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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932840/monitoring-plasmon-coupling-and-sers-enhancement-through-in-situ-nanoparticle-spacing-modulation
#1
L Velleman, L Scarabelli, D Sikdar, A A Kornyshev, L M Liz-Marzán, J B Edel
Self-assembled nanoparticle (NP) arrays at liquid interfaces provide a unique optical response which has opened the door to new tuneable metamaterials for sensing and optical applications. NPs can spontaneously assemble at a liquid-liquid interface, forming an ordered, self-healing, low-defect 2D film. The close proximity of the NPs at the interface results in collective plasmonic modes with a spectral response dependent on the distance between the NPs and induces large field enhancements within the gaps. In this study, we assembled spherical and rod-shaped gold NPs with the aim of improving our understanding of NP assembly processes at liquid interfaces, working towards finely controlling their structure and producing tailored optical and enhanced Raman signals...
September 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924367/genotoxicity-of-a-low-dose-nitrosamine-mixture-as-drinking-water-disinfection-byproducts-in-nih3t3-cells
#2
Hai-Yan Wang, Ming Qin, Lei Dong, Jia-Ying Lv, Xia Wang
N-nitrosamines (NAms), which can arise as byproducts of disinfection agents, are reportedly found in drinking water, and their potential carcinogenicity is a concern; however, little research exists regarding the genotoxicity or carcinogenicity of NAms exposure as a low-dose mixture. The three most common NAms components in China's drinking water are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA). Thus, we measured the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of these compounds and measured the cell cycle and gene expression...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919508/pro-inflammatory-chitosan-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-nanoparticles-modulate-human-antigen-presenting-cells-phenotype-and-revert-their-pro-invasive-capacity
#3
Flávia Castro, Marta L Pinto, Andreia M Silva, Catarina L Pereira, Graciosa Q Teixeira, Maria Gomez-Lazaro, Susana G Santos, Mário A Barbosa, Raquel M Gonçalves, Maria J Oliveira
Anticancer immune responses depend on efficient presentation of tumor antigens and co-stimulatory signals provided by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, it is described that immature dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages at the tumor site may have an immunosuppressive profile, which limits the activity of effector T cells and supports tumor progression. Therapeutic targeting of these innate immune cells, either aiming at their elimination or re-polarization towards an immunostimulatory profile, has been pointed as an attractive approach to control tumor progression...
September 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906035/magnetic-control-of-mof-crystal-orientation-and-alignment
#4
Fei Cheng, Ellis S Marshall, Adam J Young, Peter J Robinson, Jean-Sebastien G Bouillard, Ali M Adawi, Nicolaas A Vermeulen, Omar K Farha, Michael R Reithofer, Jia Min Chin
Most MOFs possess anisotropic properties, the full exploitation of which necessitates a general strategy for the controllable orientation of such MOF crystals. Current methods largely rely upon layer-by-layer MOF epitaxy or tuning of MOF crystal growth on appropriate substrates, yielding MOFs with fixed crystal orientations. Here, the dynamic magnetic alignment of different MOF crystals (NH2-MIL-53(Al) and NU-1000) is shown. The MOFs were magnetized by electrostatic adsorption of iron oxide nanoparticles, dispersed in curable polymer resins (Formlabs 1+ clear resin / Sylgard® 184), magnetically oriented and fixed by resin curing...
September 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899716/from-birth-to-death-a-role-for-reactive-oxygen-species-in-neuronal-development
#5
REVIEW
Carlos Wilson, Ernesto Muñoz-Palma, Christian González-Billault
Historically, ROS have been considered toxic molecules, especially when their intracellular concentration reaches high values. However, physiological levels of ROS support crucial cellular processes, acting as second messengers able to regulate intrinsic signaling pathways. Specifically, both the central and peripheral nervous systems are especially susceptible to changes in the redox state, developing either a defense or adaptive response depending on the concentration, source and duration of the pro-oxidative stimuli...
