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Silvia Gómez-Zorrilla, Francisco Morandeira, María José Castro, Fe Tubau, Elisabet Periche, Rosario Cañizares, María Angeles Dominguez, Javier Ariza, Carmen Peña
The severity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection may be determined by the interaction with the host immune system. We designed a prospective study to assess the relationship between the inflammatory response and the clinical presentation and outcome of PA infection. We also investigated whether there are differences in the inflammatory response depending on the resistance profile of PA. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Sixty-nine infection episodes were recorded; 40 caused by non-multidrug-resistant (non-MDR) strains [29 (73%) respiratory; 8 (20%) bacteremia], 12 by MDR non-extensively drug-resistant (MDR-non-XDR) [9 (75%) respiratory; 3 (25%) bacteremia], and 17 by XDR strains [9 (53%) respiratory; 7 (41%) bacteremia]...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Junjie Luo, Wei L Shen, Craig Montell
Avoidance of noxious ambient heat is crucial for survival. A well-known phenomenon is that animals are sensitive to the rate of temperature change. However, the cellular and molecular underpinnings through which animals sense and respond much more vigorously to fast temperature changes are unknown. Using Drosophila larvae, we found that nociceptive rolling behavior was triggered at lower temperatures and at higher frequencies when the temperature increased rapidly. We identified neurons in the brain that were sensitive to the speed of the temperature increase rather than just to the absolute temperature...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Natalia Królikowska, Jakub Szymkowiak, Rebecca Anne Laidlaw, Lechosław Kuczyński
Birds exhibit various forms of anti-predator behaviours to avoid reproductive failure, with mobbing-observation, approach and usually harassment of a predator-being one of the most commonly observed. Here, we investigate patterns of temporal variation in the mobbing response exhibited by a precocial species, the northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus). We test whether brood age and self-reliance, or the perceived risk posed by various predators, affect mobbing response of lapwings. We quantified aggressive interactions between lapwings and their natural avian predators and used generalized additive models to test how timing and predator species identity are related to the mobbing response of lapwings...
2016: Acta Ethologica
Angela Berzi, Stefania Ordanini, Ben Joosten, Daria Trabattoni, Alessandra Cambi, Anna Bernardi, Mario Clerici
DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin mainly expressed by DCs, mediates antigen uptake and can induce specific immune responses, depending on the ligand involved. Owing to these properties, DC-SIGN is an attracting target for approaches aimed at tailoring the immune response towards specific immunologic outcomes. A multivalent DC-SIGN ligand (Polyman26), containing at its core a fluorescent "rod-like" spacer and able to inhibit DC-SIGN mediated HIV infection in nanomolar concentration, has been recently developed by our group...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Philippe Holzmuller, Philippe Nirdé, Frédéric Vezilier, Paul Chuchana
: Macrophages exhibit multifunctional activity and play a central role in the response to infectious agents. It is commonly accepted that the plasticity of the response of macrophages depends on the type of stimuli. Here we re-evaluate whether the macrophage response is only dependent on the stimulus. We analyzed the transcriptomic profile of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) that were activated with several pathogens and multiple in vitro-stimulations. The transcriptomic data were normalized using matched-pair analysis...
October 11, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jing Xiang, Chang Shen, Shun-Cheung Cheng, Fei Yu, Wing-Kin Chu, Hua Feng, Shek-Man Yiu, Chi-Chiu Ko, Chi-Fai Leung
Luminescent porous coordination polymers, cage-containing chains [Pb5(L1)6(N3)2(OH)2]n (1) and 1-D double helical chains [Pb(L2)(N3)]n (2) with 1-D channels were prepared by solvothermal reactions. These polymers can take up metal ions and induce different luminescence responses depending on the metal ions.
October 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Marleen Straat, Anita N Böing, Anita Tuip-De Boer, Rienk Nieuwland, Nicole P Juffermans
BACKGROUND: Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with adverse outcome, but the causative factor is unknown. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have pro-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that EVs released from both fresh and stored RBC products can induce a host inflammatory response in a dose-dependent manner. METHODS: Whole blood was incubated with supernatant from RBC units stored for different time periods, either containing (different numbers of) EVs or depleted from EVs...
July 2016: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Halil Kara, Fatma Isli, Gokce Sevim Ozturk Fincan, Seniz Yildirim, Sevim Ercan, Yusuf Sarioglu
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that, similar to nitric oxide (NO), plays an important role as an inhibitor neurotransmitter in the digestive tract. This study aimed to investigate the effect of H2S and to identify neurogenic contraction responses dependent on the electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the isolated lower esophageal sphincters of rabbits. METHODS: An isolated lower esophageal sphincter was placed in an organ bath system and mechanical responses were recorded using a force transducer...
September 6, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
S Fodelianakis, A Moustakas, N Papageorgiou, O Manoli, I Tsikopoulou, G Michoud, D Daffonchio, I Karakassis, E D Ladoukakis
Previous studies have shown that the response of bacterial communities to disturbances depends on their environmental history. Historically fluctuating habitats host communities that respond better to disturbance than communities of historically stable habitats. However, the exact ecological mechanism that drives this dependency remains unknown. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that modifications of niche optima and niche breadths of the community members are driving this dependency of bacterial responses to past environmental conditions...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Zhong Guan, Jing Qin
Missing response problem is ubiquitous in survey sampling, medical, social science and epidemiology studies. It is well known that non-ignorable missing is the most difficult missing data problem where the missing of a response depends on its own value. In statistical literature, unlike the ignorable missing data problem, not many papers on non-ignorable missing data are available except for the full parametric model based approach. In this paper we study a semiparametric model for non-ignorable missing data in which the missing probability is known up to some parameters, but the underlying distributions are not specified...
