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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922659/eye-movement-analysis-and-cognitive-assessment-the-use-of-comparative-visual-search-tasks-in-a-non-immersive-vr-application
#1
Pedro J Rosa, Pedro Gamito, Jorge Oliveira, Diogo Morais, Matthew Pavlovic, Olivia Smyth, Inês Maia, Tiago Gomes
BACKGROUND: An adequate behavioral response depends on attentional and mnesic processes. When these basic cognitive functions are impaired, the use of non-immersive Virtual Reality Applications (VRAs) can be a reliable technique for assessing the level of impairment. However, most non-immersive VRAs use indirect measures to make inferences about visual attention and mnesic processes (e.g., time to task completion, error rate). OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the eye movement analysis through eye tracking (ET) can be a reliable method to probe more effectively where and how attention is deployed and how it is linked with visual working memory during comparative visual search tasks (CVSTs) in non-immersive VRAs...
December 6, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916138/alcohol-exposure-differentially-effects-anti-tumor-immunity-in-females-by-altering-dendritic-cell-function
#2
Matthew G Thompson, Flor Navarro, Lennox Chitsike, Luis Ramirez, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Stephanie K Watkins
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a critical component of anti-tumor immunity due to their ability to induce a robust immune response to antigen (Ag). Alcohol was previously shown to reduce DC ability to present foreign Ag and promote pro-inflammatory responses in situations of infection and trauma. However the impact of alcohol exposure on generation of an anti-tumor response, especially in the context of generation of an immune vaccine has not been examined. In the clinic, DC vaccines are typically generated from autologous blood, therefore prior exposure to substances such as alcohol may be a critical factor to consider regarding the effectiveness in generating an immune response...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914729/operative-team-communication-during-simulated-emergencies-too-busy-to-respond
#3
W Austin Davis, Seth Jones, Adrianna M Crowell-Kuhnberg, Dara O'Keeffe, Kelly M Boyle, Suzanne B Klainer, Douglas S Smink, Steven Yule
BACKGROUND: Ineffective communication among members of a multidisciplinary team is associated with operative error and failure to rescue. We sought to measure operative team communication in a simulated emergency using an established communication framework called "closed loop communication." We hypothesized that communication directed at a specific recipient would be more likely to elicit a check back or closed loop response and that this relationship would vary with changes in patients' clinical status...
November 30, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905868/short-term-effects-of-low-let-radiation-on-the-endothelial-barrier-uncoupling-of-pecam-1-and-the-production-of-endothelial-microparticles
#4
Thomas Templin, Preety Sharma, Peter Guida, Peter Grabham
A significant target for radiation-induced effects is the microvascular system, which is critical to healthy tissue function and its pathology is linked to disrupted endothelial barrier function. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation is a source of noncancer pathologies in humans and little is known about the early events that could initiate subsequent diseases. However, it is well known that gamma radiation causes a very early disruption of the endothelial barrier at doses below those required for cytotoxic effects...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902935/g-quadruplex-fluorescence-sensing-by-core-extended-naphthalene-diimides
#5
Michela Zuffo, Filippo Doria, Silvia Botti, Greta Bergamaschi, Mauro Freccero
BACKGROUND: Fluorescent sensing of G-quadruplex nucleic acids (G4s) is an effective strategy to elucidate their role in vitro and in vivo. Small molecule ligands have often been exploited, producing an emission light up upon binding. Naphthalene diimides (NDIs), although potent G4 binders exhibiting red-NIR fluorophores, have only been marginally exploited, as they are usually quenched upon binding. Contrary, aggregating core-extended naphthalene diimides (cex-NDIs) proved to be effective probes...
November 27, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888725/functional-response-of-osteoblasts-in-functionally-gradient-titanium-alloy-mesh-arrays-processed-by-3d-additive-manufacturing
#6
K C Nune, A Kumar, R D K Misra, S J Li, Y L Hao, R Yang
We elucidate here the osteoblasts functions and cellular activity in 3D printed interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient Ti-6Al-4V alloy mesh structures in terms of cell proliferation and growth, distribution of cell nuclei, synthesis of proteins (actin, vinculin, and fibronectin), and calcium deposition. Cell culture studies with pre-osteoblasts indicated that the interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient mesh arrays was conducive to osteoblast functions. However, there were statistically significant differences in the cellular response depending on the pore size in the functionally gradient structure...
