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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432746/impact-of-baseline-hba1c-diabetes-duration-and-bmi-on-clinical-outcomes-in-the-lixilan-o-trial-testing-iglarlixi-insulin-glargine-lixisenatide-titratable-fixed-ratio-combination-versus-insulin-glargine-and-lixisenatide-monocomponents
#1
M J Davies, L A Leiter, B Guerci, G Grunberger, F J Ampudia-Blasco, C Yu, W Stager, E Niemoeller, E Souhami, J Rosenstock
To determine whether baseline characteristics impact clinical outcomes in the LixiLan-O trial (N = 1170), the efficacy and safety of iGlarLixi, a titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U (iGlar) and lixisenatide (Lixi) was compared with iGlar or Lixi alone in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on oral therapy. Subgroups according to baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; <8%, ≥8% [<64, ≥64 mmol/mol]); T2DM disease duration (<7, ≥7 years) and body mass index (BMI; <30, ≥30 kg/m(2) ) were investigated...
April 22, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431947/a-bout-analysis-of-operant-response-disruption
#2
REVIEW
Ryan J Brackney, Timothy H Cheung, Federico Sanabria
Operant behavior appears to be organized in bouts of responses, whose parameters are differentially sensitive to various manipulations. This study investigated potential differential effects of three forms of operant response disruption-extinction (EXT), non-contingent reinforcement (NCR), and prefeeding (PRE)-on response bouts. In Experiment 1, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were trained on a tandem variable-time (VT) 120s fixed-ratio (FR) 5 schedule of reinforcement; after stability was established, their responding was disrupted for three sessions with one of the three disrupters (EXT, NCR, or PRE)...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429835/levodopa-prevents-the-reinstatement-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats-via-potentiation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Silvia Antinori, Liana Fattore, Pierluigi Saba, Walter Fratta, Gian Luigi Gessa, Paola Devoto
Dopamine agonists have been proposed as therapeutic tools for cocaine addiction. We have recently demonstrated that indirect dopamine agonists, including levodopa (L-DOPA), markedly increase cocaine-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats leading to the suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. This study was aimed to understand the behavioral and neurochemical effects of L-DOPA on cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking in rats. After reaching a stable pattern of intravenous cocaine self-administration under a continuous fixed ratio (FR-1) schedule of reinforcement, male rats were treated with L-DOPA at different steps of the self-administration protocol...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428368/erratum-efficacy-and-safety-of-lixilan-a-titratable-fixed-ratio-combination-of-insulin-glargine-plus-lixisenatide-in-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-on-basal-insulin-and-metformin-the-lixilan-l-randomized-trial-diabetes-care-2016-39-1972-1980
#4
Vanita R Aroda, Julio Rosenstock, Carol Wysham, Jeffrey Unger, Diego Bellido, Guillermo González-Gálvez, Akane Takami, Hailing Guo, Elisabeth Niemoeller, Elisabeth Souhami, Richard M Bergenstal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420696/erratum-benefits-of-lixilan-a-titratable-fixed-ratio-combination-of-insulin-glargine-plus-lixisenatide-versus-insulin-glargine-and-lixisenatide-monocomponents-in-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-on-oral-agents-the-lixilan-o-randomized-trial-diabetes
#5
Julio Rosenstock, Ronnie Aronson, George Grunberger, Markolf Hanefeld, PierMarco Piatti, Pierre Serusclat, Xi Cheng, Tianyue Zhou, Elisabeth Niemoeller, Elisabeth Souhami, Melanie Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417535/rates-of-hypoglycaemia-are-lower-in-patients-treated-with-insulin-degludec-liraglutide-ideglira-than-with-ideg-or-insulin-glargine-regardless-of-the-hypoglycaemia-definition-used
#6
P Norwood, R Chen, E Jaeckel, I Lingvay, H Jarlov, L Lehmann, S Heller
AIMS: The rates of hypoglycaemia reported in clinical trials are affected by the definitions of hypoglycaemia used. This post-hoc analysis took data from two trials comparing the once-daily, fixed ratio combination of insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) with basal insulin regimens, and re-analysed these data using alternative hypoglycaemia definitions and stratified outcomes by dosing time and baseline characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Post hoc analyses of the DUAL I (patients uncontrolled on oral antidiabetic drugs) and DUAL V (patients uncontrolled on insulin glargine (IGlar) U100) trials were carried out using different definitions of hypoglycaemia and by whether treatments were administered in the AM or PM...
