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Stacie L Flood, JoAnn M Burkholder
The toxigenic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum is a mixotrophic phytoplankter with an extensive historic record of forming nearly monospecific, high-biomass, ecosystem-disrupting blooms, and it has been responsible for major fish kills in brackish waters and aquaculture facilities in many regions of the world. Little is known about how this species responds to commonly occurring environmental contaminants, or how nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) pollution may interact with environmentally relevant pesticide exposures to affect this harmful algal species...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Dongchun Liang, Jeong-Im Woo, Hui Shao, Willi K Born, Rebecca L O'Brien, Henry J Kaplan, Deming Sun
Whether γδ T cells inhibit or enhance the Foxp3 T cell response depends upon their activation status. The critical enhancing effector in the supernatant is adenosine. Activated γδ T cells express adenosine receptors at high levels, which enables them to deprive Foxp3+ T cells of adenosine, and to inhibit their expansion. Meanwhile, cell-free supernatants of γδ T cell cultures enhance Foxp3 T cell expansion. Thus, inhibition and enhancement by γδ T cells of Foxp3 T cell response are a reflection of the balance between adenosine production and absorption by γδ T cells...
2018: PloS One
Maria Gabriella Matera, Clive Page, Barbara Rinaldi
Inhaled selective β2-agonists are the most widely used treatment for obstructive airway diseases. The classical mechanism of action of these drugs is considered as their ability to activate β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) on airway smooth muscle leading to G-protein activation and subsequent generation of c-AMP causing bronchodilation. However, there is now growing evidence to suggest that binding of β2-agonists to β2-AR is pleotropically coupled to many intracellular pathways whereby depending on the state of the β2-AR when activated, a subset of different intracellular responses can be triggered...
May 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Chunming Luo, Robert W Proctor
The location-, word-, and arrow-based Simon effects are usually attributed to the result of a direct route (the spatially corresponding stimulus-response association, activated automatically) that interferes with an indirect route (the association of task-relevant information and response, activated in accordance with the instructed stimulus-response mapping). We examined whether and how distinct direct routes (stimulus-location-response position and location word-response position or arrow direction-response position associations) affect responding on the basis of the same indirect route (a stimulus color-response association) in a Simon-like task...
May 14, 2018: Psychological Research
Barbara C Mindt, Jörg H Fritz, Claudia U Duerr
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) represent an evolutionary rather old but only recently identified member of the family of innate lymphoid cells and have received much attention since their detailed description in 2010. They can orchestrate innate as well as adaptive immune responses as they interact with and influence several immune and non-immune cell populations. Moreover, ILC2 are able to rapidly secrete large amounts of type 2 cytokines that can contribute to protective but also detrimental host immune responses depending on timing, location, and physiological context...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hongxia Wang, Richard B Dewell, Ying Zhu, Fabrizio Gabbiani
Feedforward inhibition is ubiquitous as a motif in the organization of neuronal circuits. During sensory information processing, it is traditionally thought to sharpen the responses and temporal tuning of feedforward excitation onto principal neurons. As it often exhibits complex time-varying activation properties, feedforward inhibition could also convey information used by single neurons to implement dendritic computations on sensory stimulus variables. We investigated this possibility in a collision-detecting neuron of the locust optic lobe that receives both feedforward excitation and inhibition...
May 4, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Kim F Bornhöfft, Tom Goldammer, Alexander Rebl, Sebastian P Galuska
Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins) are a family of immune regulatory receptors predominantly found on the cells of the hematopoietic system. A V-set Ig-like domain mediates the recognition of different sialylated glycoconjugates, which can lead to the activation or inhibition of the immune response, depending on the involved Siglecs. Siglecs are categorized into two subgroups: one including all CD33-related Siglecs and the other consisting of Siglec-1 (Sialoadhesin), Siglec-2 (CD22), Siglec-4 (myelin-associated glycoprotein, MAG) and Siglec-15...