September 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898666/plant-strategies-for-enhancing-access-to-sunlight
#6
REVIEW
Anne-Sophie Fiorucci, Christian Fankhauser
Light is a vital resource for plants, which compete for it particularly in dense communities. Plants have multiple photosensory receptors to detect the presence of competitors and thereby adjust their growth and developmental strategies accordingly. Broadly speaking, plants fall into two categories depending on their response to shading by leaves: shade tolerant or shade avoiding. Here, we describe the photoperception mechanisms and the growth responses elicited by the neighboring vegetation in shade-avoiding plants, focusing on Arabidopsis thaliana, where these responses are best understood...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878689/a20-tnfaip3-discriminates-tumor-necrosis-factor-tnf-induced-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-from-jnk-pathway-activation-in-hepatocytes
#7
Federico Pinna, Michaela Bissinger, Katharina Beuke, Nicolas Huber, Thomas Longerich, Ursula Kummer, Peter Schirmacher, Sven Sahle, Kai Breuhahn
In the liver tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced signaling critically regulates the immune response of non-parenchymal cells as well as proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes via activation of the NF-κB and JNK pathways. Especially, the induction of negative feedback regulators, such as IκBα and A20 is responsible for the dynamic and time-restricted response of these important pathways. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for different TNF-induced phenotypes under physiological stimulation conditions are not completely understood so far...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877963/the-effect-of-prior-knowledge-and-intelligibility-on-the-cortical-entrainment-response-to-speech
#8
Lucas Samuel Baltzell, Ramesh Srinivasan, Virginia M Richards
It has been suggested that cortical entrainment plays an important role in speech perception by helping to parse the acoustic stimulus into discrete linguistic units (Giraud & Poeppel, 2012). However, the question of whether the entrainment response to speech depends on the intelligibility of the stimulus remains open. Studies addressing this question of intelligibility have, for the most part, significantly distorted the acoustic properties of the stimulus to degrade the intelligibility of the speech stimulus, making it difficult to compare across "intelligible" and "unintelligible" conditions...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869847/adaptive-response-under-multiple-stress-exposure-in-fish-from-the-molecular-to-individual-level
#9
Allison Gandar, Pascal Laffaille, Cécile Canlet, Marie Tremblay-Franco, Roselyne Gautier, Annie Perrault, Laure Gress, Pierre Mormède, Nathalie Tapie, Hélène Budzinski, Séverine Jean
Aquatic systems are subjected to various sources of stress due to global changes, such as increasing temperature and pollution. A major challenge for the next decade will be to evaluate the combined effects of these multiple stressors on organisms and ecosystems. For organisms submitted to chemical, biological or physical stressors, the capacity to set up an efficient adaptive response is a fundamental prerequisite for their long-term survival and performance. In this study, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were subjected to individual and combined pesticide mixtures and increased temperatures to evaluate their adaptive response in multistress conditions from the molecular to the individual level...
August 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868308/phosphodiesterases-3-and-4-differentially-regulate-the-funny-current-if-in-mouse-sinoatrial-node-myocytes
#10
Joshua R St Clair, Eric D Larson, Emily J Sharpe, Zhandi Liao, Catherine Proenza
Cardiac pacemaking, at rest and during the sympathetic fight-or-flight response, depends on cAMP (3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) signaling in sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs). The cardiac "funny current" (If) is among the cAMP-sensitive effectors that drive pacemaking in SAMs. If is produced by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive (HCN) channels. Voltage-dependent gating of HCN channels is potentiated by cAMP, which acts either by binding directly to the channels or by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which phosphorylates them...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855265/the-role-of-baff-system-molecules-in-host-response-to-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
Jiro Sakai, Mustafa Akkoyunlu
The two ligands B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and the three receptors BAFF receptor (BAFF-R), transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), and B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) are members of the "BAFF system molecules." BAFF system molecules are primarily involved in B cell homeostasis. The relevance of BAFF system molecules in host responses to microbial assaults has been investigated in clinical studies and in mice deficient for each of these molecules...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846934/led-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-with-phenothiazinium-dye-against-staphylococcus-aureus-an-in-vitro-study
#12
Susana C P S de Oliveira, Juliana S C Monteiro, Gustavo M Pires-Santos, Fernando José Pires Sampaio, Amanda P Soares, Luiz Guilherme P Soares, Antônio L B Pinheiro
The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the bactericidal effect of AmPDT on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) using different concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25μg/mL) of phenothiazine compound combined with LED light (λ632±2nm) using varied energy densities (12, 9.6, 7.2, 4.8 and 2.4J/cm(2)). The experiments were carried out in triplicate and the samples were divided into groups: Control, Irradiated (treated only with light at different energy densities), Photosensitizer (treated only in the presence of the dye), AmPDT (treatment with light associated with dye)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844643/dopamine-regulation-of-gabaa-receptors-contributes-to-light-dark-modulation-of-the-on-cone-bipolar-cell-receptive-field-surround-in-the-retina
#13
Antoine Chaffiol, Masaaki Ishii, Yu Cao, Stuart C Mangel
Cone bipolar cells are interneurons that receive synaptic input from cone photoreceptor cells and provide the output of the first synaptic layer of the retina. These cells exhibit center-surround receptive fields, a prototype of lateral inhibition between neighboring sensory cells in which stimulation of the receptive field center excites the cell whereas stimulation of the surrounding region laterally inhibits the cell. This fundamental sensory coding mechanism facilitates spatial discrimination and detection of stimulus edges...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841769/reprogrammable-phononic-metasurfaces
#14
Osama R Bilal, André Foehr, Chiara Daraio
Phononic metamaterials rely on the presence of resonances in a structured medium to control the propagation of elastic waves. Their response depends on the geometry of their fundamental building blocks. A major challenge in metamaterials design is the realization of basic building blocks that can be tuned dynamically. Here, a metamaterial plate is realized that can be dynamically tuned by harnessing geometric and magnetic nonlinearities in the individual unit cells. The proposed tuning mechanism allows a stiffness variability of the individual unit cells and can control the amplitude of transmitted excitation through the plate over three orders of magnitude...
