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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741967/iglarlixi-a-titratable-once-daily-fixed-ratio-combination-of-basal-insulin-and-lixisenatide-for-intensifying-type-2-diabetes-management-for-patients-inadequately-controlled-on-basal-insulin-with-or-without-oral-agents
#1
Neil Skolnik, Renell S Dupree, Eric L Johnson
BACKGROUND: Achieving and maintaining glycemic control is important for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in order to reduce disease-related complications and mortality; however, about half of US patients fail to meet glycemic targets. iGlarLixi, a titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (iGlar) and lixisenatide for once-daily administration, was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in adults with T2D inadequately controlled on basal insulin (<60 U daily) or lixisenatide...
July 25, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736104/opioid-induced-constipation-relief-of-fixed-ratio-combination-prolonged-release-oxycodone-naloxone-compared-with-oxycodone-and-morphine-for-chronic-non-malignant-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
Lang Huang, Jian-Guo Zhou, Yu Zhang, Fei Wang, Yi Wang, Da-Hai Liu, Xin-Juan Li, Shui-Ping Lv, Su-Han Jin, Yu-Ju Bai, Hu Ma
BACKGROUND: Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is one of the most frequent and severe adverse events (AEs) following treatment with opioids. Recent studies have indicated that fixed-ratio combination prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone (OXN PR) could decrease OIC with similar pain relief compared with other opioids. OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed (PROSPERO registration numbers: CRD42016036244) the constipation relief of OXN PR compared with other opioids regardless of formulation, prolonged-release or extended-release used for the relief of chronic pain...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724438/synergy-between-dinotefuran-and-fipronil-against-the-cat-flea-ctenocephalides-felis-improved-onset-of-action-and-residual-speed-of-kill-in-adult-cats
#3
Romain Delcombel, Hamadi Karembe, Bakela Nare, Audrey Burton, Julian Liebenberg, Josephus Fourie, Marie Varloud
BACKGROUND: The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (C. felis), is a cosmopolitan hematophagous ectoparasite, and is considered to be the most prevalent flea species in both Europe and the USA. Clinical signs frequently associated with flea bites include pruritus, dermatitis and in severe cases even pyodermatitis and alopecia. Ctenocephalides felis is also a vector for several pathogens and is an intermediate host for the cestode Dipylidium caninum. Treatment of cats with a fast-acting pulicide, that is persistently effective in protecting the animal against re-infestation, is therefore imperative to their health...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721686/rationale-for-initiation-and-titration-of-the-basal-insulin-glp-1ra-fixed-ratio-combination-products-ideglira-and-iglarlixi-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Virginia Valentine, Jennifer Goldman, Jay H Shubrook
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease affecting glucose regulation and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many patients are not escalated up the treatment ladder appropriately despite failing to achieve glycemic control, with barriers such as fear of hypoglycemia, weight gain, and treatment burden recognized as factors. Exogenous basal insulin is titrated to address control of fasting plasma glucose and may preserve residual β-cell function, thus promoting a greater endogenous prandial insulin response...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716096/optimizing-reproducibility-of-operant-testing-through-reinforcer-standardization-identification-of-key-nutritional-constituents-determining-reward-strength-in-touchscreens
#5
Eun Woo Kim, Benjamin U Phillips, Christopher J Heath, So Yeon Cho, Hyunjeong Kim, Jemeen Sreedharan, Ho-Taek Song, Jong Eun Lee, Timothy J Bussey, Chul Hoon Kim, Eosu Kim, Lisa M Saksida
Reliable and reproducible assessment of animal learning and behavior is a central aim of basic and translational neuroscience research. Recent developments in automated operant chamber technology have led to the possibility of universal standard protocols, in addition to increased translational potential, reliability and accuracy. However, the impact of regional and national differences in the supplies of available reinforcers in this system on behavioural performance and inter-laboratory variability is an unknown and at present uncontrolled variable...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699272/aversive-functions-of-response-effort-fact-or-artifact
#6
Jonathan W Pinkston, Benjamin M Libman
Historically, effort has been viewed as aversive. Most supporting evidence comes from studies demonstrating increased force/effort requirements reduce operant responding. Changes in force/effort requirements, however, are often accompanied by changes in response definition when mechanical devices are used to define the response. As a consequence, responses measured at one point in a study may go unmeasured at other points. In an alternative approach, we used a continuous measurement strategy that provided a means to fix the threshold force defining the response class and simultaneously allowed independent manipulation of the force criteria required to produce reinforcement...
