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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458113/poorer-positive-affect-in-response-to-self-paced-exercise-among-the-obese
#1
Hassan M Elsangedy, Paulo H D Nascimento, Daniel G S Machado, Kleverton Krinski, Sarah J Hardcastle, Sérgio G DaSilva
We aimed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and affective response, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and physiological responses during self-paced exercise. Sixty-six women were divided into three groups accordingly with the BMI: obese (n = 22: 33.5 ± 8.5 yr; 34.9 ± 4.1 kg∙m-2 ), overweight (n = 22: 34.8 ± 8.6 yr; 26.4 ± 1.3 kg∙m-2 ), and normal-weight (n = 22: 30.8 ± 9.3 yr; 22.0 ± 1.6 kg∙m-2 ). They underwent a graded exercise test and a 20-min self-paced walking session on a treadmill...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458053/circulating-bile-acids-in-healthy-adults-respond-differently-to-a-dietary-pattern-characterized-by-whole-grains-legumes-and-fruits-and-vegetables-compared-to-a-diet-high-in-refined-grains-and-added-sugars-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-feeding-study
#2
Bigina N R Ginos, Sandi L Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Dongfang Wang, Timothy W Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Meredith A J Hullar, Paul D Lampe, Mario Kratz, Marian L Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W Lampe
OBJECTIVE: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18...
February 16, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457826/prevalence-of-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-professional-male-long-distance-bus-drivers-in-lagos-south-west-nigeria-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Casmir E Amadi, Tim P Grove, Amam C Mbakwem, Obianuju B Ozoh, Oyewole A Kushimo, David A Wood, Michael Akinkunmi
BACKGROUND: Professional drivers are known to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was carried out to highlight these risk factors and their predictors among male long-distance professional bus drivers in Lagos, south-west Nigeria, with a view to improving health awareness in this group. METHOD: Socio-demographic data, anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma blood glucose levels and lipid and physical activity profiles of 293 drivers were measured...
February 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457497/prevalence-and-demographic-correlates-of-overweight-physical-activity-and-screen-time-among-school-aged-children-in-urban-china-the-shanghai-study
#4
Xihe Zhu, Justin A Haegele, Yan Tang, Xueping Wu
This study reports the prevalence and demographic correlates of overweight, as well as meeting physical activity and screen time guidelines, in Chinese children. A representative sample of school-aged children ( n = 49 549) in Shanghai were participants. Children's anthropometrics were objectively measured; their physical activity and screen time, and demographic variables including age, sex, skill proficiency, sport affiliation, and transportation mode were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted...
February 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457232/tackling-obesity-and-disease-the-culprit-is-sugar-the-response-is-legal-regulation
#5
Lawrence O Gostin
It is staggering to observe the new normal in America: 37.9 percent of adults are obese, and 70.7 percent are either obese or overweight. One out of every five minors is obese. The real tragedy, of course, is the disability, suffering, and early death that devastates families and communities. But all of society pays, with the annual medical cost estimated at $147 billion. The causal pathways are complex, but if we drill down, sugar is a deeply consequential pathway to obesity, and the single greatest dietary source is sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456931/abdominal-obesity-adversely-affects-bone-mass-in-children
#6
Sowmya Krishnan, Michael P Anderson, David A Fields, Madhusmita Misra
AIM: To determine the effect of childhood obesity and insulin resistance on bone health. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in pubertal adolescents and young adults 13-20 years old who were either overweight/obese or normal weight. Participants were Tanner 3 or above for pubertal stage, and had fasting blood work done to measure glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein and lipid levels. Homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using the formula (Fasting Blood Glucose *Insulin/405)...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456780/attitudes-of-jordanian-adolescent-students-toward-overweight-and-obesity
#7
Nesrin N Abu Baker, Nahla Al-Ali, Ranyah Al-Ajlouni
Background: Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents' attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. Objectives: To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. Methods: A sample of 1000 students in 8th to 10th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan...
2018: Open Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455756/a-randomized-trial-of-weight-change-in-a-national-home-visiting-program
#8
Debra Haire-Joshu, Cynthia D Schwarz, Karen Steger-May, Christy Lapka, Kenneth Schechtman, Ross C Brownson, Rachel G Tabak
INTRODUCTION: Clinical trials have demonstrated significant impact in reducing weight and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the intensity of these trials limits their scalability to real world settings. The purpose of this study was to embed a lifestyle intervention for overweight and obese mothers within the routine practice of a parent education, home visiting organization. DESIGN: Pragmatic trial that used a stratified random design. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Overweight or obese mothers of preschool children located across St...