August 25, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828299/immunomodulatory-effects-of-anesthetics-in-obese-patients
#15
REVIEW
Luciana Boavista Barros Heil, Pedro Leme Silva, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
Anesthesia and surgery have an impact on inflammatory responses, which influences perioperative homeostasis. Inhalational and intravenous anesthesia can alter immune-system homeostasis through multiple processes that include activation of immune cells (such as monocytes, neutrophils, and specific tissue macrophages) with release of pro- or anti-inflammatory interleukins, upregulation of cell adhesion molecules, and overproduction of oxidative radicals. The response depends on the timing of anesthesia, anesthetic agents used, and mechanisms involved in the development of inflammation or immunosuppression...
August 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820314/flow-pattern-dependent-endothelial-cell-responses-through-transcriptional-regulation
#16
Hiroyuki Nakajima, Naoki Mochizuki
Blood flow provides endothelial cells (ECs) lining the inside of blood vessels with mechanical stimuli as well as humoral stimuli. Fluid shear stress, the frictional force between flowing blood and ECs, is recognized as an essential mechanical cue for vascular growth, remodeling, and homeostasis. ECs differentially respond to distinct flow patterns. High laminar shear flow leads to inhibition of cell cycle progression and stabilizes vessels, whereas low shear flow or disturbed flow leads to increased turnover of ECs and inflammatory responses of ECs prone to atherogenic...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818792/regulation-of-type-i-interferon-responses-by-mitochondria-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#17
Zsofia Agod, Tünde Fekete, Marietta M Budai, Aliz Varga, Attila Szabo, Hyelim Moon, Istvan Boldogh, Tamas Biro, Arpad Lanyi, Attila Bacsi, Kitti Pazmandi
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generated continuously under physiological conditions have recently emerged as critical players in the regulation of immune signaling pathways. In this study we have investigated the regulation of antiviral signaling by increased mtROS production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which, as major producers of type I interferons (IFN), are the key coordinators of antiviral immunity. The early phase of type I IFN production in pDCs is mediated by endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs), whereas the late phase of IFN response can also be triggered by cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I), expression of which is induced upon TLR stimulation...
July 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817193/response-reinforcer-dependency-and-resistance-to-change
#18
Carlos R X Cançado, Josele Abreu-Rodrigues, Raquel Moreira Aló, Flávia Hauck, Adam H Doughty
The effects of the response-reinforcer dependency on resistance to change were studied in three experiments with rats. In Experiment 1, lever pressing produced reinforcers at similar rates after variable interreinforcer intervals in each component of a two-component multiple schedule. Across conditions, in the fixed component, all reinforcers were response-dependent; in the alternative component, the percentage of response-dependent reinforcers was 100, 50 (i.e., 50% response-dependent and 50% response-independent) or 10% (i...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806423/new-synthetic-lipid-antigens-for-rapid-serological-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis
#19
Alison Jones, Mark Pitts, Juma'a R Al Dulayymi, James Gibbons, Andrew Ramsay, Delia Goletti, Christopher D Gwenin, Mark S Baird
BACKGROUND: During pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) antibodies are generated to trehalose esters of mycolic acids which are cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Attempts have been made to use these complex natural mixtures in serological tests for PTB diagnosis. AIM: The aim of this work was to determine whether a serological test based on a panel of defined individual trehalose esters of characteristic synthetic mycolic acids has improved diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing patients with culture positive PTB from individuals who were Mtb culture negative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800779/proinflammatory-mg-63-cells-response-infection-with-enterococcus-faecalis-cps2-evaluated-by-the-expression-of-tlr-2-il-1%C3%AE-and-inos-mrna
#20
Boy M Bachtiar, Endang W Bachtiar
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that unencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis cps2 inhibits biofilm formation of Candida albicans, a fungus commonly found with E. faecalis in periapical lesion. In this study, we compared encapsulated and unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 strains relationship with osteoblastic (MG-63) cells, whereas E. faecalis ATCC 29212 were used as a reference strain. RESULTS: The binding capacity of E. faecalis to MG-63 cells as shown by each tested strain was comparable, but the unencapsulated strain was less invasive compared to the encapsulated and the reference strains...
August 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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