July 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686721/systemic-pd149163-a-neurotensin-receptor-1-agonist-decreases-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-dba-2j-mice-without-causing-excessive-sedation
#7
Amanda L Sharpe, Erika Varela, Michael J Beckstead
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant that exhibits significant abuse potential. Although METH addiction is a major health and societal concern, no drug is currently approved for its therapeutic management. METH activates the central dopaminergic "reward" circuitry, and with repeated use increases levels of the neuromodulatory peptide neurotensin in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Previous studies in rats suggest that neurotensin agonism decreases METH self-administration, but these studies did not examine the effect of neurotensin agonism on the pattern of self-administration or open field locomotion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674693/improving-the-prediction-of-total-surgical-procedure-time-using-linear-regression-modeling
#8
Eric R Edelman, Sander M J van Kuijk, Ankie E W Hamaekers, Marcel J M de Korte, Godefridus G van Merode, Wolfgang F F A Buhre
For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs), accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT) per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT) and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667587/insulin-glargine-lixisenatide-a-review-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
Lesley J Scott
Subcutaneous insulin glargine/lixisenatide (Suliqua™) is a titratable, fixed-ratio combination of a long-acting basal insulin analogue and a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist for the treatment of adult patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. Once-daily insulin glargine/lixisenatide, in combination with metformin, provided effective glycaemic control and was generally well tolerated in the 30-week, multinational, phase 3 LixiLan-O and LixiLan-L trials in insulin-naive and -experienced adult patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes...
June 30, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645216/iglarlixi-a-fixed-ratio-combination-of-insulin-glargine-100-u-ml-and-lixisenatide-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Jennifer Goldman, Jennifer M Trujillo
OBJECTIVE: To review the safety and efficacy of iGlarLixi, a titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (iGlar) and lixisenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE for all English-language primary articles through June 2016, using the terms LixiLan, iGlarLixi and insulin glargine and lixisenatide, and a search of abstracts presented at the 2016 Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association were performed...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645064/heroin-and-saccharin-demand-and-preference-in-rats
#11
Lindsay P Schwartz, Jung S Kim, Alan Silberberg, David N Kearns
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have investigated the choice between heroin and a non-drug alternative reinforcer in rats. A common finding in these studies is that there are large individual differences in preference, with some rats preferring heroin and some preferring the non-drug alternative. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether individual differences in how heroin or saccharin is valued, based on demand analysis, predicts choice. METHODS: Rats lever-pressed for heroin infusions and saccharin reinforcers on fixed-ratio schedules...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628816/are-calanco-landforms-similar-to-river-basins
#12
N A Caraballo-Arias, V Ferro
In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614590/chronic-ethanol-during-adolescence-impacts-corticolimbic-dendritic-spines-and-behavior
#13
Nicholas J Jury, Gabrielle A Pollack, Meredith J Ward, Jessica L Bezek, Alexandra J Ng, Courtney R Pinard, Hadley C Bergstrom, Andrew Holmes
BACKGROUND: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adulthood is linked to alcohol drinking during adolescence, but understanding of the neural and behavioral consequences of alcohol exposure during adolescence remains incomplete. Here, we examined the neurobehavioral impact of adolescent chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J-background Thy1-EGFP mice were CIE-exposed during adolescence or adulthood and examined, as adults, for alterations in the density and morphology of dendritic spines in infralimbic (IL) cortex, prelimbic (PL) cortex, and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
July 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601602/abstinence-environment-contributes-to-age-differences-in-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-between-adolescent-and-adult-male-rats
#14
Chen Li, Kyle J Frantz
RATIONALE: Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels...
