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Debbie Hinnen, Jodi Strong
Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes require treatment intensification to maintain glycemic control. Clinician reluctance, patient injection fears, hypoglycemia, weight gain, or other objections may lead to clinical inertia, whereby therapy is not intensified and patients live with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and increased risk for complications. Initiation of injectable therapy with a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist and/or basal insulin is a recommended option for patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on one or more oral agents...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Isaac W Howley, Elliott R Haut, Lenwoth Jacobs, Jonathan J Morrison, Thomas M Scalea
Thomboelastography (TEG) is a whole blood measure of coagulation which was originally described in the 1950s. However, it has only been in the last few decades that assays have become accessible and viable as a point-of-care test. Following the observation that hemorrhagic shock is associated with an intrinsic coagulopathy, TEG has been used as a method of diagnosing specific coagulation defects in order to direct individualized blood products resuscitation. An alternative transfusion strategy is the administration of fixed ratio products, a paradigm borne out of military experience...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
Rupesh Ranjan, Erik M Valez, Anshul Haldipur, Nelson B Schiller
Measurement of left ventricular outflow tract velocity-time integral (LVOT VTI) is technician-, instrument-, and reader-dependent; variability is more common for pulsed-wave Doppler than continuous-wave Doppler. We hypothesize that in a population with normal cardiac structure and function, LVOT VTI is higher than VTI of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) and this relation may be used clinically to validate the former. Furthermore, the DTA VTI could also be used to estimate LVOT. We retrospectively compared the LVOT VTI against VTI measured from DTA, abdominal aorta, and pulmonary artery among 108 healthy subjects...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Maria Ida Maiorino, Paolo Chiodini, Giuseppe Bellastella, Lorenzo Scappaticcio, Miriam Longo, Katherine Esposito, Dario Giugliano
We provide a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing free or fixed combination of a GLP-1RA plus basal insulin versus insulin intensification on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched electronic databases for RCTs assessing changes in HbA1c, proportion of patients at HbA1c target of <7% (53 mmol/mol), hypoglycaemia, and weight change. We used a random-effect model to calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD) or relative risk (RR) with the 95% CI. We identified 11 RCTs, lasting 24-30 weeks, and involving 6176 patients...
May 7, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Laxmi Bhatta, Linda Leivseth, Xiao-Mei Mai, Yue Chen, Anne Hildur Henriksen, Arnulf Langhammer, Ben Michael Brumpton
BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality across the world and new estimates of prevalence and trend are of great importance. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and trend of COPD from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008 in Norwegian adults ≥40 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: COPD was assessed using a fixed-ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry was performed during 1995-1997 (n = 7158) and 2006-2008 (n = 8788)...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Brooke E Schmeichel, Alessandra Matzeu, Pascale Koebel, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Harpreet Sidhu, Roxana Shahryari, Brigitte L Kieffer, George F Koob, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Candice Contet
The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuropeptide system regulates feeding, arousal state, stress responses, and reward, especially under conditions of enhanced motivational relevance. In particular, HCRT neurotransmission facilitates drug-seeking behavior in circumstances that demand increased effort and/or motivation to take the drug. The present study used a shRNA-encoding adeno-associated viral vector to knockdown Hcrt expression throughout the dorsal hypothalamus in adult rats and determine the role of HCRT in cocaine self-administration...
April 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
P-R Burgel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Neil Skolnik, Debbie Hinnen, Yan Kiriakov, Melissa L Magwire, John R White
IN BRIEF Titratable fixed-ratio combinations (FRCs) of a basal insulin and a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist are new therapeutic options for people with type 2 diabetes. Two FRCs-insulin degludec/liraglutide and insulin glargine/lixisenatide-have been approved for use in the United States. The two components in these FRCs target different aspects of diabetes pathophysiology, working in a complementary manner to decrease blood glucose while mitigating the side effects associated with each component (hypoglycemia and weight gain with insulin and gastrointestinal side effects with GLP-1 receptor agonists)...
