Read by QxMD icon Read


Sarah J Ronaldson, Lisa Dyson, Laura Clark, Catherine E Hewitt, David J Torgerson, Brendan G Cooper, Matt Kearney, William Laughey, Raghu Raghunath, Lisa Steele, Rebecca Rhodes, Joy Adamson
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Early identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in patients receiving appropriate management for their condition at an earlier stage in their disease. The determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) study was a case-finding study to enhance early identification of COPD in primary care, which evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a series of simple lung function tests and symptom-based case-finding questionnaires...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mariana I Castillo, Iser G DeLeon
Predictions made under low response requirements inherent in most preference assessments (PAs) do not guarantee the utility of stimuli in treatments. We examined whether PA rank would predict how well stimuli supported compliance for children with escape-maintained problem behavior by examining the relation between PA rank and demand elasticity across five fixed-ratio values. Three patterns were observed: All stimuli were selected equally across values, higher ranked stimuli were selected more at higher values, and something other than the highest ranked stimulus was selected more at higher values (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Calyn B Maske, Gregory C Loney, Nicole Lilly, Sarah J Terrill, Diana L Williams
The idea that gut-derived satiation signals influence food reward has recently gained traction, but this hypothesis is largely based on studies focused on neural circuitry, not the peripherally released signals. Here, we directly tested the hypothesis that intragastric (IG) nutrient infusion can suppress motivation for food. In a series of experiments, IG sucrose infusion (15 kcal) significantly and reliably reduced operant responding for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Moreover, food deprivation for 24 h before the test session did not prevent the suppressive effect of nutrients...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chih-Hsien Lai, Yi-Siang Yeh, Chih-An Yeh, Yu-Kun Wang
We numerically investigate the transmission of the antiresonant-reflection-based terahertz (THz) pipe waveguide in which the cladding layer is very thin or the cladding index is close to one. It is found that robustness of the waveguide confinement is maintained when the cladding thickness is small, while the guiding ability deteriorates when the cladding index approaches to one. Hence, to increase the effective bandwidth of the pipe waveguide, reducing the cladding thickness is more desirable. Moreover, we also examine the effective bandwidth under the condition that the pipe waveguide is subject to a fixed ratio of core diameter to cladding thickness...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Ian Blumer, Jeremy H Pettus, Tricia Santos Cavaiola
Many individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) will eventually require insulin therapy to help achieve and maintain adequate glycemic control. However, the use of insulin can be associated with adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain, and in some patients the addition of insulin to treatment regimens is often still insufficient to achieve target glycemic control. Combining basal insulin with a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) for the treatment of patients with T2D has been demonstrated to be effective and well tolerated, while mitigating many of the adverse events associated with giving either of these drug classes alone...
March 9, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Wesley Nuffer, Ashley Guesnier, Jennifer M Trujillo
There have been several new treatment approaches established for the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D), with treatment guidelines listing both glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and basal insulin therapies as considerations for patients who have failed to control their blood glucose with oral antidiabetic agents. New studies have highlighted the importance of initiating combination therapy earlier in the T2D disease process to avoid clinical inertia and prevent the long-term complications arising from uncontrolled diabetes...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Steven J Nieto, Cana B Quave, Therese A Kosten
BACKGROUND: The mu-opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), is a FDA-approved treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD); however, the data on whether it differentially affects males vs. females are mixed. NTX increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity that associates with subjective responses to alcohol and craving in individuals with AUD. The present study tested for sex differences in the ability of NTX to decrease appetitive and consummatory behaviors in rats in operant alcohol self-administration...
February 24, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Liana K Billings, Ankur Doshi, Didier Gouet, Alejandra Oviedo, Helena W Rodbard, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Randi Grøn, Natalie Halladin, Esteban Jodar
OBJECTIVE: In patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on basal insulin, prandial insulin may be initiated. We assessed the efficacy and safety of initiating insulin degludec/liraglutide fixed-ratio combination (IDegLira) versus basal-bolus insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A phase 3b trial examined patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on insulin glargine (IGlar U100) 20-50 units/day and metformin, randomized to IDegLira or IGlar U100 and insulin aspart four or fewer times per day...
February 26, 2018: Diabetes Care
M E Trautmann, J Vora
As Type 2 diabetes progresses, treatment is intensified with additional therapies in an effort to manage hyperglycaemia effectively and therefore avoid complications. When greater efficacy is required, options for injectable treatments include glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and insulin, which may be added on to oral glucose-lowering treatments. Among individuals receiving long-acting basal insulin as their first injectable treatment, ~40-60% are unable to achieve or maintain their target HbA1c goals...
February 25, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Sarah Eggert, Esther Zimmermann, Kamilla Begtrup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Yunus Çolak, Shoaib Afzal, Børge G Nordestgaard, Jørgen Vestbo, Peter Lange
A presumed consequence of using a fixed ratio for the definition of airflow limitation (AFL) has been overdiagnosis among older and underdiagnosis among younger individuals. However, the prognosis of younger individuals with potentially underdiagnosed airflow limitation is poorly described. We hypothesised that potential underdiagnosis of AFL at younger age is associated with poor prognosis.We assigned 95 288 participants aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study into: individuals without AFL with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC)≥0...