November 18, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881882/depletion-region-surface-effects-in-electron-beam-induced-current-measurements
#7
Paul M Haney, Heayoung P Yoon, Benoit Gaury, Nikolai B Zhitenev
Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870107/stimulus-reinforcer-relations-established-during-training-determine-resistance-to-extinction-and-relapse-via-reinstatement
#8
John Y H Bai, C K Jonas Chan, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
The baseline rate of a reinforced target response decreases with the availability of response-independent sources of alternative reinforcement; however, resistance to disruption and relapse increases. Because many behavioral treatments for problem behavior include response-dependent reinforcement of alternative behavior, the present study assessed whether response-dependent alternative reinforcement also decreases baseline response rates but increases resistance to extinction and relapse. We reinforced target responding at equal rates across two components of a multiple schedule with pigeons...
November 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869656/approach-for-self-calibrating-co%C3%A2-measurements-with-linear-membrane-based-gas-sensors
#9
Detlef Lazik, Pramit Sood
Linear membrane-based gas sensors that can be advantageously applied for the measurement of a single gas component in large heterogeneous systems, e.g., for representative determination of CO₂ in the subsurface, can be designed depending on the properties of the observation object. A resulting disadvantage is that the permeation-based sensor response depends on operating conditions, the individual site-adapted sensor geometry, the membrane material, and the target gas component. Therefore, calibration is needed, especially of the slope, which could change over several orders of magnitude...
November 17, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866433/rasch-validation-of-the-arabic-version-of-the-lower-extremity-functional-scale
#10
Ali H Alnahdi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the internal construct validity of the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (20-item Arabic LEFS) using Rasch analysis. METHODS: Patients (n = 170) with lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunction were recruited. Rasch analysis of 20-item Arabic LEFS was performed. Once the initial Rasch analysis indicated that the 20-item Arabic LEFS did not fit the Rasch model, follow-up analyses were conducted to improve the fit of the scale to the Rasch measurement model...
November 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866267/luminol-testing-in-detecting-modern-human-skeletal-remains-a-test-on-different-types-of-bone-tissue-and-a-caveat-for-pmi-interpretation
#11
Giorgio Caudullo, Valentina Caruso, Annalisa Cappella, Emanuela Sguazza, Debora Mazzarelli, Alberto Amadasi, Cristina Cattaneo
When forensic pathologists and anthropologists have to deal with the evaluation of the post-mortem interval (PMI) in skeletal remains, luminol testing is frequently performed as a preliminary screening method. However, the repeatability of this test on the same bone, as well as comparative studies on different bones of the same individual, has never been performed. Therefore, with the aim of investigating the influence that different types of bones may exert on the response to the luminol test, the present study analysed three different skeletal elements (femoral diaphysis, vertebra and cranial vault), gathered from ten recent exhumed skeletons (all with a 20-year PMI)...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842457/wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-the-immature-brain-in-rats-and-modulate-cell-fate
#12
Martin Mueller, Byron Oppliger, Marianne Jörger-Messerli, Ursula Reinhart, Eytan Barnea, Michael Paidas, Boris Kramer, Daniel Surbek, Andreina Schoeberlein
The development of a mammalian brain is a complex and long-lasting process. Not surprisingly, preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Advances in perinatal care reduced mortality but morbidity still represents a major burden. New therapeutic approaches are thus desperately needed. Given that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) emerged as a promising candidate for cell therapy, we transplanted MSCs derived from the Wharton`s jelly (WJ-MSCs) to reduce the burden of immature brain injury in a murine animal model...
November 14, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827906/t%C3%AE-riii-expression-in-human-breast-cancer-stroma-and-the-role-of-soluble-t%C3%AE-riii-in-breast-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#13
Bojana Jovanović, Michael W Pickup, Anna Chytil, Agnieszka E Gorska, Kimberly C Johnson, Harold L Moses, Philip Owens
The TGF-β pathway plays a major role in tumor progression through regulation of epithelial and stromal cell signaling. Dysfunction of the pathway can lead to carcinoma progression and metastasis. To gain insight into the stromal role of the TGF-β pathway in breast cancer, we performed laser capture microdissection (LCM) from breast cancer patients and reduction mammoplasty patients. Microdissected tumor stroma and normal breast stroma were examined for gene expression. Expression of the TGF-β type III receptor (TGFBR3) was greatly decreased in the tumor stroma compared to control healthy breast tissue...