May 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Vivien Kurucz, Thomas Krüger, Károly Antal, Anna-Maria Dietl, Hubertus Haas, István Pócsi, Olaf Kniemeyer, Tamás Emri
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus has to cope with a combination of several stress types while colonizing the human body. A functional interplay between these different stress responses can increase the chances of survival for this opportunistic human pathogen during the invasion of its host. In this study, we shed light on how the H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress response depends on the iron available to this filamentous fungus, using transcriptomic analysis, proteomic profiles, and growth assays...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
Blair P Lloyd, Johanna L Staubitz, Jon T Tapp
To date, several data analysis methods have been used to estimate contingency strength, yet few studies have compared these methods directly. To compare the relative precision and sensitivity of four analysis methods (i.e., exhaustive event-based, nonexhaustive event-based, concurrent interval, concurrent+lag interval), we applied all methods to a simulated data set in which several response-dependent and response-independent schedules of reinforcement were programmed. We evaluated the degree to which contingency strength estimates produced from each method (a) corresponded with expected values for response-dependent schedules and (b) showed sensitivity to parametric manipulations of response-independent reinforcement...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Francesca Giuntini, Federica Foglietta, Arianna M Marucco, Adriano Troia, Nikolai V Dezhkunov, Alessandro Pozzoli, Gianni Durando, Ivana Fenoglio, Loredana Serpe, Roberto Canaparo
Ultrasound is used to trigger the cytotoxicity of chemical compounds, known as sonosensitisers, in an approach called sonodynamic therapy (SDT), which is under investigation herein. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been proposed as the main biological occurrence that leads to the cytotoxic effects, which are achieved via the synergistic action of two components: the energy-absorbing sonosensitiser and ultrasound (US), which are both harmless per se. Despite some promising results, a lack of investigation into the mechanisms behind US sonosensitiser-mediated ROS generation has prevented SDT from reaching its full potential...
May 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Miead Nikfarjam, Enrique A López-Guerra, Santiago D Solares, Babak Eslami
In this short paper we explore the use of higher eigenmodes in single-eigenmode amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the small-indentation imaging of soft viscoelastic materials. In viscoelastic materials, whose response depends on the deformation rate, the tip-sample forces generated as a result of sample deformation increase as the tip velocity increases. Since the eigenfrequencies in a cantilever increase with eigenmode order, and since higher oscillation frequencies lead to higher tip velocities for a given amplitude (in viscoelastic materials), the sample indentation can in some cases be reduced by using higher eigenmodes of the cantilever...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Haogang Cai, James Muller, David Depoil, Viveka Mayya, Michael P Sheetz, Michael L Dustin, Shalom J Wind
Elucidating the rules for receptor triggering in cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts requires precise control of ligand positioning in three dimensions. Here, we use the T cell receptor (TCR) as a model and subject T cells to different geometric arrangements of ligands, using a nanofabricated single-molecule array platform. This comprises monovalent TCR ligands anchored to lithographically patterned nanoparticle clusters surrounded by mobile adhesion molecules on a supported lipid bilayer. The TCR ligand could be co-planar with the supported lipid bilayer (2D), excluding the CD45 transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase, or elevated by 10 nm on solid nanopedestals (3D), allowing closer access of CD45 to engaged TCR...
April 30, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Małgorzata Kardyńska, Anna Paszek, Jarosław Śmieja, David Spiller, Wiesława Widłak, Michael R H White, Pawel Paszek, Marek Kimmel
Elevated temperature induces the heat shock (HS) response, which modulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, the immune and inflammatory responses. However, specific mechanisms linking the HS response pathways to major cellular signaling systems are not fully understood. Here we used integrated computational and experimental approaches to quantitatively analyze the crosstalk mechanisms between the HS-response and a master regulator of inflammation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) system...