February 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Åsa Ericsson, Divina Glah, Maria Lorenzi, Jeroen P Jansen, Adam Fridhammar
BACKGROUND: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists liraglutide 1.8 mg and lixisenatide 20 μg (both added to basal insulin) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Sweden. METHODS: The Swedish Institute for Health Economics cohort model for T2D was used to compare liraglutide and lixisenatide (both added to basal insulin), with a societal perspective and with comparative treatment effects derived by indirect treatment comparison (ITC)...
2018: PloS One
Mark A Smith, Gaylen E Fronk, Jean M Abel, Ryan T Lacy, Sarah E Bills, Wendy J Lynch
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies consistently report that aerobic exercise decreases drug self-administration and other forms of drug-seeking behavior; however, relatively few studies have examined other types of physical activity. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resistance exercise (i.e., strength training) on heroin self-administration and mRNA expression of genes known to mediate opioid reinforcement and addictive behavior in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of heroin-exposed rats...
February 2, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Shawn Minnig, Robert M Bragg, Hardeep S Tiwana, Wes T Solem, William S Hovander, Eva-Mari S Vik, Madeline Hamilton, Samuel R W Legg, Dominic D Shuttleworth, Sydney R Coffey, Jeffrey P Cantle, Jeffrey B Carroll
Apathy is one of the most prevalent and progressive psychiatric symptoms in Huntington's disease (HD) patients. However, preclinical work in HD mouse models tends to focus on molecular and motor, rather than affective, phenotypes. Measuring behavior in mice often produces noisy data and requires large cohorts to detect phenotypic rescue with appropriate power. The operant equipment necessary for measuring affective phenotypes is typically expensive, proprietary to commercial entities, and bulky which can render adequately sized mouse cohorts as cost-prohibitive...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kelsey R Lloyd, Sarah K Yaghoubi, Ryan A Makinson, Sarah E McKee, Teresa M Reyes
Operant behavior tasks are widely used in neuroscience research, but little is known about how variables such as housing and testing conditions affect rodent operant performance. We have previously observed differences in operant performance in male and female mice depending on whether mice were housed and tested in rooms containing only one sex versus rooms containing both sexes. Here, male and female mice in either single-sex or mixed sex housing rooms were trained on fixed ratio 1 (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR) tasks...
January 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Benfu Wang, Kun Lv, Huifeng Liu, Yin Su, Hong Wang, Sicong Wang, Suhao Bao, Wen-Hua Zhou, Qing-Quan Lian
Propofol as an agonist of GABAA receptor has a rewarding and discriminative stimulus effect. However, which subtype of the GABAA receptor is involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of propofol is still not clear. We observed the effects of an agonist or an antagonist of the subtype-selective GABAA receptor on discriminative stimulus effects of propofol. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg (intraperitoneal) propofol from intralipid under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food reinforcement...
January 24, 2018: Neuroreport
Igor V Zatovsky, Nataliia Yu Strutynska, Yuriy A Hizhnyi, Vyacheslav N Baumer, Ivan V Ogorodnyk, Nikolay S Slobodyanik, Ievgen V Odynets, N I Klyui
Herein, the peculiarities of complex phosphate formation in self-fluxes of Cs-MII-Bi-P-O (MII = Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb) systems with Cs/P = 0.7-1.3 at fixed ratios of Bi/P = 0.2 and Bi/MII = 1.0 were studied and discussed. Three novel isostructural diphosphates with the general composition Cs3MIIBi(P2O7)2 (MII = Ca, Sr and Pb) and the original framework topology were synthesized and characterized via single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, DTA, and FTIR- and UV-VIS-spectroscopy. In addition, electronic structure (DFT) and Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra (VDP) characteristics calculations and crystallochemical analysis were performed...
January 24, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Nicholas A Everett, Iain S McGregor, Sarah J Baracz, Jennifer L Cornish
The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise as an effective therapy in pre-clinical models of methamphetamine (METH) addiction. The nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) has been identified as an important site for oxytocin to inhibit METH behaviours, although previous findings suggest that the effects of oxytocin in the NAcc are mediated by receptors other than the oxytocin receptor (OTR). Oxytocin has high affinity for the vasopressin V1A receptor (V1AR) which has been implicated in numerous oxytocin-dependent social behaviours...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Arnold Donkor Forkuo, Charles Ansah, Kwesi Boadu Mensah, Kofi Annan, Ben Gyan, Anjo Theron, Dalu Mancama, Colin W Wright
BACKGROUND: Discovery of novel gametocytocidal molecules is a major pharmacological strategy in the elimination and eradication of malaria. The high patronage of the aqueous root extract of the popular West African anti-malarial plant Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Periplocaceae) in traditional and hospital settings in Ghana has directed this study investigating the gametocytocidal activity of the plant and its major alkaloid, cryptolepine. This study also investigates the anti-malarial interaction of cryptolepine with standard anti-malarials, as the search for new anti-malarial combinations continues...
December 28, 2017: Malaria Journal
Kevin Stoll, Rachel Hart, Craig W Lindsley, Morgane Thomsen
RATIONALE: Stimulating muscarinic M1/M4 receptors can blunt reinforcing and other effects of cocaine. A hallmark of addiction is continued drug seeking/craving after abstinence and relapse. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether stimulating M1 and/or M4 receptors could facilitate extinction of cocaine seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. METHODS: Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement...
December 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"