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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282057/in-vitro-anti-malarial-interaction-and-gametocytocidal-activity-of-cryptolepine
#1
Arnold Donkor Forkuo, Charles Ansah, Kwesi Boadu Mensah, Kofi Annan, Ben Gyan, Anjo Theron, Dalu Mancama, Colin W Wright
BACKGROUND: Discovery of novel gametocytocidal molecules is a major pharmacological strategy in the elimination and eradication of malaria. The high patronage of the aqueous root extract of the popular West African anti-malarial plant Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Periplocaceae) in traditional and hospital settings in Ghana has directed this study investigating the gametocytocidal activity of the plant and its major alkaloid, cryptolepine. This study also investigates the anti-malarial interaction of cryptolepine with standard anti-malarials, as the search for new anti-malarial combinations continues...
December 28, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250738/effects-of-muscarinic-m1-and-m4-acetylcholine-receptor-stimulation-on-extinction-and-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-male-mice-independent-of-extinction-learning
#2
Kevin Stoll, Rachel Hart, Craig W Lindsley, Morgane Thomsen
RATIONALE: Stimulating muscarinic M1/M4 receptors can blunt reinforcing and other effects of cocaine. A hallmark of addiction is continued drug seeking/craving after abstinence and relapse. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether stimulating M1 and/or M4 receptors could facilitate extinction of cocaine seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. METHODS: Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement...
December 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250530/the-impact-of-different-spirometric-definitions-on-the-prevalence-of-airway-obstruction-and-their-association-with-respiratory-symptoms
#3
Howraman Meteran, Martin R Miller, Simon Francis Thomsen, Kaare Christensen, Torben Sigsgaard, Vibeke Backer
The fixed ratio criterion of forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <0.70 for diagnosing airway obstruction may overdiagnose the condition, particularly in the elderly, so the lower limit of normal (LLN) is recommended as the most appropriate criterion. Our aim was to compare LLN versus fixed ratio on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and examine the association between respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction defined by LLN and fixed ratio. 12 449 twins aged 40-80 years participated in a nationwide survey using the Danish Twin Registry...
October 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248527/inhibiting-mesolimbic-dopamine-neurons-reduces-the-initiation-and-maintenance-of-instrumental-responding
#4
Sarah Fischbach-Weiss, Rebecca M Reese, Patricia H Janak
Mesolimbic dopamine perturbations modulate performance of reward-seeking behavior, with tasks requiring high effort being especially vulnerable to disruption of dopamine signaling. Previous work primarily investigated longer-term perturbations such as receptor antagonism and dopamine depletion, which constrain the ability to assess dopamine contributions to effort expenditure in isolation from other behavior events, such as reward consumption. Also unclear is if dopamine is required for both initiation and maintenance when a sequence of multiple instrumental responses is required...
December 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228947/estimating-prevalence-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-the-southern-cone-of-latin-america-how-different-spirometric-criteria-may-affect-disease-burden-and-health-policies
#5
Edgardo Sobrino, Vilma E Irazola, Laura Gutierrez, Chung-Shiuan Chen, Fernando Lanas, Matías Calandrelli, Jacqueline Ponzo, Nora Mores, Pamela Serón, Allison Lee, Jiang He, Adolfo L Rubinstein
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The study aimed to determine and compare the prevalence of COPD in the general population aged 45-74 years old according to fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) thresholds in four cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America. METHODS: The Pulmonary Risk in South America (PRISA) study used a 4-stage stratified sampling method to select 5814 participants from 4 cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay)...
