keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Contingencies

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454140/weight-management-in-rural-health-clinics-the-midwest-diet-and-exercise-trial
#1
Anna M Gorczyca, Richard A Washburn, Lauren Ptomey, Matthew S Mayo, Debra K Sullivan, Cheryl A Gibson, Robert Lee, Sarah Stolte, Joseph E Donnelly
Obesity prevalence is higher in rural compared to urban residents. Rural health clinics offer a potential venue for delivery of weight management. However, traditional programs require travel to attend on-site meetings which is impractical or inconvenient for rural residents. Clinic staff in most rural settings are unlikely to be trained to provide effective weight management. Remote delivery using group phone conferences (GP) or individual phone calls (IP), by staff associated with rural clinics eliminates the need for travel to attend on-site meetings...
February 14, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453834/demystifying-evidence-based-policy-analysis-by-revealing-hidden-value-laden-constraints
#2
Adam M Finkel
Consider any choice that affects some social policy. A decision that considers evidence will, at its heart, contain some kind of explicit or implicit "because" statement: "We are doing X because the evidence says Y." But can evidence ever truly speak for itself, in the sense of being reducible to objective utterances that are either correct or in need of correction? Before answering, consider what you'd prefer. Would you rather receive evidence that was free of any value judgments imposed by human actors, that was laden with value judgments that you agree with, or laden with value judgments that you disagree with? The central assertion of this essay is that, throughout policy analysis but especially in assessments of the costs and benefits of regulating versus encouraging new technologies (cost-benefit analysis, or CBA), the first possibility above is a mirage, and the second and third are self-contradictory...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451106/thinking-in-a-foreign-language-reduces-the-causality-bias
#3
Marcos Díaz-Lago, Helena Matute
The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of a foreign language on the causality bias (i.e., the illusion that two events are causally related when they are not). We predict that using a foreign language could reduce the illusions of causality. A total of 36 native English speakers participated in Experiment 1, 80 native Spanish speakers in Experiment 2. They performed a standard contingency learning task, which can be used to detect causal illusions. Participants who performed the task in their native tongue replicated the illusion of causality effect, whereas those performing the task in their foreign language were more accurate in detecting that the two events were causally unrelated...
February 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450231/free-will-in-addictive-behaviors-a-matter-of-definition
#4
REVIEW
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449799/markov-switching-model-for-quick-detection-of-event-related-desynchronization-in-eeg
#5
Giuseppe Lisi, Diletta Rivela, Asuka Takai, Jun Morimoto
Quick detection of motor intentions is critical in order to minimize the time required to activate a neuroprosthesis. We propose a Markov Switching Model (MSM) to achieve quick detection of an event related desynchronization (ERD) elicited by motor imagery (MI) and recorded by electroencephalography (EEG). Conventional brain computer interfaces (BCI) rely on sliding window classifiers in order to perform online continuous classification of the rest vs. MI classes. Based on this approach, the detection of abrupt changes in the sensorimotor power suffers from an intrinsic delay caused by the necessity of computing an estimate of variance across several tenths of a second...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449456/place-learning-overrides-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#6
Vincent Baggett, Aditi Mishra, Abigail L Kehrer, Abbey O Robinson, Paul Shaw, Troy Zars
Animals in a natural environment confront many sensory cues. Some of these cues bias behavioral decisions independent of experience, and action selection can reveal a stimulus-response (S-R) connection. However, in a changing environment it would be a benefit for an animal to update behavioral action selection based on experience, and learning might modify even strong S-R relationships. How animals use learning to modify S-R relationships is a largely open question. Three sensory stimuli, air, light, and gravity sources were presented to individual Drosophila melanogaster in both naïve and place conditioning situations...
March 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447853/a-comparator-hypothesis-account-of-biased-contingency-detection
#7
REVIEW
Miguel A Vadillo, Itxaso Barberia
Our ability to detect statistical dependencies between different events in the environment is strongly biased by the number of coincidences between them. Even when there is no true covariation between a cue and an outcome, if the marginal probability of either of them is high, people tend to perceive some degree of statistical contingency between both events. The present paper explores the ability of the Comparator Hypothesis to explain the general pattern of results observed in this literature. Our simulations show that this model can account for the biasing effects of the marginal probabilities of cues and outcomes...
