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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160562/aqueous-extract-of-yellow-maca-lepidium-meyenii-improves-sperm-count-in-experimental-animals-but-response-depends-on-hypocotyl-size-ph-and-routes-of-administration
#1
L Sanchez-Salazar, G F Gonzales
Lepidium meyenii, a Peruvian plant growing over 4000 m.a.s.l., has effects on nutrition and fertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sperm count in 105 male mice receiving boiled aqueous extract of yellow maca hypocotyls from different sizes, under different pH conditions and using two different routes of administration. Five mice per group were treated daily for 3 days with vehicle (oral and intraperitoneal) or maca aqueous extracts (5 mg/0.5 ml/day) belonging to the first, second, third and fourth categories, according to their hypocotyl size...
November 21, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152417/assessing-mongolian-gerbil-emotional-behavior-effects-of-two-shock-intensities-and-response-independent-shocks-during-an-extended-inhibitory-avoidance-task
#2
Camilo Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo González-León, Mónica A Arias-Higuera, Angelo Cardona, Lucia G Medina, Laura García-Muñoz, Christian Sánchez, Julián Cifuentes, Juan Carlos Forigua, Andrea Ortiz, Cesar A Acevedo-Triana, Javier L Rico
Despite step-down inhibitory avoidance procedures that have been widely implemented in rats and mice to study learning and emotion phenomena, performance of other species in these tasks has received less attention. The case of the Mongolian gerbil is of relevance considering the discrepancies in the parameters of the step-down protocols implemented, especially the wide range of foot-shock intensities (i.e., 0.4-4.0 mA), and the lack of information on long-term performance, extinction effects, and behavioral patterning during these tasks...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150962/genotype-and-diet-affect-resistance-survival-and-fecundity-but-not-fecundity-tolerance
#3
Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz, Sophie A O Armitage
Insects are exposed to a variety of potential pathogens in their environment, many of which can severely impact fitness and health. Consequently, hosts have evolved resistance and tolerance strategies to suppress or cope with infections. Hosts utilising resistance improve fitness by clearing or reducing pathogen loads and hosts utilising tolerance reduce harmful fitness effects per pathogen load. To understand variation in, and selective pressures on resistance and tolerance we asked to what degree they are shaped by host genetic background, whether plasticity in these responses depends upon dietary environment, and whether there are interactions between these two factors...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142017/modelling-the-effects-of-phylogeny-and-body-size-on-within-host-pathogen-replication-and-immune-response
#4
Soumya Banerjee, Alan S Perelson, Melanie Moses
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138480/nitric-oxide-contributes-to-high-salt-perception-in-a-blood-sucking-insect-model
#5
Agustina Cano, Gina Pontes, Valeria Sfara, Diego Anfossi, Romina B Barrozo
In all organisms, salts produce either appetitive or aversive responses depending on the concentration. While low-salt concentration in food elicits positive responses to ingest, high-salt triggers aversion. Still the mechanisms involved in this dual behavior have just started to be uncovered in some organisms. In Rhodnius prolixus, using pharmacological and behavioral assays, we demonstrated that upon high-salt detection in food a nitric oxide (NO) dependent cascade is activated. This activation involves a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134295/rod-versus-cone-driven-ergs-at-different-stimulus-sizes-in-normal-subjects-and-retinitis-pigmentosa-patients
#6
Avinash J Aher, Declan J McKeefry, Neil R A Parry, John Maguire, I J Murray, Tina I Tsai, Cord Huchzermeyer, Jan Kremers
PURPOSE: To study how rod- and cone-driven responses depend on stimulus size in normal subjects and patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and to show that comparisons between responses to full-field (FF) and smaller stimuli can be useful in diagnosing and monitoring disorders of the peripheral retina without the need for lengthy dark adaptation periods. METHOD: The triple silent substitution technique was used to isolate L-cone-, M-cone- and rod-driven ERGs with 19, 18 and 33% photoreceptor contrasts, respectively, under identical mean luminance conditions...
November 13, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132682/-biomarkers-of-radiation-induced-dna-repair-processes
#7
REVIEW
Alexis Vallard, Chloé Rancoule, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Sophie Espenel, Sylvie Sauvaigo, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Nicolas Magné
The identification of DNA repair biomarkers is of paramount importance. Indeed, it is the first step in the process of modulating radiosensitivity and radioresistance. Unlike tools of detection and measurement of DNA damage, DNA repair biomarkers highlight the variations of DNA damage responses, depending on the dose and the dose rate. The aim of the present review is to describe the main biomarkers of radiation-induced DNA repair. We will focus on double strand breaks (DSB), because of their major role in radiation-induced cell death...