December 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205856/use-and-effectiveness-of-a-fixed-ratio-combination-of-insulin-degludec-liraglutide-ideglira-in-a-real-world-population-with-type-2-diabetes-results-from-a-european-multicentre-retrospective-chart-review-study
#6
Hermione Price, Matthias Blüher, Rudolf Prager, Tra-Mi Phan, Brian Larsen Thorsted, Bernd Schultes
AIMS: EXTRA aimed to describe real-world use and effectiveness of IDegLira, a fixed-ratio combination of the basal insulin degludec, and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) liraglutide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This European, multicentre, retrospective chart review comprised adults (n=611) with type 2 diabetes, who started IDegLira ≥6 months before data collection. Clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline (defined as the most recent recording during the 6 months before the first IDegLira prescription) and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (± 45 days for each time point) after commencing IDegLira, where data available...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203575/chronic-%C3%AE-9-thc-in-rhesus-monkeys-effects-on-cognitive-performance-and-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability
#7
William S John, Thomas J Martin, Kiran K Solingapuram Sai, Susan H Nader, H D Gage, Akiva Mintz, Michael A Nader
Cannabis-related impairments to cognitive function may represent novel therapeutic targets for cannabis-use disorder, although the nature, persistence, and reversibility of those deficits remain unclear. Adult male rhesus monkeys (N=6) responded in the mornings on tasks designed to assess different cognitive domains using CANTAB touchscreens followed by responding maintained under a fixed-ratio (FR) 10 schedule of food presentation in different operant chambers. First, the acute effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 0...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197983/reduced-sensitivity-to-reinforcement-in-adolescent-compared-to-adult-sprague-dawley-rats-of-both-sexes
#8
Emily R Hankosky, Sara R Westbrook, Rachel M Haake, Michela Marinelli, Joshua M Gulley
RATIONALE: Adolescence is a period of considerable development of brain and behavior and is the time during which most drug use is initiated. OBJECTIVE: Age-dependent differences in motivated behaviors may be one of the factors that contribute to heightened vulnerability to developing substance use disorders, so we sought to compare age differences in methamphetamine (METH) and saccharin seeking. METHODS: Beginning during adolescence or adulthood, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer 0...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180970/cebranopadol-a-mixed-opioid-agonist-reduces-cocaine-self-administration-through-nociceptin-opioid-and-mu-opioid-receptors
#9
Qianwei Shen, Yulin Deng, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Nazzareno Cannella
Cocaine addiction is a widespread psychiatric condition still waiting for approved efficacious medications. Previous studies suggested that simultaneous activation of nociceptin opioid (NOP) and mu opioid (MOP) receptors could be a successful strategy to treat cocaine addiction, but the paucity of molecules co-activating both receptors with comparable potency has hampered this line of research. Cebranopadol is a non-selective opioid agonist that at nanomolar concentration activates both NOP and MOP receptors and that recently reached phase-III clinical trials for cancer pain treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145345/the-role-of-sativex-in-robotic-rehabilitation-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-rationale-study-design-and-methodology
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Margherita Russo, Vincenzo Dattola, Anna Lisa Logiudice, Rosella Ciurleo, Edoardo Sessa, Rosaria De Luca, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
INTRODUCTION: Currently, none of the available multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying medications has been shown to stop or reverse gait disability. Recently, the nabiximols has been tested for the treatment of spasticity and walking impairment in MS. Nabiximols (trade name Sativex) is an oromucosal spray formulation containing 1:1 fixed ratio of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol derived from cloned Cannabis sativa L. plant. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: A single-center, prospective, parallel design, single-blind trial will be conducted at the IRCCS Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo" (Italy) involving MS patients affected by spasticity and undergoing a Robotic Rehabilitation training...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143919/iglarlixi-reduces-glycated-hemoglobin-to-a-greater-extent-than-basal-insulin-regardless-of-levels-at-screening-post-hoc-analysis-of-lixilan-l
#11
Elisabeth Niemoeller, Elisabeth Souhami, Yujun Wu, Klaus H Jensen
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on basal insulin and oral glucose-lowering drugs was investigated previously in the LixiLan-L trial. In the LixiLan-L trial, patients experienced a 6-week run-in with insulin glargine U100 (iGlar) as part of the screening phase, followed by treatment with a fixed-ratio combination of iGlar + lixisenatide (iGlarLixi) or iGlar alone over 30 weeks. In the study reported here, we investigated the achievement of glycemic control in those who completed the 30-week LixiLan-L trial, as assessed by change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels from screening, both for the overall category and for screening HbA1c subcategories...
