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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145345/the-role-of-sativex-in-robotic-rehabilitation-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-rationale-study-design-and-methodology
#1
Margherita Russo, Vincenzo Dattola, Anna Lisa Logiudice, Rosella Ciurleo, Edoardo Sessa, Rosaria De Luca, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
INTRODUCTION: Currently, none of the available multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying medications has been shown to stop or reverse gait disability. Recently, the nabiximols has been tested for the treatment of spasticity and walking impairment in MS. Nabiximols (trade name Sativex) is an oromucosal spray formulation containing 1:1 fixed ratio of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol derived from cloned Cannabis sativa L. plant. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: A single-center, prospective, parallel design, single-blind trial will be conducted at the IRCCS Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo" (Italy) involving MS patients affected by spasticity and undergoing a Robotic Rehabilitation training...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143919/iglarlixi-reduces-glycated-hemoglobin-to-a-greater-extent-than-basal-insulin-regardless-of-levels-at-screening-post-hoc-analysis-of-lixilan-l
#2
Elisabeth Niemoeller, Elisabeth Souhami, Yujun Wu, Klaus H Jensen
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on basal insulin and oral glucose-lowering drugs was investigated previously in the LixiLan-L trial. In the LixiLan-L trial, patients experienced a 6-week run-in with insulin glargine U100 (iGlar) as part of the screening phase, followed by treatment with a fixed-ratio combination of iGlar + lixisenatide (iGlarLixi) or iGlar alone over 30 weeks. In the study reported here, we investigated the achievement of glycemic control in those who completed the 30-week LixiLan-L trial, as assessed by change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels from screening, both for the overall category and for screening HbA1c subcategories...
November 16, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139112/the-effects-of-reinforcer-magnitude-in-the-preceding-and-upcoming-ratios-on-between-ratio-pausing-in-multiple-mixed-and-single-fixed-ratio-schedules
#3
Rachel Young, T Mary Foster, Lewis A Bizo
Hens responded under multiple fixed-ratio schedules with equal response requirements and either a 1-s or a 6-s reinforcer. Upcoming reinforcer size was indicated by key color. Components were presented in a quasirandom series so that all four component transitions occurred. Postreinforcement pauses were affected by the upcoming and preceding reinforcer size, with longer pauses after large reinforcers followed by small reinforcers than when followed by large ones, and longer pauses after small reinforcers that were followed by small reinforcers rather than large ones...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120215/about-bouts-a-heterogeneous-tandem-schedule-of-reinforcement-reveals-dissociable-components-of-operant-behavior-in-fischer-rats
#4
Carter W Daniels, Federico Sanabria
According to the biexponential refractory model (BERM) of variable-interval (VI) performance, operant behavior is organized in bouts, described by 3 dissociable components: between-bout interresponse times (IRTs), within-bout IRTs, and bout lengths. Research has shown that between-bout IRTs are sensitive to changes in rate of reinforcement and reinforcer efficacy, the length of some bouts is selectively sensitive to changes in response-reinforcer contingencies, and within-bout IRTs are relatively insensitive to both manipulations...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109615/fixed-ratio-combinations
#5
Emmeline Tran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100991/cue-induced-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior-is-associated-with-increased-camkii-t286-phosphorylation-in-the-reward-pathway-of-mice
#6
Michael C Salling, Christopher J Hodge, Kelly E Psilos, Vallari R Eastman, Sara P Faccidomo, Clyde W Hodge
Cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking is a hallmark behavioral pathology of addiction. Evidence suggests that reinstatement (e.g., relapse), may be regulated by cell signaling systems that underlie neuroplasticity. A variety of plasticity events require activation of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in components of the reward pathway, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. We sought to determine if cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior is associated with changes in the activation state (e...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053134/-conversion-ratio-between-different-botulinum-neuroprotein-product-in-neurological-practice
#7
O R Orlova, S L Timerbaeva, S E Khatkova, E V Kostenko, D A Krasavina, D V Zakharov
Despite nearly 30 years of experience in the application of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) in clinical practice, many fundamental questions of therapy remain valid. There are 5 botulinum toxin type A used for neurological indications in the Russian Federation in 2017. They contain different number of active neuroprotein (150 kDa) in a therapeutic dose of the drug that may have a potential impact on the efficacy and duration of action. The current SmPC of each BTA stated that the unit of activity is unique and can not be compared with any other BTA...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048188/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-d-amphetamine-self-administration-following-nicotine-exposure
#8
Dustin J Stairs, Sarah E Ewin, Megan M Kangiser, Markus N Pfaff
Adolescent nicotine exposure has been shown to lead to further psychostimulant use in adulthood. Previous preclinical research in rats has shown that environmental enrichment may protect against drug abuse vulnerability. The current study was designed to examine whether environmental enrichment can block the ability of adolescent nicotine exposure to increase d-amphetamine self-administration in adulthood. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in either enriched conditions (ECs) or isolated conditions (ICs) and then injected with saline or nicotine (0...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044937/selective-inhibition-of-m5-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-attenuates-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#9
Barak W Gunter, Robert W Gould, Michael Bubser, Kevin M McGowan, Craig W Lindsley, Carrie K Jones
Cocaine use disorder (CUD) remains a debilitating health problem in the United States for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment options. Accumulating anatomical and electrophysiological evidence indicates that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype 5 (M5 ) plays a critical role in the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry, a major site of action for cocaine and other psychostimulants. In addition, M5 knockout mice exhibit reduced cocaine self-administration behaviors with no differences in sugar pellet-maintained responding relative to wild-type mice...