April 30, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Julie Spray, Bruce Floyd, Judith Littleton, Susanna Trnka, Siobhan Mattison
Previous research proposes stress as a mechanism for linking social environments and biological bodies. In particular, non-human primate studies investigate relationships between cortisol as a measure of stress response and social hierarchies. Because human social structures often include hierarchies of dominance and social status, humans may exhibit similar patterns. Studies of non-human primates, however, have not reached consistent conclusions with respect to relationships between social position and levels of cortisol...
March 27, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Toshinori Morisaku, Hiroharu Yui
A laser-induced surface deformation (LISD) microscope is developed and applied to measurement of the dynamic relaxation responses of the plasma membrane in a living cell. A laser beam is tightly focused on an optional area of cell surface and the focused light induces microscopic deformation on the surface via radiation pressure. The LISD microscope not only allows non-contact and destruction-free measurement but provides power spectra of the surface responses depending on the frequency of the intensity of the laser beam...
April 27, 2018: Analyst
René Weiss, Marion Gröger, Sabine Rauscher, Birgit Fendl, Tanja Eichhorn, Michael B Fischer, Andreas Spittler, Viktoria Weber
Secretion and exchange of biomolecules via extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial mechanisms in intercellular communication, and the roles of EVs in infection, inflammation, or thrombosis have been increasingly recognized. EVs have emerged as central players in immune regulation and can enhance or suppress the immune response, depending on the state of donor and recipient cells. We investigated the interaction of blood cell-derived EVs with leukocyte subpopulations (monocytes and their subsets, granulocytes, B cells, T cells, and NK cells) directly in whole blood using a combination of flow cytometry, imaging flow cytometry, cell sorting, and high resolution confocal microscopy...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aurora L Ginzburg, Lisa Truong, Robert L Tanguay, James E Hutchison
Nanoparticle safety is usually determined using solutions of individual particles that are free of additives. However, the size-dependent properties of nanoparticles can be readily altered through interactions with other components in a mixture. In applications, nanoparticles are commonly combined with surfactants or other additives to increase dispersion or to enhance product performance. Surfactants might also influence the biological activity of nanoparticles; however, little is known about such effects...
April 26, 2018: ACS Nano
Pushpak Bhattacharjee, Peter A Keyel
Necrotizing soft tissue infections are lethal polymicrobial infections. Two key microbes that cause necrotizing soft tissue infections are Streptococcus pyogenes and Clostridium perfringens. These pathogens evade innate immunity using multiple virulence factors, including cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs). CDCs are resisted by mammalian cells through the sequestration and shedding of pores during intrinsic membrane repair. One hypothesis is that vesicle shedding promotes immune evasion by concomitantly eliminating key signaling proteins present in cholesterol-rich microdomains...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ruud Hp Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Debbie R van Raaij, Jaap Bakker, Geert Smant, Arjen Schots
Aim: Treatment of inflammatory disorders relies on the intervention in immune responses thereby restoring homeostasis. IL-10 is a cytokine with therapeutic potential, but until now has not been as successful as previously anticipated. A reason for this may be that IL-10 responsiveness depends on the environment of the inflamed tissue. In this study we investigated whether GM-CSF is able to influence IL-10-mediated responses. Methodology: Dendritic cells and macrophages were differentiated from mouse bone marrow and treated or depleted from GM-CSF prior to analyze their response to IL-10...
April 2018: Future Science OA
Alejandra Díaz-García, Ana R Borrero-Santiago, Inmaculada Riba
Two marine bacterial populations (Roseobacter sp. and Pseudomonas litoralis) were exposed to different concentrations of zinc (300, 625, 1250, 2000, 2500 and 5000 mg L-1 ) and cadmium (75, 250, 340, 500 and 1000 mg L-1 ) using two culture media (full nutrient Marine Broth 2216 "MB" and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilution with seawater of Marine Broth 2216 "MBSW "), in order to assess population responses depending on the culture medium and also potential adverse effects associated with these two metals...
August 2018: Chemosphere
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