March 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455721/fit4yams-structuring-a-lifestyle-intervention-for-rural-overweight-and-obese-young-adult-males-using-participatory-design
#9
Jannine Bailey, Cristyn Davies, Timothy McCrossin, Michael Kiernan, Rachel Skinner, Katharine Steinbeck, Kumara Mendis
PURPOSE: Young adult males (YAMs) are understudied with respect to lifestyle interventions to address overweight and obesity in this group. This study reports on the participatory design of the structure and delivery of the Fit4YAMs text message-based lifestyle intervention for 18- to 25-year-old rural YAMs in Australia. METHODS: Two semi-structured focus group discussions were held with six overweight or obese YAMs. Sessions explored their preferences for the structure and delivery of a weight loss intervention...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455425/the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-according-to-the-categories-of-body-mass-index-the-korean-genome-and-epidemiology-study-koges
#10
Ju Young Jung, Sung Keun Park, Chang Mo Oh, Jae-Hong Ryoo, Joong-Myung Choi, Young Joon Choi
AIMS: Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there is limited information on the pattern of relationship between the risk for T2DM and body mass index (BMI) categories including underweight and overweight. Thus, this study was to evaluate the risk of T2DM according to BMI categories defined by Asian-specific cutoff of BMI. METHODS: 7660 non-diabetic Koreans were grouped into five BMI categories (underweight, normal, overweight, obese and severe obese) defined by Asian-specific cutoff of BMI and followed up for 10 years to monitor the development of T2DM...
February 17, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455384/novel-interventions-to-reduce-stress-and-overeating-in-overweight-pregnant-women-a-feasibility-study
#11
B A Laraia, N E Adler, K Coleman-Phox, C Vieten, L Mellin, J L Kristeller, M Thomas, N E Stotland, R H Lustig, M F Dallman, F M Hecht, N R Bush, C L de Groat, E Epel
Background High stress and depression during pregnancy are risk factors for worsened health trajectories for both mother and offspring. This is also true for pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. Reducing stress and depression may be one path to prevent excessive caloric intake and gestational weight gain. Study Purpose We tested the feasibility of two novel interventions aimed at reducing stress and overeating during pregnancy. Reflecting different theoretical underpinnings, the interventions target different mechanisms...
February 17, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455365/gender-differences-in-glycemic-control-and-diabetes-related-factors-in-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-results-from-the-metro-study
#12
Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Ofelia Casciano, Michela Petrizzo, Maurizio Gicchino, Mariangela Caputo, Annalisa Sarnataro, Dario Giugliano, Katherine Esposito
PURPOSE: To describe gender differences concerning glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, diabetic complications, concomitant pathologies, and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), in a population of young adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We collected data from 300 consecutively patients (168 males and 132 females), aged 18-30 years, among those admitted at Diabetes Unit of University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" (Naples, Italy) from March 2012 to January 2017...
February 17, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454883/obesity-or-diet-levels-and-determinants-of-phthalate-body-burden-a-case-study-on-portuguese-children
#13
Luísa Correia-Sá, Monika Kasper-Sonnenberg, Claudia Pälmke, André Schütze, Sónia Norberto, Conceição Calhau, Valentina F Domingues, Holger M Koch
In this study we analyzed one of the most comprehensive sets of 21 urinary phthalate metabolites representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates (DEP, DMP, DiBP, DnBP, BBzP, DEHP, DiNP, DiDP, DCHP, DnPeP, DnOP) in first morning urine samples of 112 Portuguese children (4-18 years) sampled in 2014/15. The study population consisted of two groups: group 1 with normal weight/underweight children (N = 43) following their regular diet and group 2 with obese/overweight children (N = 69) following a healthy diet (with nutritional counselling)...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454573/revisiting-donor-risk-over-two-decades-of-single-center-experience-more-attention-on-the-impact-of-overweight
#14
Cheng-Maw Ho, Yu-Min Huang, Rey-Heng Hu, Yao-Ming Wu, Ming-Chih Ho, Po-Huang Lee
OBJECTIVE: Morbidity rates after living donor hepatectomy vary greatly among centers. Donor morbidity in a tertiary center over the past two decades was revisited. METHODS: Clinical data and grading of complications were reviewed by a nontransplant surgeon based on Clavien 5 tier grading. Risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 473 consecutive living liver donors from 1997 to 2016 were included for analysis; 305 were right liver donors and 168 left liver donors, and the corresponding morbidity rates were 27...
