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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675825/using-an-abbreviated-assessment-to-identify-effective-error-correction-procedures-for-individual-learners-during-discrete-trial-instruction
#1
Regina A Carroll, Jennifer Owsiany, Jessica M Cheatham
Previous research comparing the effectiveness of error-correction procedures has involved lengthy assessments that may not be practical in applied settings. We used an abbreviated assessment to compare the effectiveness of five error-correction procedures for four children with autism spectrum disorder or a developmental delay. During the abbreviated assessment, we sampled participants' responding with each procedure and completed the assessment before participants reached our mastery criterion. Then, we used the results of the abbreviated assessment to predict the most efficient procedure for each participant...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489011/live-training-versus-e-learning-to-teach-implementation-of-listener-response-programs
#2
Kaneen B Geiger, Linda A LeBlanc, Katie Hubik, Sarah R Jenkins, James E Carr
Discrete-trial teaching is an effective teaching procedure that must be implemented with high integrity to produce optimal learning. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) has proven effective for staff training; however, BST is time and labor intensive. Computer-based instruction (CBI) programs may provide a more efficient and cost-effective alternative to live training if the CBI program is as effective as BST in producing accurate implementation. The current study compared CBI to BST to train novice undergraduate students to conduct discrete-trial teaching...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446093/effects-of-neutral-and-enthusiastic-praise-on-the-rate-of-discrimination-acquisition
#3
Jennifer R Weyman, Jolene R Sy
Previous research has shown that praise is an effective reinforcer; however, few researchers have evaluated whether qualitative differences in praise affect responding. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of neutral, enthusiastic, and no praise on the rate of matching-to-sample acquisition during discrete-trial training with adults diagnosed with autism and an intellectual disability. In addition, we evaluated preference for neutral, enthusiastic, and no praise. All three participants acquired responses slightly faster during the enthusiastic praise condition...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338313/rapport-building-and-instructional-fading-prior-to-discrete-trial-instruction-moving-from-child-led-play-to-intensive-teaching
#4
M Alice Shillingsburg, Bethany Hansen, Melinda Wright
Discrete trial instruction (DTI) is effective for teaching skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although effective, instructional settings can become aversive resulting in avoidant and escape-related behaviors. Given the significant social impairments associated with ASD, interventions that promote social approach and reduce avoidance are warranted. Rapport building or "pairing" the therapist and teaching setting with highly preferred activities prior to instruction can reduce problematic behaviors during subsequent instruction...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286982/concurrent-validity-of-the-zeno-walkway-for-measuring-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-in-older-adults
#5
Srikant Vallabhajosula, Sarah K Humphrey, Alys J Cook, Jane E Freund
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that older adults at high fall risk exhibit altered spatiotemporal gait parameters such as lesser gait speed, shorter step length, and greater step width compared with their healthy counterparts. Measurement of these gait parameters for older adults can play a pivotal role in clinical evaluation. While the GAITRite walkway has been previously validated and used extensively for research purposes, the Zeno walkway validity has not been established...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238979/evaluating-the-performance-diagnostic-checklist-human-services-to-assess-incorrect-error-correction-procedures-by-preschool-paraprofessionals
#6
Melissa Bowe, Tyra P Sellers
The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) has been used to assess variables contributing to undesirable staff performance. In this study, three preschool teachers completed the PDC-HS to identify the factors contributing to four paraprofessionals' inaccurate implementation of error-correction procedures during discrete trial training sessions. The PDC-HS indicated insufficient training as a contributing factor. We then implemented a nonindicated intervention (posting reminders), followed by an indicated intervention (behavioral skills training)...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214136/training-parents-in-saudi-arabia-to-implement-discrete-trial-teaching-with-their-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Ahmad M Eid, Sarah M Aljaser, Anoud N AlSaud, Sultana M Asfahani, Ohoud A Alhaqbani, Rafat S Mohtasib, Hesham M Aldhalaan, Mitch Fryling
The present study evaluates the effects of a behavioral skill training package on parent implementation of discrete trial teaching with their children with autism spectrum disorder. Three mothers of children with autism participated in the study. The training package improved implementation for all three of the mothers. Moreover, these improvements generalized to skills that were not taught during training, maintained during follow-up probes, and resulted in improvements in child behavior.