April 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412411/mirtazapine-and-ketanserin-alter-preference-for-gambling-like-schedules-of-reinforcement-in-rats
#7
Amanda L Persons, Stephanie E Tedford, T Celeste Napier
Drug and behavioral addictions have overlapping features, e.g., both manifest preference for larger, albeit costlier, reinforcement options in cost/benefit decision-making tasks. Our prior work revealed that the mixed-function serotonergic compound, mirtazapine, attenuates behaviors by rats motivated by abused drugs. To extend this work to behavioral addictions, here we determined if mirtazapine and/or ketanserin, another mixed-function serotonin-acting compound, can alter decision-making in rats that is independent of drug (or food)-motivated reward...
April 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401444/fixed-ratio-combinations-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-with-basal-insulin-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Paraskevi Liakopoulou, Aris Liakos, Despoina Vasilakou, Eleni Athanasiadou, Eleni Bekiari, Kyriakos Kazakos, Apostolos Tsapas
PURPOSE: Basal insulin controls primarily fasting plasma glucose but causes hypoglycaemia and weight gain, whilst glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists induce weight loss without increasing risk for hypoglycaemia. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to investigate the efficacy and safety of fixed ratio combinations of basal insulin with glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library as well as conference abstracts up to December 2016...
April 12, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396146/rats-behave-optimally-in-a-sunk-cost-task
#9
Nataly Yáñez, Arturo Bouzas, Vladimir Orduña
The sunk cost effect has been defined as the tendency to persist in an alternative once an investment of effort, time or money has been made, even if better options are available. The goal of this study was to investigate in rats the relationship between sunk cost and the information about when it is optimal to leave the situation, which was studied by Navarro and Fantino (2005) with pigeons. They developed a procedure in which different fixed-ratio schedules were randomly presented, with the richest one being more likely; subjects could persist in the trial until they obtained the reinforcer, or start a new trial in which the most favorable option would be available with a high probability...
April 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396142/atypical-binding-at-dopamine-and-serotonin-transporters-contribute-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-mephedrone
#10
Alyssa F DeLarge, Laura L Erwin, Peter J Winsauer
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a constituent of the recreational substances known as "bath salts", is a synthetic cathinone that can produce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as problematic cardiovascular effects. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of mephedrone (0.32-10 mg/kg) with other prototypical drugs of abuse: cocaine (0.56-32 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.18-3.2 mg/kg), ketamine (1.8-18 mg/kg), phencyclidine (PCP, 1-5.6 mg/kg), heroin (1-10 mg/kg), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-DOI, 0...
April 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391178/mirtazapine-attenuates-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#11
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Phillipe Leff, Adriana Arías-Caballero, Ricardo Hernández-Miramontes, Gerardo Heinze, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. METHODS: We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386990/consistent-findings-in-glycaemic-control-body-weight-and-hypoglycaemia-with-iglarlixi-insulin-glargine-lixisenatide-titratable-fixed-ratio-combination-versus-insulin-glargine-across-baseline-hba1c-bmi-and-diabetes-duration-categories-in-the-lixilan-l-trial
#12
C Wysham, R C Bonadonna, V R Aroda, M Puig-Domingo, C Kapitza, W Stager, C Yu, E Niemoeller, E Souhami, R M Bergenstal
AIM: To assess the impact of baseline characteristics on clinical outcomes in the LixiLan-L trial, a randomized open-label trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of iGlarLixi, a novel fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U (iGlar) plus lixisenatide, in comparison with iGlar over 30 weeks in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled on a previous regimen of basal insulin alone or in combination with one or two oral glucose-lowering drugs...
April 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382821/biocompatible-shape-memory-blend-for-self-expandable-stents-with-potential-biomedical-applications
#13
Yu Zheng, Ying Li, Xue Hu, Jiabin Shen, Shaoyun Guo
Biocompatible poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC)/polycaprolactone (PCL) shape memory blends were fabricated using melt blending. The shape memory performance of these blends was found to depend remarkably on their components. On addition of 25 vol % PCL, one blend (PL-25) achieved an optimal shape-fixing ratio (Rf) and -recovery ratio (Rr). Specifically, its Rr considerably increased by 24.1 and 50.0% compared with those of pure PPC and PCL, respectively, because of the restricted irreversible deformation of the amorphous chains cross-linked by tiny crystals...
April 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375405/hot-topics-in-primary-care-titratable-fixed-ratio-combinations-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-focus-on-glp-1r-agonists-combined-with-basal-insulin
#14
REVIEW
James LaSalle, John R White
The treatment of hyperglycemia in patients without glycemic control despite metformin monotherapy is the focus of this article, with particular focus on the use of fixed-dose (FDC) and fixed-ratio combination products.