February 14, 2018: Asian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454566/determinants-of-stroke-in-brazil-a-cross-sectional-multivariate-approach-from-the-national-health-survey
#15
Ícaro J S Ribeiro, Jefferson P Cardoso, Ivna V Freire, Mailson F Carvalho, Rafael Pereira
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between biological-health, socioeconomics, and behavioral determinants and stroke by evaluating the risk of stroke in the presence of each or all determinants grouped in a multivariate model. METHODS: This study is a transversal secondary data analysis of the Brazilian National Health Survey, released by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The prevalence, prevalence ratios, and confidence intervals were calculated for the main outcome...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454554/geospatial-inequalities-and-determinants-of-nutritional-status-among-women-and-children-in-afghanistan-an-observational-study
#16
Nadia Akseer, Zaid Bhatti, Taufiq Mashal, Sajid Soofi, Rahim Moineddin, Robert E Black, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is a pervasive condition in Afghanistan, and prevalence is among the highest in the world. We aimed to comprehensively assess district-level geographical disparities and determinants of nutritional status (stunting, wasting, or underweight) among women and children in Afghanistan. METHODS: The study used individualised data from the recent Afghanistan National Nutrition Survey 2013. Outcome variables were based on growth and weight anthropometry data, which we analysed linearly as Z scores and as dichotomous categories...
February 14, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454318/points-based-physical-activity-a-novel-approach-to-facilitate-changes-in-body-composition-in-inactive-women-with-overweight-and-obesity
#17
Adrian Holliday, Alice Burgin, Elyzabeth Vargas Fernandez, Sally A M Fenton, Frank Thielecke, Andrew K Blannin
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) interventions for the promotion of weight-management may benefit from increased choice and flexibility to overcome commonly-perceived barriers to PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel "points-based" approach to PA on body composition in inactive women, who are overweight or obese. METHODS: Seventy-six overweight or obese, inactive women were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 'Points-based' PA (PBPA; 30 "PA points"•week- 1 ), Structured exercise (StructEx; 150 min moderate-intensity exercise•week- 1 ) or control (CONT; continue habitual inactive lifestyle) for a 24-week intervention...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454222/obesity-dyslipidemia-and-brain-age-in-first-episode-psychosis
#18
Marian Kolenic, Katja Franke, Jaroslav Hlinka, Martin Matejka, Jana Capkova, Zdenka Pausova, Rudolf Uher, Martin Alda, Filip Spaniel, Tomas Hajek
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and dyslipidemia may negatively affect brain health and are frequent medical comorbidities of schizophrenia and related disorders. Despite the high burden of metabolic disorders, little is known about their effects on brain structure in psychosis. We investigated, whether obesity or dyslipidemia contributed to brain alterations in first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: 120 participants with FEP, who were undergoing their first psychiatric hospitalization, had <24 months of untreated psychosis and were 18-35 years old and 114 controls within the same age range participated in the study...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454140/weight-management-in-rural-health-clinics-the-midwest-diet-and-exercise-trial
#19
Anna M Gorczyca, Richard A Washburn, Lauren Ptomey, Matthew S Mayo, Debra K Sullivan, Cheryl A Gibson, Robert Lee, Sarah Stolte, Joseph E Donnelly
Obesity prevalence is higher in rural compared to urban residents. Rural health clinics offer a potential venue for delivery of weight management. However, traditional programs require travel to attend on-site meetings which is impractical or inconvenient for rural residents. Clinic staff in most rural settings are unlikely to be trained to provide effective weight management. Remote delivery using group phone conferences (GP) or individual phone calls (IP), by staff associated with rural clinics eliminates the need for travel to attend on-site meetings...
February 14, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453926/sleep-disorder-prevalence-in-at-risk-adolescents-and-potential-effects-of-nightmare-triad-syndrome
#20
Natalia D McIver, Barry Krakow, Jessica Krakow, Michael R Nadorff, Victor A Ulibarri, Robert Baade
Objective At-risk high school students, those considered to have a higher probability for academic failure or dropping out, were assessed for various sleep disorders. Effects were compared between students with and without the nightmare triad syndrome (NTS+), the sleep disorders' cluster of frequent nightmares, insomnia disorder and suspected sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Methods Data were gathered at a charter school for at-risk youth using: computer based surveys, physical airway exams, and mental health interviews by school social worker...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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