December 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214131/the-use-of-behavioral-skills-training-to-teach-graph-analysis-to-community-based-teachers
#8
Lindsay Maffei-Almodovar, Gina Feliciano, Daniel M Fienup, Peter Sturmey
In this study, the experimenter trained three teachers to implement data decision rules to detect when instructional changes should be made during the visual analysis of discrete-trial percentage graphs. The experimenter used a concurrent, multiple-baseline design across participants. The experimenter trained the teachers to follow decision-making rules using instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Following intervention, participants increased the percentage of correct data-based decisions and decreased the percentage of errors...
December 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181815/effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-exposure-on-stress-induced-reward-deficits-brain-crf-monoamines-and-glutamate-in-adult-rats
#9
Nathalie Boutros, Andre Der-Avakian, James P Kesby, Soon Lee, Athina Markou, Svetlana Semenova
BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol exposure may increase depression vulnerability in adulthood by increasing the anhedonic response to stress. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (postnatal days 28-53) were exposed to binge-like adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) or water. In adulthood, rats were exposed to social defeat, consisting of daily confrontations with an aggressive conspecific, followed by testing of brain reward function in a discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation procedure for 10 consecutive days...
March 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172681/further-analysis-of-the-predictive-effects-of-a-free-operant-competing-stimulus-assessment-on-stereotypy
#10
Kristen M Brogan, John T Rapp, Lisa A Sennott, Jennifer L Cook, Erin Swinkels
We conducted five experiments to evaluate the predictive validity of a free-operant competing stimulus assessment (FOCSA). In Experiment 1, we showed that each participant's repetitive behavior persisted without social consequences. In Experiment 2, we used the FOCSA to identify high-preference, low-stereotypy (HP-LS) items for 11 participants and high-preference, high-stereotypy (HP-HS) items for nine participants. To validate the results of the FOCSAs (Experiment 3), we used a three-component multiple schedule to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of an HP-LS stimulus, an HP-HS stimulus, or both (in separate test sequences) on each participant's stereotypy...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131524/multi-scale-contingencies-during-individual-and-joint-action
#11
J Scott Jordan, Daniel S Schloesser, Jiuyang Bai, Drew Abney
The present paper describes a joint action paradigm in which individuals or pairs utilized two computer keys to keep a dot stimulus moving inside a larger rectangle. Members of a pair could neither see nor hear each other. This paradigm allowed us to combine the discrete-trial type dependent variables (e.g., reaction time) commonly utilized by representational theorists, with the continuous, temporal dependence variables (e.g., RQA) utilized by dynamical theorists. Analysis revealed that individuals kept the dot in the rectangle longer than dyads and did so by moving it back and forth within the rectangle...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101661/stuck-at-the-starting-line-how-the-starting-procedure-influences-mouse-tracking-data
#12
Stefan Scherbaum, Pascal J Kieslich
Mouse-tracking is an increasingly popular method to trace cognitive processes. As is common for a novel method, the exact methodological procedures employed in an individual study are still relatively idiosyncratic and the effects of different methodological setups on mouse-tracking measures have not been explored so far. Here, we study the impact of one commonly occurring methodological variation, namely whether participants have to initiate their mouse movements to trigger stimulus presentation (dynamic starting condition) or whether the stimulus is presented automatically after a fixed delay and participants can freely decide when to initiate their movements (static starting condition)...
November 3, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083218/attending-to-relations-proportional-reasoning-in-3-to-6-year-old-children
#13
Michelle A Hurst, Sara Cordes
When proportional information is pit against whole number numerical information, children often attend to the whole number information at the expense of proportional information (e.g., indicating 4/9 is greater than 3/5 because 4 > 3). In the current study, we presented younger (3- to 4-year-olds) and older (5- to 6-year-olds) children a task in which the proportional information was presented either continuously (units cannot be counted) or discretely (countable units; numerical information available). In the discrete conditions, older children showed numerical interference-responding based on the number of pieces instead of the proportion of pieces...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021945/an-evaluation-of-instructive-feedback-to-teach-play-behavior-to-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Laura L Grow, Tiffany Kodak, Andrea Clements
Instructive feedback is used to expose learners to secondary targets during skill acquisition programs (Reichow & Wolery, in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44 , 327-340, 2011; Werts, Wolery, Gast, & Holcombe, in Journal of Behavioral Education, 5 , 55-75, 1995). Although unrelated feedback may have clinical utility in practice, very little research has evaluated unrelated instructive feedback, particularly for promoting play behavior (Colozzi, Ward, & Crotty, in Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43 , 226-248, 2008)...