April 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371195/intratumoral-bidirectional-transitions-between-epithelial-and-mesenchymal-cells-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#15
Mizuki Yamamoto, Kota Sakane, Kana Tominaga, Noriko Gotoh, Takayoshi Niwa, Yasuko Kikuchi, Keiichiro Tada, Naoki Goshima, Kentaro Semba, Jun-Ichiro Inoue
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse process, MET, are crucial in several stages of cancer metastasis. EMT allows cancer cells to move to proximal blood vessels for intravasation. However, because EMT and MET processes are dynamic, mesenchymal cancer cells are likely to undergo MET transiently and subsequently re-undergo EMT to restart the metastatic process. Therefore, spatiotemporally-coordinated mutual regulation between EMT and MET could occur during metastasis. To elucidate such regulation, we chose HCC38, a human triple-negative breast cancer cell line, because HCC38 is composed of epithelial and mesenchymal populations at a fixed ratio even though mesenchymal cells proliferate significantly more slowly than epithelial cells...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365836/abuse-related-effects-of-subtype-selective-gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-in-an-assay-of-intracranial-self-stimulation-in-rats
#16
Kathryn L Schwienteck, Guanguan Li, Michael M Poe, James M Cook, Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
RATIONALE: GABAA positive allosteric modulators (GABAA PAMs), such as diazepam and zolpidem, are used clinically for anxiety and insomnia, but abuse liability is a concern. Novel GABAA PAMS may have lower abuse liability while retaining clinical utility. OBJECTIVE: The present study compared abuse-related effects of the non-selective GABAA PAM diazepam, the α1-selective GABAA PAM zolpidem, and three novel GABAA PAMs (JY-XHe-053, XHe-II-053, and HZ-166) using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats...
April 1, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361264/social-context-has-differential-effects-on-acquisition-of-nicotine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats
#17
Natalie A Peartree, Kayla N Hatch, Julianna G Goenaga, Nora R Dado, Hanna Molla, Martin A Dufwenberg, Allegra Campagna, Rachel Mendoza, Timothy H C Cheung, Joshua S Talboom, Janet L Neisewander
RATIONAL: Smoking typically begins during adolescence or early adulthood in a social context, yet the role of social context in animal models is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effect of social context on acquisition of nicotine self-administration. METHODS: Sixty-day-old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to press a lever for nicotine (0.015 mg/kg, IV) or saline infusions (males only) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule of reinforcement across nine sessions in duplex chambers that were conjoined with either a solid wall or a wall containing wire mesh creating a social context between rat dyads (social visual, auditory, and olfactory cues)...
March 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349716/fixed-ratio-combination-therapy-with-glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-and-insulin-degludec-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Lauge Østergaard, Christian Seerup Frandsen, Thomas Fremming Dejgaard, Sten Madsbad
A fixed combination of basal insulin degludec and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) liraglutide (IDegLira; 50 units degludec/1.8 mg liraglutide) has been developed as a once daily injection for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the phase 3a trial programme "Dual action of liraglutide and insulin degludec in type 2 diabetes" (DUAL™), five trials of 26 weeks duration and one trial of 32 weeks duration have evaluated the efficacy and safety of IDegLira compared with administration of insulin degludec, insulin glargine, liraglutide alone or placebo...
March 28, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349529/continuous-chest-compression-versus-interrupted-chest-compression-for-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-of-non-asphyxial-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#19
REVIEW
Lei Zhan, Li J Yang, Yu Huang, Qing He, Guan J Liu
BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of death worldwide. Cardiac arrest can be subdivided into asphyxial and non asphyxial etiologies. An asphyxia arrest is caused by lack of oxygen in the blood and occurs in drowning and choking victims and in other circumstances. A non asphyxial arrest is usually a loss of functioning cardiac electrical activity. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a well-established treatment for cardiac arrest. Conventional CPR includes both chest compressions and 'rescue breathing' such as mouth-to-mouth breathing...
March 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325801/insulin-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-combination-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
REVIEW
Maria Ida Maiorino, Paolo Chiodini, Giuseppe Bellastella, Annalisa Capuano, Katherine Esposito, Dario Giugliano
OBJECTIVE: The combination of basal insulin plus a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) has been proposed as a treatment option to intensify insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing this combination strategy to other injectable antidiabetes treatments on metabolic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an electronic search until November 2016 on many electronic databases to identify RCTs assessing changes in HbA1c, proportion of patients at HbA1c target ≤7% (53 mmol/mol), hypoglycemia, and weight change...
April 2017: Diabetes Care
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