October 18, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040827/effects-of-lorcaserin-belviq-%C3%A2-on-nicotine-and-food-maintained-responding-in-non-human-primates
#10
David S Jacobs, Claire E Barkin, Michelle R Kohut, Jack Bergman, Stephen J Kohut
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that the FDA-approved serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist, lorcaserin (Belviq(®)), may be a promising candidate for the management of substance use disorders, including nicotine addiction. The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy and selectivity of acute or continuous lorcaserin treatment for decreasing the reinforcing effects of nicotine in a primate species. METHODS: Adult rhesus monkeys (n=4) with a history of nicotine self-administration (>2years) responded for injections of nicotine (0...
October 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037802/the-impact-of-inoculum-size-on-the-activity-of-cefoperazone-sulbactam-against-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#11
Ping-Chin Chang, Chi-Chung Chen, Ying Chen Lu, Chih-Cheng Lai, Hui-Ling Huang, Yin-Ching Chuang, Hung-Jen Tang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the in vitro activity of cefoperazone alone and different cefoperazone-sulbactam ratios against different inoculum sizes of multidrug resistant organisms. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam at fixed ratio of 1:1 and 2:1 against a normal inoculum size of 5 × 10(5) CFU/ml and a high inoculum size of 5 × 10(7) CFU/ml were measured. RESULTS: Each 33 isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichiacoli, ESBL-producing Klebsiellapneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant E...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036327/measurement-of-incorporation-kinetics-of-non-fluorescent-native-nucleotides-by-dna-polymerases-using-fluorescence-microscopy
#12
Matthew T Walsh, Xiaohua Huang
We describe a method for measuring the single-turnover incorporation kinetics of non-fluorescent native nucleotides by DNA polymerases. Time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is used to directly measure the kinetics of single-base nucleotide incorporation into primed DNA templates covalently attached to the surface of a glass coverslip using a fixed ratio of a native nucleotide and a corresponding fluorescently labeled nucleotide over a series of total nucleotide concentrations...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036116/fast-computer-hologram-generation-by-flexible-ratio-adaptive-point-spread-spherical-wave-synthesis
#13
Yutaka Mori, Yuto Arai
We propose a flexible-ratio adaptive point-spread spherical wave synthesis method for fast computer-generated hologram calculation. The conventional adaptive point-spread algorithm uses a fixed ratio between the major and minor axes of the point source, whereas the proposed method uses flexible-ratio sources, i.e., ellipses, for more effective calculation. Numerical simulation was conducted to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method has the potential to achieve faster calculation, compared to the calculation in conventional methods, without significant image degradation...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030218/acupuncture-suppresses-intravenous-methamphetamine-self-administration-through-gaba-receptor-s-mediation
#14
Yi Jeong Choi, Nam Jun Kim, Rong Jie Zhao, Da Hye Kim, Chae Ha Yang, Hee Young Kim, Young S Gwak, Eun Young Jang, Jae Su Kim, Yun Kyu Lee, Hyun Jong Lee, Sang Nam Lee, Sung Chul Lim, Bong Hyo Lee
OBJECTIVES: Methamphetamine is one of the widely abused drugs. In spite of a number of studies, there is still little successful therapy to suppress the methamphetamine abuse. Acupuncture has shown to attenuate the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant. Based on, the present study investigated if acupuncture could suppress intravenous methamphetamine self-administration behavior. In addition, a possible neuronal mechanism was investigated. MATERIALS & METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 270-300g were trained to intake food pellet...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021746/lever-insertion-as-a-salient-stimulus-promoting-insensitivity-to-outcome-devaluation
#15
Youna Vandaele, Heather J Pribut, Patricia H Janak