September 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021746/lever-insertion-as-a-salient-stimulus-promoting-insensitivity-to-outcome-devaluation
#15
Youna Vandaele, Heather J Pribut, Patricia H Janak
Flexible and efficient decision-making in complex environments can be achieved through constant interactions between the goal-directed and habitual systems. While goal-directed behavior is considered dependent upon Response-Outcome (R-O) associations, habits instead rely on Stimulus-Response (S-R) associations. However, the stimuli that support the S-R association underlying habitual responding in typical instrumental procedures are poorly defined. To resolve this issue, we designed a discrete-trials procedure, in which rats must wait for lever insertion and complete a sequence of five lever presses to obtain a reward (20% sucrose or grain-based pellets)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969454/teaching-multi-step-requesting-to-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-systematic-instruction-and-a-speech-generating-device
#16
Derya Genc-Tosun, Onur Kurt
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an iPad-based speech-generating device (SGD) and an intervention package in teaching multi-step requesting to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention package comprised discrete trial teaching, time delay, graduated guidance, and reinforcement. Social validity data were also collected from parents and teachers. Three male participants with ASD, aged 4-5 years, participated in the study, which was conducted using a multiple-probe-across-participants design...
December 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752549/choice-predicts-the-feedback-negativity
#17
Stuart McGill, Jude Buckley, Douglas Elliffe, Paul M Corballis
Choosing the appropriate response given the circumstance is integral to all aspects of human behavior. One way of elucidating the mechanisms of choice is to relate behavior to neural correlates. Electrophysiological evidence implicates the ERP feedback-negativity (FN) and the P300 as promising neural correlates of reward processing, an integral component of learning. However, prior research has not adequately addressed how the development of a preference to select one option over another (choice preference) relates to the FN and the P300...
July 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653447/dividing-attention-between-tasks-testing-whether-explicit-payoff-functions-elicit-optimal-dual-task-performance
#18
George D Farmer, Christian P Janssen, Anh T Nguyen, Duncan P Brumby
We test people's ability to optimize performance across two concurrent tasks. Participants performed a number entry task while controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. Participants received explicit feedback on their performance on these tasks in the form of a single combined score. This payoff function was varied between conditions to change the value of one task relative to the other. We found that participants adapted their strategy for interleaving the two tasks, by varying how long they spent on one task before switching to the other, in order to achieve the near maximum payoff available in each condition...
June 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530503/a-comparison-of-self-selected-walking-speeds-and-walking-speed-variability-when-data-are-collected-during-repeated-discrete-trials-and-during-continuous-walking
#19
Marcus J Brown, Laura A Hutchinson, Michael J Rainbow, Kevin J Deluzio, Alan R De Asha
A typical gait analysis data collection consists of a series of discrete trials, where a participant initiates gait, walks through a motion capture volume, and then terminates gait. This is not a normal 'everyday' gait pattern, yet measurements are considered representative of normal walking. However, walking speed, a global descriptor of gait quality that can affect joint kinematics and kinetics, may be different during discrete trials, compared to continuous walking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of continuous walking versus discrete trials on walking speed and walking speed variability...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464438/social-skills-training-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-robotic-behavioral-intervention-system
#20
Sang-Seok Yun, JongSuk Choi, Sung-Kee Park, Gui-Young Bong, HeeJeong Yoo
We designed a robot system that assisted in behavioral intervention programs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The eight-session intervention program was based on the discrete trial teaching protocol and focused on two basic social skills: eye contact and facial emotion recognition. The robotic interactions occurred in four modules: training element query, recognition of human activity, coping-mode selection, and follow-up action. Children with ASD who were between 4 and 7 years old and who had verbal IQ ≥ 60 were recruited and randomly assigned to the treatment group (TG, n = 8, 5...
May 2, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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