November 10, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121947/interleukin-1%C3%AE-signaling-in-fenestrated-capillaries-is-sufficient-to-trigger-sickness-responses-in-mice
#8
J Gabriel Knoll, Stephanie M Krasnow, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: The physiological and behavioral symptoms of sickness, including fever, anorexia, behavioral depression, and weight loss can be both beneficial and detrimental. These sickness responses are triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines acting on cells within the brain. Previous research demonstrates that the febrile response to peripheral insults depends upon prostaglandin production by vascular endothelial cells, but the mechanisms and specific cell type(s) responsible for other sickness responses remain unknown...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110619/influence-of-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone-on-human-serum-albumin-affinity-to-organic-anions
#9
Tatiana Syrejshchikova, Natalia Smolina, Valentin Kondratyuk, Gennady Dobretsov, Marat Uzbekov
BACKGROUND: Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug. In blood, this drug binds mainly to human serum albumin (HSA) and is also transported by HSA. METHODS: To study certain details of the interaction between risperidone and HSA, a fluorescent dye CAPIDAN was used as a reporter. This dye specifically fluoresces from HSA in serum and is highly sensitive to structural changes in HSA including pathology-induced changes. Interaction of CAPIDAN with HSA has been studied using time-resolved fluorescence techniques...
November 6, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104528/the-effect-of-lamotrigine-and-levetiracetam-on-tms-evoked-eeg-responses-depends-on-stimulation-intensity
#10
Isabella Premoli, Alyssa Costantini, Davide Rivolta, Andrea Biondi, Mark P Richardson
The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) has uncovered underlying mechanisms of two anti-epileptic medications: levetiracetam and lamotrigine. Despite their different mechanism of action, both drugs modulated TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) in a similar way. Since both medications increase resting motor threshold (RMT), the current aim was to examine the similarities and differences in post-drug TEPs, depending on whether stimulation intensity was adjusted to take account of post-drug RMT increase...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100942/association-between-kir-genes-and-dust-mite-sensitization-in-a-brazilian-population
#11
Marcela Caleffi da Costa Lima Caniatti, Sueli Donizete Borelli, Ana Lúcia Falavigna Guilherme, Soraya Barrionuevo Franzener, Luiza Tamie Tsuneto
BACKGROUND: Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), found on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, play a key role in controlling the innate response. Such response depends on a series of cellular interactions between these receptors and HLA activating/inhibiting ligands. Atopic diseases have been associated with genes that regulate cytokine production and HLA genes, which may either protect or predispose to hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To verify an association study of KIR genes with sensitization to the following mites: Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Blomia tropicalis...
October 31, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098420/growth-responses-of-the-common-arctic-graminoid-eriophorum-vaginatum-to-simulated-grazing-are-independent-of-soil-nitrogen-availability
#12
Paul Grogan, Tara J Zamin
Plant compensatory growth responses to herbivory are mediated by soil fertility and can have significant feedbacks that affect overall ecosystem nutrient cycling. The sedge Eriophorum vaginatum is the dominant graminoid in arctic mesic tundra, and is heavily consumed by caribou. Here, we compare the principal compensatory growth models in explaining the impact of a single episode of simulated caribou grazing at two clipping intensities on E. vaginatum total growing season shoot production, nitrogen concentrations, and nitrogen pools, over two successive years across a soil nitrogen fertilisation gradient...
November 2, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093082/according-to-hcv-infection-stage-il-7-plus-4-1bb-triggering-alone-or-combined-with-pd-1-blockade-increases-traf1-low-hcv-specific-cd8-cell-reactivity
#13
Elia Moreno-Cubero, Dolores Subirá, Eduardo Sanz-de-Villalobos, Trinidad Parra-Cid, Antonio Madejón, Joaquín Miquel, Antonio Olveira, Alejandro González-Praetorius, Javier García-Samaniego, Juan-Ramón Larrubia
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) T cells suffer a progressive exhaustion during persistent HCV infection (PI). This process could involve the positive immune checkpoint 4-1BB/4-1BBL, through the loss of its signal transducer TRAF1. To address this issue, peripheral HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells (Pentamer(+)/CD8(+)) from patients with PI and resolved infection after treatment (RI) were studied. Duration of HCV infection and liver fibrosis progression rate inversely correlated with the likelihood of detecting peripheral pentamer(+)/CD8(+) cells...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083038/plasmodesmal-regulation-during-plant-pathogen-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Cecilia Cheval, Christine Faulkner
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: Plasmodesmata (PD) are plasma membrane-lined pores that connect neighbouring plant cells, bridging the cell wall and establishing cytoplasmic and membrane continuity between cells. PD are dynamic structures regulated by callose deposition in a variety of stress and developmental contexts. This process crudely controls the aperture of the pore and thus the flux of molecules between cells. During pathogen infection, plant cells initiate a range of immune responses and it was recently identified that, following perception of fungal and bacterial pathogens, plant cells initially close their PD...