September 19, 2016: Lifetime Data Analysis
Jörn Karhausen, Soman N Abraham
Mast cells (MCs) are present in various tissues and are responsible for initiating many of the early inflammatory responses to extrinsic challenges. Recent studies have demonstrated that MCs can tailor their responses, depending on the stimulus encountered and the tissue in which they are stimulated. In this issue of the JCI, Gaudenzio and colleagues examine the mechanistic differences between MC responses observed after engagement of Fcε receptor I and those seen after MC stimulation via the recently identified G protein-coupled receptor MRGPRX2...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Vanda Sieber, Julia Schüler, Mirko Wegner
The empirical evidence for the relationship between autonomy-supportive environments and physiological stress is inconsistent. Whereas some studies report a decrease in stress in autonomy-supportive environments, other studies show a negative effect of autonomy on physiological stress. As previous research has not considered individual differences within this relationship, the present research aims to close this empirical gap by proposing that an implicit autonomy disposition, which is defined as a dispositional preference for self-determination, serves as a moderator...
September 8, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
K K Lehm, M S Andersen, I S Riddervold
OBJECTIVE: In Denmark, calls to the Danish emergency number 1-1-2 concerning medical emergencies are received by an emergency medical communication center (EMCC). At the EMCC, health care professionals (nurses, paramedics, and physicians) decide the necessary response, depending on the level of emergency as indicated by the Danish Index for Emergency Care. The index states 37 main criteria (symptoms) and five levels of emergency, descending from A (life threatening) to E (not serious)...
September 14, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
J Kael White, Ilya E Monosov
To learn, obtain reward and survive, humans and other animals must monitor, approach and act on objects that are associated with variable or unknown rewards. However, the neuronal mechanisms that mediate behaviours aimed at uncertain objects are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a set of neurons in an internal-capsule bordering regions of the primate dorsal striatum, within the putamen and caudate nucleus, signal the uncertainty of object-reward associations. Their uncertainty responses depend on the presence of objects associated with reward uncertainty and evolve rapidly as monkeys learn novel object-reward associations...
2016: Nature Communications
Outi Heikkilä, Michaela Nygårdas, Henrik Paavilainen, Elina Ryödi, Veijo Hukkanen
Interleukin-27 (IL-27) inhibits the replication of many viruses, but the mechanism differs according to virus and cell type. In this study, we observed that IL-27 expression was upregulated in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected SJL/J mice, which led us to further investigate the role of IL-27 in HSV-1 infection using epithelial, glioma, and immunological cells as cell models. We showed that in all studied cell lines, the IL-27 messenger RNA (mRNA) level was upregulated due to the HSV-1 infection. When the cells were primed with IL-27 before the virus infection, the virus release was prevented, indicating an antiviral role of IL-27 in HSV-1 infection...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Annette Løvheim Kleppang, Curt Hagquist
BACKGROUND: The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10) is widely used for both clinical and epidemiological purposes to measure psychological distress among adolescents and adults. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the HSCL-10 among adolescents in Norway using Rasch analysis. METHODS: The study is based on cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in 2001 and 2009...
September 10, 2016: Family Practice
Ignacio S Caballero, Anna N Honko, Stephen K Gire, Sarah M Winnicki, Marta Melé, Chiara Gerhardinger, Aaron E Lin, John L Rinn, Pardis C Sabeti, Lisa E Hensley, John H Connor
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus is the causative agent of a severe syndrome in humans with a fatality rate that can approach 90 %. During infection, the host immune response is thought to become dysregulated, but the mechanisms through which this happens are not entirely understood. In this study, we analyze RNA sequencing data to determine the host response to Ebola virus infection in circulating immune cells. RESULTS: Approximately half of the 100 genes with the strongest early increases in expression were interferon-stimulated genes, such as ISG15, OAS1, IFIT2, HERC5, MX1 and DHX58...
2016: BMC Genomics
Christoph Mühlberg, David Mathar, Arno Villringer, Annette Horstmann, Jane Neumann
Recent research indicates that reduced inhibitory control is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), higher food craving and increased food intake. However, experimental evidence for the relationship between response inhibition and weight status is inconsistent and to date has been investigated predominantly in women. In the current study, 56 participants (26 obese, 30 lean; 27 female, 29 male) performed a Food Picture Rating Task followed by a Stop Signal Task where pictures of palatable high or low caloric food or non-food items were presented prior to the Go signal...
August 31, 2016: Appetite
Jean-Christophe Simard, Isabelle Durocher, Denis Girard
Nowadays, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely used in the medical field mainly for their antibacterial properties. Although some studies report a cytotoxic activity of the particles, the mechanisms involved in AgNP-induced cell death remain to be determined. Herein, we report that AgNP of 2 (AgNP2) and 15 nm (AgNP15) induce apoptosis in human MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cells. Treatment with AgNP2 and AgNP15 led to accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins causing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activating the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
November 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Lu Li, Ford F Ebner
Cortex actively modulates the responses of thalamic relay neurons through corticothalamic (CT) projections. Here we investigated the temporal precision of CT modulation on sensory responses of relay neurons in rat ventral posterior medial (VPM) thalamus to direction-specific whisker stimuli. CT feedback levels were either augmented by cortical electrical microstimulation, or depressed by cortical application of muscimol, a potent agonist of γ-Aminobutyric acid A-type (GABAA) receptors. To evaluate the temporal specificity of CT influence, we compared the early (3-10 ms post-stimulus onset) and late (10-100 ms) response components of VPM single units to whisker deflections in preferred or non-preferred directions before and after altering CT feedback levels under urethane anesthesia...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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