November 16, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139112/the-effects-of-reinforcer-magnitude-in-the-preceding-and-upcoming-ratios-on-between-ratio-pausing-in-multiple-mixed-and-single-fixed-ratio-schedules
#12
Rachel Young, T Mary Foster, Lewis A Bizo
Hens responded under multiple fixed-ratio schedules with equal response requirements and either a 1-s or a 6-s reinforcer. Upcoming reinforcer size was indicated by key color. Components were presented in a quasirandom series so that all four component transitions occurred. Postreinforcement pauses were affected by the upcoming and preceding reinforcer size, with longer pauses after large reinforcers followed by small reinforcers than when followed by large ones, and longer pauses after small reinforcers that were followed by small reinforcers rather than large ones...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120215/about-bouts-a-heterogeneous-tandem-schedule-of-reinforcement-reveals-dissociable-components-of-operant-behavior-in-fischer-rats
#13
Carter W Daniels, Federico Sanabria
According to the biexponential refractory model (BERM) of variable-interval (VI) performance, operant behavior is organized in bouts, described by 3 dissociable components: between-bout interresponse times (IRTs), within-bout IRTs, and bout lengths. Research has shown that between-bout IRTs are sensitive to changes in rate of reinforcement and reinforcer efficacy, the length of some bouts is selectively sensitive to changes in response-reinforcer contingencies, and within-bout IRTs are relatively insensitive to both manipulations...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109615/fixed-ratio-combinations
#14
Emmeline Tran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100991/cue-induced-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior-is-associated-with-increased-camkii-t286-phosphorylation-in-the-reward-pathway-of-mice
#15
Michael C Salling, Christopher J Hodge, Kelly E Psilos, Vallari R Eastman, Sara P Faccidomo, Clyde W Hodge
Cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking is a hallmark behavioral pathology of addiction. Evidence suggests that reinstatement (e.g., relapse), may be regulated by cell signaling systems that underlie neuroplasticity. A variety of plasticity events require activation of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in components of the reward pathway, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. We sought to determine if cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior is associated with changes in the activation state (e...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053134/-conversion-ratio-between-different-botulinum-neuroprotein-product-in-neurological-practice
#16
O R Orlova, S L Timerbaeva, S E Khatkova, E V Kostenko, D A Krasavina, D V Zakharov
Despite nearly 30 years of experience in the application of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) in clinical practice, many fundamental questions of therapy remain valid. There are 5 botulinum toxin type A used for neurological indications in the Russian Federation in 2017. They contain different number of active neuroprotein (150 kDa) in a therapeutic dose of the drug that may have a potential impact on the efficacy and duration of action. The current SmPC of each BTA stated that the unit of activity is unique and can not be compared with any other BTA...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048188/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-d-amphetamine-self-administration-following-nicotine-exposure
#17
Dustin J Stairs, Sarah E Ewin, Megan M Kangiser, Markus N Pfaff
Adolescent nicotine exposure has been shown to lead to further psychostimulant use in adulthood. Previous preclinical research in rats has shown that environmental enrichment may protect against drug abuse vulnerability. The current study was designed to examine whether environmental enrichment can block the ability of adolescent nicotine exposure to increase d-amphetamine self-administration in adulthood. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in either enriched conditions (ECs) or isolated conditions (ICs) and then injected with saline or nicotine (0...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044937/selective-inhibition-of-m5-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-attenuates-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#18
Barak W Gunter, Robert W Gould, Michael Bubser, Kevin M McGowan, Craig W Lindsley, Carrie K Jones
Cocaine use disorder (CUD) remains a debilitating health problem in the United States for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment options. Accumulating anatomical and electrophysiological evidence indicates that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype 5 (M5 ) plays a critical role in the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry, a major site of action for cocaine and other psychostimulants. In addition, M5 knockout mice exhibit reduced cocaine self-administration behaviors with no differences in sugar pellet-maintained responding relative to wild-type mice...
October 18, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040827/effects-of-lorcaserin-belviq-%C3%A2-on-nicotine-and-food-maintained-responding-in-non-human-primates
#19
David S Jacobs, Claire E Barkin, Michelle R Kohut, Jack Bergman, Stephen J Kohut
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that the FDA-approved serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist, lorcaserin (Belviq(®)), may be a promising candidate for the management of substance use disorders, including nicotine addiction. The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy and selectivity of acute or continuous lorcaserin treatment for decreasing the reinforcing effects of nicotine in a primate species. METHODS: Adult rhesus monkeys (n=4) with a history of nicotine self-administration (>2years) responded for injections of nicotine (0...
October 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037802/the-impact-of-inoculum-size-on-the-activity-of-cefoperazone-sulbactam-against-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#20
Ping-Chin Chang, Chi-Chung Chen, Ying Chen Lu, Chih-Cheng Lai, Hui-Ling Huang, Yin-Ching Chuang, Hung-Jen Tang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the in vitro activity of cefoperazone alone and different cefoperazone-sulbactam ratios against different inoculum sizes of multidrug resistant organisms. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam at fixed ratio of 1:1 and 2:1 against a normal inoculum size of 5 × 10(5) CFU/ml and a high inoculum size of 5 × 10(7) CFU/ml were measured. RESULTS: Each 33 isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichiacoli, ESBL-producing Klebsiellapneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant E...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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