hua Liu, Hsin-Liang Liu, Inn-Wen Chong, Meng-Chi Yen, Po-Lin Kuo
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a rate limiting enzyme in tryptophan-degrading pathways and IDO activity results in immune suppression. Targeting IDO is a strategy of cancer immunotherapies. Our previous studies demonstrate that delivery of short hairpin against IDO (IDO shRNA) suppresses tumor growth and increases neutrophils infiltration into tumor. Neutrophils reveal antitumorigenic "N1" or protumorigenic "N2" phenotype in tumor microenvironment. However, the function of IDO shRNA-induced neutrophils is not clear...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922552/novel-use-of-all-trans-retinoic-acid-in-a-model-of-lipopolysaccharide-immunosuppression-to-decrease-the-generation-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-by-reducing-the-proliferation-of-cd34-precursor-cells
#17
Daiana Martire-Greco, Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Luis A Castillo, María Belén Vecchione, Marcelo de Campos-Nebel, Marlina Córdoba Moreno, Roberto Meiss, Mónica Vermeulen, Veronica I Landoni, Gabriela C Fernandez
All-trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA) is a derivative of vitamin A with anti-proliferative properties. Endotoxin shock and subsequent immunosuppression (IS) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates myelopoiesis with expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Since we have previously shown that ATRA reverses the IS state by decreasing functional MDSC, our aim was to investigate if ATRA was able to modulate MDSC generation by regulating myelopoiesis in murine hematopoietic organs. We found that ATRA administration in vivo and in vitro decreased the number of CD34+ precursor cells that were increased in IS mice...
November 25, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922192/evidence-for-pipecolate-oxidase-in-mediating-protection-against-hydrogen-peroxide-stress
#18
Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Justin L Mott, Donald F Becker
Pipecolate, an intermediate of the lysine catabolic pathway, is oxidized to Δ(1) -piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C) by the flavoenzyme L-pipecolate oxidase (PIPOX). P6C spontaneously hydrolyzes to generate α-aminoadipate semialdehyde, which is then converted into α-aminoadipate acid by α-aminoadipatesemialdehyde dehydrogenase. L-pipecolate was previously reported to protect mammalian cells against oxidative stress. Here, we examined whether PIPOX is involved in the mechanism of pipecolate stress protection...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922120/regulation-of-human-cardiac-potassium-channels-by-full-length-kcne3-and-kcne4
#19
Geoffrey W Abbott
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels comprise pore-forming α subunits and a multiplicity of regulatory proteins, including the cardiac-expressed and cardiac arrhythmia-linked transmembrane KCNE subunits. After recently uncovering novel, N-terminally extended (L) KCNE3 and KCNE4 isoforms and detecting their transcripts in human atrium, reported here are their functional effects on human cardiac Kv channel α subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. As previously reported for short isoforms KCNE3S and KCNE4S, KCNE3L inhibited hERG; KCNE4L inhibited Kv1...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922032/chemically-induced-oxidative-stress-affects-ash-neuronal-function-and-behavior-in-c-elegans
#20
Eleni Gourgou, Nikos Chronis
Oxidative stress (OS) impact on a single neuron's function in vivo remains obscure. Using C. elegans as a model organism, we report the effect of paraquat (PQ)-induced OS on wild type worms on the function of the ASH polymodal neuron. By calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging, we quantified ASH activation upon stimulus delivery. PQ-treated worms displayed higher maximum depolarization (peak of the Ca(2+) transients) compared to untreated animals. PQ had a similar effect on the ASH neuron response time (rising slope of the Ca(2+) transients), except in very young worms...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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