February 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446700/an-interview-informed-synthesized-contingency-analysis-to-inform-the-treatment-of-challenging-behavior-in-a-young-child-with-autism
#8
Ciara Herman, Olive Healy, Sinéad Lydon
PURPOSE: Experimental Functional analysis (EFA) is considered the "gold standard" of behavioural assessment and its use is predictive of treatment success. However, EFA has a number of limitations including its lengthy nature, the high level of expertise required, and the reinforcement of challenging behaviour. This study aimed to further validate a novel interview-informed synthesised contingency analysis (IISCA). METHODS: An open-ended interview and brief direct observation informed an IISCA for a young boy with autism who engaged in challenging behaviour...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446229/biogeographical-distribution-of-bacterial-communities-in-changbai-mountain-northeast-china
#9
Dongxue Han, Ning Wang, Xue Sun, Yanbo Hu, Fujuan Feng
The broad-leaved and Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain, China is an important component of boreal forest; the area is sensitive to global climate change. To understand spatial distribution patterns of soil bacterial community along elevation, we analyzed the soil bacterial community diversity and composition along an elevational gradient of 699-1177 m in a primitive Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain using the high-throughput sequencing. In total, 149,519 optimized sequences were obtained. Bacterial Shannon index increased along elevation from 699 m to 937 m and started to decrease at the elevation of 1,044 m, showing a humpback curve along elevation...
February 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444622/the-role-of-close-relationships-in-terror-management-a-systematic-review-and-research-agenda
#10
Nicholas Plusnin, Christopher A Pepping, Emiko S Kashima
Terror management theory outlines how humans seek self-esteem and worldview validation to manage death-related anxiety. Accumulating evidence reveals that close relationships serve a similar role. However, to date, there has been no synthesis of the literature that delineates when close relationships buffer mortality concerns, under what conditions, on which specific outcomes, and for whom. This systematic review presents over two decades of research to address these questions. Findings from 73 reviewed studies revealed that close relationships serve an important role in buffering death-related anxiety...
February 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444454/assessing-the-blocking-of-occasion-setting
#11
Felipe Alfaro, Jorge Mallea, Mario A Laborda, Aracelli Cañete, Gonzalo Miguez
An occasion setter (OS) is a stimulus or context with the capacity to disambiguate an ambiguous conditioned stimulus (CS). Previous research has shown that OSs share some features with regular Pavlovian CSs. Amongst them, research has shown that OSs are subject to blocking; that is, a new OS exerts reduced behavioral control after training in compound with a previously established OS. Of additional interest, in Pavlovian blocking, it has been reported that a blocked CS comes to elicit conditioned responding after the extinction of the blocking CS...
February 11, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443645/hair-and-salivary-testosterone-hair-cortisol-and-externalizing-behaviors-in-adolescents
#12
Andrew D Grotzinger, Frank D Mann, Megan W Patterson, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442522/the-impact-of-ptsd-clusters-on-cannabis-use-in-a-racially-diverse-trauma-exposed-sample-an-analysis-from-ecological-momentary-assessment
#13
Julia D Buckner, Emily R Jeffries, Ross D Crosby, Michael J Zvolensky, Courtenay E Cavanaugh, Stephen A Wonderlich
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates a link between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cannabis use and suggests that this link may vary as a function of the PTSD symptom cluster type. Consistent with negative reinforcement models of substance use, individuals with elevated Cluster D (Hyperarousal) symptoms may be more likely to use cannabis in response to elevated state anxiety and experience decreases in state anxiety after using cannabis. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test hypotheses that the interaction of Cluster D and state anxiety would be related to subsequent cannabis use and that those with elevated Cluster D symptoms who used cannabis would report the greatest decreases in state anxiety...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442251/adaptive-learning-and-forgetting-in-an-unconventional-experimental-routine
#14
Daniel Bell-Garrison, Nathaniel C Rice, Elizabeth G E Kyonka
Forgetting is often thought of as the inability to remember, but remembering and forgetting allow behavior to adapt to a changing environment in distinct and separable ways. Learning and forgetting were assessed concurrently in two pigeon experiments that involved the same unconventional routine where the schedule of reinforcement changed every session. Sessions were run back-to-back with a 23-h mid-session break such that in a single visit to the testing chamber, a pigeon completed the second half of one session and the first half of the next...