November 4, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819718/response-of-malpighia-emarginata-active-germplasm-bank-accessions-to-meloidogyne-enterolobii-parasitism
#14
A A Moreira, L S S Martins, R S Musser, R M Moraes Filho, W A Maranhão, J G A Rossiter, A V V Montarroyos
Malpighia emarginata is cultivated in almost all Brazil and is considered an important agricultural crop. The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii has been described as a major threat to this crop, causing great production losses. Due to the scarcity of information about the severity of this parasite in M. emarginata plants in Brazil, this study investigated M. enterolobii resistance of ten M. emarginata genotypes from the active germplasm bank of Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. The experiment was conducted adopting a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 11 x 2 x 5, where M...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808115/multi-phasic-bi-directional-chemotactic-responses-of-the-growth-cone
#15
Honda Naoki, Makoto Nishiyama, Kazunobu Togashi, Yasunobu Igarashi, Kyonsoo Hong, Shin Ishii
The nerve growth cone is bi-directionally attracted and repelled by the same cue molecules depending on the situations, while other non-neural chemotactic cells usually show uni-directional attraction or repulsion toward their specific cue molecules. However, how the growth cone differs from other non-neural cells remains unclear. Toward this question, we developed a theory for describing chemotactic response based on a mathematical model of intracellular signaling of activator and inhibitor. Our theory was first able to clarify the conditions of attraction and repulsion, which are determined by balance between activator and inhibitor, and the conditions of uni- and bi-directional responses, which are determined by dose-response profiles of activator and inhibitor to the guidance cue...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803787/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-yu-ping-feng-san-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-suppression-in-rat-model-of-copd
#16
Zhong-Shan Yang, Jin-Yuan Yan, Ni-Ping Han, Wei Zhou, Yu Cheng, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Ning Li, Jia-Li Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Yu-Ping-Feng-San (YPFS) is a classical traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used for treatment of the diseases in respiratory systems, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recognized as chronic inflammatory disease. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we detected the factors involved in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)/Smad2 signaling pathway and inflammatory cytokines, to clarify whether YPFS could attenuate inflammatory response dependent on TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling in COPD rats or cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-treated human bronchial epithelial (Beas-2B) cells...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800584/neuroimmune-interactions-dendritic-cell-modulation-by-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Maisa C Takenaka, Marcia G Guereschi, Alexandre S Basso
Dendritic cells are of paramount importance bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Depending on the context, after sensing environmental antigens, commensal microorganisms, pathogenic agents, or antigens from the diet, dendritic cells may drive either different effector adaptive immune responses or tolerance, avoiding tissue damage. Although the plasticity of the immune response and the capacity to regulate itself are considered essential to orchestrate appropriate physiological responses, it is known that the nervous system plays a relevant role controlling immune cell function...
October 31, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799922/immune-escape-strategies-of-malaria-parasites
#18
REVIEW
Pollyanna S Gomes, Jyoti Bhardwaj, Juan Rivera-Correa, Celio G Freire-De-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins, and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796720/a-chinese-cabbage-brassica-campetris-subsp-chinensis-%C3%AF-type-glutathione-s-transferase-stimulates-arabidopsis-development-and-primes-against-abiotic-and-biotic-stress
#19
Chih-Wei Kao, Madhunita Bakshi, Irena Sherameti, Sheqin Dong, Michael Reichelt, Ralf Oelmüller, Kai-Wun Yeh
The beneficial root-colonizing fungus Piriformospora indica stimulates root development of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. Chinensis) and this is accompanied by the up-regulation of a τ-class glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase gene (BcGSTU) (Lee et al. 2011) in the roots. BcGSTU expression is further promoted by osmotic (salt and PEG) and heat stress. Ectopic expression of BcGSTU in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter results in the promotion of root and shoot growth as well as better performance of the plants under abiotic (150 mM NaCl, PEG, 42 °C) and biotic (Alternaria brassicae infection) stresses...
October 31, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793569/dendritic-cells-and-cancer-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Alycia Gardner, Brian Ruffell
Dendritic cells (DCs) are central regulators of the adaptive immune response, and as such are necessary for T-cell-mediated cancer immunity. In particular, antitumoral responses depend on a specialized subset of conventional DCs that transport tumor antigens to draining lymph nodes and cross-present antigen to activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes. DC maturation is necessary to provide costimulatory signals to T cells, but while DC maturation occurs within tumors, it is often insufficient to induce potent immunity, particularly in light of suppressive mechanisms within tumors...
December 2016: Trends in Immunology
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