Flexible and efficient decision-making in complex environments can be achieved through constant interactions between the goal-directed and habitual systems. While goal-directed behavior is considered dependent upon Response-Outcome (R-O) associations, habits instead rely on Stimulus-Response (S-R) associations. However, the stimuli that support the S-R association underlying habitual responding in typical instrumental procedures are poorly defined. To resolve this issue, we designed a discrete-trials procedure, in which rats must wait for lever insertion and complete a sequence of five lever presses to obtain a reward (20% sucrose or grain-based pellets)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993244/effects-of-reinforcement-value-on-instruction-following-under-schedules-of-negative-reinforcement
#16
Jérôme Alessandri, Carlos R X Cançado, Josele Abreu-Rodrigues
The effects of reinforcement value and social control on instruction following under a negative-reinforcement (escape) schedule were studied. Initially, responding produced timeouts from pressing a force cell under a low and a high force requirement on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Next, participants were reexposed to the low and high force requirements, but were instructed that the experimenter expected them to decrease the number of timeouts relative to the previous exposures to the procedure...
October 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991933/addressing-unmet-needs-with-injectable-medications-in-type-2-diabetes-treatment-using-combinations-of-a-basal-insulin-and-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist
#17
Helen L Baron
This article presents the rationale and data for combining a basal insulin with a GLP-1RA, including as fixed-ratio products.
October 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988222/an-isobolographic-analysis-of-the-anti-nociceptive-effect-of-geraniin-in-combination-with-morphine-or-diclofenac
#18
Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Ella Anle Kasanga, Elvis Ofori Ameyaw, Wonder Kofi Mensah Abotsi, Robert Peter Biney, Christian Agyare, Eric Woode
BACKGROUND: Geraniin, a dehydroellagitannin, is a major component of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Phyllanthus muellerianus (Kuntze) Exell. (Euphorbiaceae). Several Phyllanthus species are traditionally used for painful disorders. The anti-nociceptive effects of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of P. muellerianus and of geraniin have been scientifically established. The aim of the paper is to determine whether a combination of geraniin and diclofenac or geraniin and morphine leads to better anti-nociceptive effects...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971565/hypocretin-receptor-1-knockdown-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-attenuates-mesolimbic-dopamine-signaling-and-reduces-motivation-for-cocaine
#19
David L Bernstein, Preeti S Badve, Jessica R Barson, Caroline E Bass, Rodrigo A España
The hypocretin receptor 1 (HCRTr1) is a critical participant in the regulation of motivated behavior. Previous observations demonstrate that acute pharmacological blockade of HCRTr1 disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and the motivation for cocaine when delivered systemically or directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To further examine the involvement of HCRTr1 in regulating reward and reinforcement processing, we employed an adeno-associated virus to express a short hairpin RNA designed to knock down HCRTr1...
October 2, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940880/red-bull%C3%A2-energy-drink-increases-consumption-of-higher-concentrations-of-alcohol
#20
Marta Roldán, Victor Echeverry-Alzate, Kora-Mareen Bühler, Israel J Sánchez-Diez, Javier Calleja-Conde, Pedro Olmos, Stephen L Boehm, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Catalina Santiago, Felix Gómez-Gallego, Elena Giné, Jose Antonio López-Moreno
Mixing alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks is a common practice, especially among young people. In humans, the research on this issue has mainly focused on the use of the mass-marketed energy drinks themselves, whereas in animal models, it has focused on the individual effects of their active ingredients (i.e. caffeine). Here, we have characterized how Red Bull®, one of the most consumed caffeinated energy drink worldwide, modulates operant alcohol self-administration in Wistar rats. We found that animals readily and steadily responded for Red Bull (mean: 90 responses, 30 minutes and fixed-ratio 1), which was accompanied by locomotor stimulating effects (26 percent increase)...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
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