July 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598863/characterization-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Michael D Berquist, Lisa E Baker
Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in the early 2000s prompted numerous scientific investigations of its behavioral and neurochemical effects. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the interoceptive stimulus effects of MDPV using a validated in-vivo drug-detection assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg MDPV from saline under a fixed ratio 20 (FR 20) schedule of food reinforcement. After stimulus control was established with MDPV (∼35 training sessions), substitution tests were commenced with drugs from several chemical classes, including drugs with predominantly dopaminergic actions [MDPV, D-amphetamine, (+)-methamphetamine, (-)-cocaine], drugs with predominantly serotonergic actions [(+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, (+)-fenfluramine], and drugs with both serotonergic and dopaminergic actions (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone)...
August 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589264/habitual-nicotine-seeking-in-rats-following-limited-training
#16
A Loughlin, D Funk, K Coen, A D Lê
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: A potential reason that cigarette smoking can persist despite multiple quit attempts is that repeated voluntary nicotine intake may facilitate a transition from goal-directed to habitual behavioral control. Although accelerated habit formation for self-administered ethanol or cocaine has been previously demonstrated, this phenomenon has not been extensively studied with nicotine. We therefore examined the liability of nicotine self-administration to become habitual, while also examining that of orally consumed saccharin as an experimental control...
June 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584928/effects-of-the-serotonin-2c-receptor-agonist-way163909-on-the-abuse-related-effects-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-neurochemistry-induced-by-abused-stimulants-in-rhesus-monkeys
#17
Laís F Berro, Maylen Perez Diaz, Eric Maltbie, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence shows that the serotonergic system plays a major role in psychostimulant abuse through its interactions with the dopaminergic system. Studies indicate that serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are one of the main classes of receptors involved in mediating the influence of serotonin in drug abuse. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the selective serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY163909 on the behavioral neuropharmacology of cocaine and methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques...
June 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581207/improving-postprandial-hyperglycemia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-already-on-basal-insulin-therapy-a-review-of-current-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Guillermo E Umpierrez, Timothy S Bailey, Danielle Carcia, Charles Shaefer, Jay H Shubrook, Neil Skolnik
A large number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on basal insulin do not reach their glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goals and require additional therapy to address postprandial hyperglycemia. Guidelines from expert bodies have outlined several approaches to accomplish post-prandial glucose (PPG) control, and recent literature suggests several more. This article provides strategies for primary care physicians caring for patients with T2D who do not achieve glycemic control with basal insulin alone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555315/differential-efficacies-of-the-nicotinic-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-desensitizing-agents-in-reducing-nicotine-self-administration-in-female-rats
#19
Amir H Rezvani, Susan Slade, Corinne Wells, Venkata M Yenugonda, Yong Liu, Milton L Brown, Yingxian Xiao, Kenneth J Kellar, Edward D Levin
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Desensitization of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors holds promise as an effective treatment of tobacco addiction. Previously, we found that sazetidine-A (Saz-A), which selectively desensitizes α4β2 nicotinic receptors, significantly decreased intravenous (IV) nicotine self-administration (SA) in rats with an effective dose of 3 mg/kg in acute and repeated injection studies. We also found that chronic infusions of Saz-A at doses of 2 and 6 mg/kg/day significantly reduced nicotine SA in rats...
May 29, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542848/change-of-transfusion-and-treatment-paradigm-in-major-trauma-patients
#20
P Stein, A Kaserer, K Sprengel, G A Wanner, B Seifert, O M Theusinger, D R Spahn
Trauma promotes trauma-induced coagulopathy, which requires urgent treatment with fixed-ratio transfusions of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates, or goal-directed administration of coagulation factors based on viscoelastic testing. This retrospective observational study compared two time periods before (2005-2007) and after (2012-2014) the implementation of changes in trauma management protocols which included: use of goal-directed coagulation management; admission of patients to designated trauma centres; whole-body computed tomography scanning on admission; damage control surgery; permissive hypotension; restrictive fluid resuscitation; and administration of tranexamic acid...
May 23, 2017: Anaesthesia
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