February 13, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441505/eliciting-the-monetary-value-of-a-quality-adjusted-life-year-in-a-greek-outpatient-department-in-times-of-economic-austerity
#15
A Mavrodi, V Aletras, A Spanou, D Niakas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Contingent valuation is widely used to determine individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) for a health gain. Our study aimed to elicit an empirical estimate of the monetary value of a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) in a Greek outpatient setting in times of economic austerity and assess the impact of patients' characteristics on their valuations. METHODS: We used a questionnaire as a survey tool to determine the maximum WTP for a health gain of a hypothetical therapy and to evaluate patients' health-related quality of life (EuroQoL-5D-3L) and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics...
December 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439750/differential-neural-reward-mechanisms-in-treatment-responsive-and-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#16
Lucy D Vanes, Elias Mouchlianitis, Tracy Collier, Bruno B Averbeck, Sukhi S Shergill
BACKGROUND: The significant proportion of schizophrenia patients refractory to treatment, primarily directed at the dopamine system, suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie psychotic symptoms. Reinforcement learning tasks have been employed in schizophrenia to assess dopaminergic functioning and reward processing, but these have not directly compared groups of treatment-refractory and non-refractory patients. METHODS: In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 21 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 21 patients with non-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (NTR), and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, utilizing emotionally valenced face stimuli which elicit a social bias toward happy faces...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439672/renal-manifestations-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-patients-and-parents-knowledge-and-routines-for-renal-follow-up-a-questionnaire-study
#17
I Cockerell, M Guenin, K Heimdal, M Bjørnvold, K K Selmer, O Rouvière
BACKGROUND: Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are a major clinical feature in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Spontaneous bleeding can be life threatening, and appropriate information and proper surveillance and management are important to limit morbidity and mortality. Because TSC is a rare disease, patients are at risk of suboptimal medical management. Our aim was to investigate patients' and parents' knowledge about renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and to identify current routines for renal follow-up...
February 13, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436854/feasibility-of-event-related-potential-erp-biomarker-use-to-study-effects-of-mother-s-voice-exposure-on-speech-sound-differentiation-of-preterm-infants
#18
Olena D Chorna, Ellyn L Hamm, Hemang Shrivastava, Nathalie L Maitre
Atypical maturation of auditory neural processing contributes to preterm-born infants' language delays. Event-related potential (ERP) measurement of speech-sound differentiation might fill a gap in treatment-response biomarkers to auditory interventions. We evaluated whether these markers could measure treatment effects in a quasi-randomized prospective study. Hospitalized preterm infants in passive or active, suck-contingent mother's voice exposure groups were not different at baseline. Post-intervention, the active group had greater increases in/du/-/gu/differentiation in left frontal and temporal regions...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435825/word-segmentation-by-alternating-colors-facilitates-eye-guidance-in-chinese-reading
#19
Wei Zhou, Aiping Wang, Hua Shu, Reinhold Kliegl, Ming Yan
During sentence reading, low spatial frequency information afforded by spaces between words is the primary factor for eye guidance in spaced writing systems, whereas saccade generation for unspaced writing systems is less clear and under debate. In the present study, we investigated whether word-boundary information, provided by alternating colors (consistent or inconsistent with word-boundary information) influences saccade-target selection in Chinese. In Experiment 1, as compared to a baseline (i.e., uniform color) condition, word segmentation with alternating color shifted fixation location towards the center of words...
February 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434526/improving-the-first-line-treatment-of-febrile-illnesses-in-ghana-willingness-to-pay-for-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-at-licensed-chemical-shops-in-the-kintampo-area
#20
Theresa Tawiah, Keziah Malam, Anthony Kwarteng, Constance Bart-Plange, Lawrence Febir, Vivian Aubyn, Konrad Obermann, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Kwaku Poku Asante
Background: Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) enhances patient management and reduces costs associated with the inappropriate use of antimalarials. Despite its proven clinical effectiveness, mRDT is not readily available at licensed chemical shops in Ghana. Therefore, in order to improve the use of mRDT, there is the need to understand the willingness to pay for and sell mRDT. This study assessed patients' willingness to pay and licensed chemical operators' (LCS) willingness to sell mRDTs...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
keyword
keyword
112586
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"