April 2018: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Mahmoud A Hussein, Reda M El-Shishtawy, Khalid A Alamry, Abdullah M Asiri, Saleh A Mohamed
Pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), contaminate water resources and are the main causes of diseases, not just waterborne diseases. The present study aims to fabricate hybrid materials composed of polyaniline (PANI), graphene nanosheets (GNs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and utilize the materials for water disinfection. Thus, a new class of hybrid nanocomposites (PANI/GN/CNTsa-e ) was fabricated under ultrasonic conditions following a well-known in situ oxidative polymerization technique in an aqueous acidic solution...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
Rose-Marie Karlsson, Alice S Wang, Anup N Sonti, Heather A Cameron
Decreased motivation to seek rewards is a key feature of mood disorders that correlates with severity and treatment outcome. This anhedonia, or apathy, likely reflects impairment in reward circuitry, but the specific neuronal populations controlling motivation are unclear. Granule neurons generated in the adult hippocampus have been implicated in mood disorders, but are not generally considered as part of reward circuits. We investigated a possible role of these new neurons in motivation to work for food and sucrose rewards in operant conditioning tasks using GFAP-TK pharmacogenetic ablation of adult neurogenesis in both rats and mice...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
Noemí SanMiguel, Marta Pardo, Carla Carratalá-Ros, Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Motivated behavior is characterized by activation and high work output. Nucleus accumbens (Nacb) modulates behavioral activation and effort-based decision-making. Caffeine is widely consumed because of its energizing properties. This methylxanthine is a non-selective adenosine A1 /A2A receptor antagonist. Adenosine receptors are highly concentrated in Nacb. Adenosine agonists injected into Nacb, shift preference towards low effort alternatives. The present studies characterized effort-related effects of caffeine in a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/free reinforcer choice procedure that requires high levels of work output, and generates great variability among different animals...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Nancy W Shappell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a common vertebrate animal model in biomedical research and is a promising species for studying how genes interact with environmental factors in determining behavior. The present study investigated how reinforcement parameters affect zebrafish behavior by assessing response acquisition with delayed reinforcement, which has been studied with other species (e.g., rats, pigeons, humans, etc.) but not with zebrafish. Twenty-four experimentally naïve subjects were exposed to a tandem fixed-ratio 1 differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior x-s schedule of reinforcement, where x varied across subjects...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Maria W Kondrat-Wróbel, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a serious neurological disease affecting about 1% of people worldwide (65 million). Seizures are controllable with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in about 70% of epilepsy patients, however, there remains about 30% of patients inadequately medicated with these AEDs, who need a satisfactory control of their seizure attacks. For these patients, one of the treatment options is administration of 2 or 3 AEDs in combination. OBJECTIVES: To determine the anticonvulsant effects of a combination of 3 selected AEDs (i...
March 28, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Lewis J Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Christina Pedersen, Stephan D Bouman, Trine Porsgaard, Mette M Rosenkilde, Nikolaj K Roed
The current available insulin therapies decrease blood glucose but are associated with the risk of developing hypoglycemia. Glucagon is a counter regulatory hormone and we hypothesize that a fixed ratio of insulin and a long-acting glucagon-analogue can reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. To define an appropriate ratio we tested two fixed glucagon doses (3.5 and 10 nmol/kg) in combination with increasing doses of insulin in diabetic rats. We observed a plateau in blood glucose at 15.2 mmol/L with 10 nmol/kg of the glucagon-analogue...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is the major psychoactive component of tobacco. A number of pharmacological therapies have been evaluated, with poor results. Given the lack of success of these therapies, several authors have proposed alternative therapeutic strategies. One of these is the use of antidepressant drugs that may have a specific effect on the neural pathways or receptors underlying nicotine addiction. Mirtazapine is an antagonist of α2 NE receptors (noradrenergic receptor), 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT3 receptors and has demonstrated efficacy in reducing behavioral effects induced by drugs of abuse in human and animal models...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Stephen L Cowen, Caroline E Phelps, Edita Navratilova, David L McKinzie, Alec Okun, Omar Husain, Scott D Gleason, Jeffrey M Witkin, Frank Porreca
Cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt behavior to changing outcomes, is critical for survival. The prefrontal cortex is a key site of cognitive control and chronic pain is known to lead to significant morphological changes to this brain region. Nevertheless, the effects of chronic pain on cognitive flexibility and learning remain uncertain. We used an instrumental paradigm to assess adaptive learning in an experimental model of chronic pain induced by tight ligation of the spinal nerves L5/6 (SNL model)...
March 22, 2018: Pain
Andrew R Abela, Zhaoxia Li, Anh D Lê, Paul J Fletcher
People with schizophrenia display significantly higher rates of smoking than the general population, which may be due to an interaction between nicotine and antipsychotic medication. While the conventional antipsychotic drug haloperidol sometimes increases cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenia, there is some evidence suggesting that clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, may reduce nicotine use in these patients. However, the effects of antipsychotic drugs like clozapine on aspects of nicotine self-administration and reinstatement have not been systematically examined...
March 25, 2018: Addiction Biology
Jerry Meece
As the number of people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) continues to rise, managing their complex needs presents an increasing challenge to physicians. While treatment guidelines provide evidence-based guidance, they are not prescriptive-rather they emphasize individualization of management based on a patient's clinical needs and preferences. Physicians, therefore, need to be fully aware of the advantages and disadvantages of the multiple and increasing treatment options available to them at each stage of the disease...
March 24, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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