October 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079812/olfactory-detection-of-a-bacterial-short-chain-fatty-acid-acts-as-an-orexigenic-signal-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#15
Ana Depetris-Chauvin, Diego Galagovsky, Charlene Chevalier, Gerard Maniere, Yael Grosjean
Microorganisms inhabiting fermenting fruit produce chemicals that elicit strong behavioral responses in flies. Depending on their ecological niche, individuals confer a positive or a negative valence to a chemical and, accordingly, they trigger either attractive or repulsive behaviors. We studied the case of bacterial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) that trigger opposite behaviors in adult and larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. We determined that SCFA-attractive responses depend on two larval exclusive chemoreceptors, Or30a and Or94b...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075279/antiviral-roles-of-abscisic-acid-in-plants
#16
REVIEW
Mazen Alazem, Na-Sheng Lin
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key hormone involved in tuning responses to several abiotic stresses and also has remarkable impacts on plant defense against various pathogens. The roles of ABA in plant defense against bacteria and fungi are multifaceted, inducing or reducing defense responses depending on its time of action. However, ABA induces different resistance mechanisms to viruses regardless of the induction time. Recent studies have linked ABA to the antiviral silencing pathway, which interferes with virus accumulation, and the micro RNA (miRNA) pathway through which ABA affects the maturation and stability of miRNAs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066965/on-why-targets-evoke-p3-components-in-prediction-tasks-drawing-an-analogy-between-prediction-and-matching-tasks
#17
Rolf Verleger, Stephanie Cäsar, Bastian Siller, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
P3 is the most conspicuous component in recordings of stimulus-evoked EEG potentials from the human scalp, occurring whenever some task has to be performed with the stimuli. The process underlying P3 has been assumed to be the updating of expectancies. More recently, P3 has been related to decision processing and to activation of established stimulus-response associations (S/R-link hypothesis). However, so far this latter approach has not provided a conception about how to explain the occurrence of P3 with predicted stimuli, although P3 was originally discovered in a prediction task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064685/chemotaxis-of-molecular-dyes-in-polymer-gradients-in-solution
#18
Rajarshi Guha, Farzad Mohajerani, Matthew Collins, Subhadip Ghosh, Ayusman Sen, Darrell Velegol
Chemotaxis provides a mechanism for directing the transport of molecules along chemical gradients. Here, we show the chemotactic migration of dye molecules in response to the gradients of several different neutral polymers. The magnitude of chemotactic response depends on the structure of the monomer, polymer molecular weight and concentration, and the nature of the solvent. The mechanism involves cross-diffusion up the polymer gradient, driven by favorable dye-polymer interaction. Modeling allows us to quantitatively evaluate the strength of the interaction and the effect of the various parameters that govern chemotaxis...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061365/rho-specific-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factors-rho-gefs-inhibition-affects-macrophage-phenotype-and-disrupts-golgi-complex
#19
Wei Chen, Yue Zhao, Xian C Li, Jacek Z Kubiak, Rafik M Ghobrial, Malgorzata Kloc
Macrophages play crucial role in tissue homeostasis and the innate and adaptive immune response. Depending on the state of activation macrophages acquire distinct phenotypes that depend on actin, which is regulated by small GTPase RhoA. The naive M0 macrophages are slightly elongated, pro-inflammatory M1 are round and M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages are elongated. We showed previously that interference with RhoA pathway (RhoA deletion or RhoA/ROCK kinase inhibition) disrupted actin, produced extremely elongated (hummingbird) macrophage phenotype and inhibited macrophage movement toward transplanted hearts...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054673/fluvial-biofilms-exposed-to-desiccation-and-pharmaceutical-pollution-new-insights-using-metabolomics
#20
Albert Serra-Compte, Natàlia Corcoll, Belinda Huerta, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sergi Sabater, Damià Barceló, Diana Álvarez-Muñoz
In many arid and semi-arid systems, biological communities in river ecosystems are submitted to flow interruption and desiccation, as well as to the impact of urban wastewaters. In this work, we studied (using a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap) the metabolomic response of biofilm communities exposed to both hydrological and chemical stressors. Fluvial biofilms were exposed to a mixture of 9 pharmaceuticals at a total concentration of 5000ng/L (mimicking concentrations and compounds found in polluted aquatic environments) and/or to seven days of desiccation, under laboratory conditions...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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