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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677321/probing-the-temporal-dynamics-of-the-exploration-exploitation-dilemma-of-eye-movements
#1
Benedikt V Ehinger, Lilli Kaufhold, Peter König
When scanning a visual scene, we are in a constant decision process regarding whether to further exploit the information content at the current fixation or to go on and explore the scene. The balance of these two processes determines the distribution of fixation durations. Using a gaze-contingent paradigm, we experimentally interrupt this process to probe its state. Here, we developed a guided-viewing task where only a single 3° aperture of an image ("bubble") is displayed. Subjects had to fixate the bubble for an experimentally controlled time (forced fixation time)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676927/woodpeckers-and-diamonds-some-aspects-of-evolutionary-convergence-in-astrobiology
#2
Milan M Ćirković
Jared Diamond's argument against extraterrestrial intelligence from evolutionary contingency is subjected to critical scrutiny. As with the earlier arguments of George Gaylord Simpson, it contains critical loopholes that lead to its unraveling. From the point of view of the contemporary debates about biological evolution, perhaps the most contentious aspect of such arguments is their atemporal and gradualist usage of the space of all possible biological forms (morphospace). Such usage enables the translation of the adaptive value of a trait into the probability of its evolving...
April 20, 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675793/no-influence-of-smoking-status-on-the-performance-of-urine-markers-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer
#3
Susanne Deininger, J Hennenlotter, S Rausch, K Docktor, E Neumann, I A da Costa, J Bedke, A Stenzl, T Todenhöfer
PURPOSE: The performance of urinary markers for detecting bladder cancer (BC) is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of smoking habits on the performance of four commonly used urine markers. METHODS: Urine samples of 723 patients with suspected BC were analysed using urine cytology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunocytology (uCyt+ test), and quantitative nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) immunoassay...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673589/intracellular-calcium-is-a-rheostat-for-the-sting-signaling-pathway
#4
Dohyeong Kwon, Hiromi Sesaki, Suk-Jo Kang
Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) is essential for the DNA-sensing innate immune pathway. Recently, evidence is emerging that suggests STING also plays important roles in autoimmunity, cancer therapy, and senescence. Although a multitude of post-translational modifications that regulate the STING pathway have been discovered, the cellular events that guide STING translocation remain unclear. Here, we show, paradoxically, that both BAPTA-AM-mediated calcium depletion and ionomycin-induced calcium elevation suppress STING translocation and STING-mediated IFN-β production...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673378/are-randomised-controlled-trials-positivist-reviewing-the-social-science-and-philosophy-literature-to-assess-positivist-tendencies-of-trials-of-social-interventions-in-public-health-and-health-services
#5
Chris Bonell, Graham Moore, Emily Warren, Laurence Moore
BACKGROUND: We have previously proposed that trials of social interventions can be done within a "realist" research paradigm. Critics have countered that such trials are irredeemably positivist and asked us to explain our philosophical position. METHODS: We set out to explore what is meant by positivism and whether trials adhere to its tenets (of necessity or in practice) via a narrative literature review of social science and philosophical discussions of positivism, and of the trials literature and three case studies of trials...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672115/effects-of-aging-word-frequency-and-text-stimulus-quality-on-reading-across-the-adult-lifespan-evidence-from-eye-movements
#6
Kayleigh L Warrington, Victoria A McGowan, Kevin B Paterson, Sarah J White
Reductions in stimulus quality may disrupt the reading performance of older adults more when compared with young adults because of sensory declines that begin early in middle age. However, few studies have investigated adult age differences in the effects of stimulus quality on reading, and none have examined how this affects lexical processing and eye movement control. Accordingly, we report two experiments that examine the effects of reduced stimulus quality on the eye movements of young (18-24 years), middle-aged (41-51 years), and older (65+ years) adult readers...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672113/increased-cognitive-load-enables-unlearning-in-procedural-category-learning
#7
Matthew J Crossley, W Todd Maddox, F Gregory Ashby
Interventions for drug abuse and other maladaptive habitual behaviors may yield temporary success but are often fragile and relapse is common. This implies that current interventions do not erase or substantially modify the representations that support the underlying addictive behavior-that is, they do not cause true unlearning. One example of an intervention that fails to induce true unlearning comes from Crossley, Ashby, and Maddox (2013, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General), who reported that a sudden shift to random feedback did not cause unlearning of category knowledge obtained through procedural systems, and they also reported results suggesting that this failure is because random feedback is noncontingent on behavior...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670678/the-underestimated-significance-of-conditioning-in-placebo-hypoalgesia-and-nocebo-hyperalgesia
#8
REVIEW
Anne-Kathrin Bräscher, Michael Witthöft, Susanne Becker
Placebo and nocebo effects are intriguing phenomena in pain perception with important implications for clinical research and practice because they can alleviate or increase pain. According to current theoretical accounts, these effects can be shaped by verbal suggestions, social observational learning, and classical conditioning and are necessarily mediated by explicit expectation. In this review, we focus on the contribution of conditioning in the induction of placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia and present accumulating evidence that conditioning independent from explicit expectation can cause these effects...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669899/conserved-but-flexible-modularity-in-the-zebrafish-skull-implications-for-craniofacial-evolvability
#9
Kevin J Parsons, Young H Son, Amelie Crespel, Davide Thambithurai, Shaun Killen, Matthew P Harris, R Craig Albertson
Morphological variation is the outward manifestation of development and provides fodder for adaptive evolution. Because of this contingency, evolution is often thought to be biased by developmental processes and functional interactions among structures, which are statistically detectable through forms of covariance among traits. This can take the form of substructures of integrated traits, termed modules, which together comprise patterns of variational modularity. While modularity is essential to an understanding of evolutionary potential, biologists currently have little understanding of its genetic basis and its temporal dynamics over generations...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667884/egg-and-banana-sign-a-novel-diagnostic-ct-marker-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Chris L Scelsi, William B Bates, Yulia V Melenevsky, Gyanendra K Sharma, Norman B Thomson, Jayanth H Keshavamurthy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine whether the egg-and-banana sign, defined as the visualization of the main pulmonary artery (PA) at the level of the aortic arch, is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for pulmonary hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 186 patients who, between January 2014 and July 2017, received right heart catheterizations and underwent CT studies that included the aortic arch within 140 days of catheterization were evaluated in this retrospective study...
April 18, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667118/acmt-position-statement-alternative-or-contingency-countermeasures-for-acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting-agents
#11
Andrew Stolbach, Vikhyat Bebarta, Michael Beuhler, Shaun Carstairs, Lewis Nelson, Michael Wahl, Paul M Wax, Charles McKay
First responders and health care providers must prepare to provide care for patients poisoned by acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor chemical warfare agents or pesticides. However, pre-deployed medical countermeasures (MCMs) may not be sufficient due to production and delivery interruption, rapid depletion of contents during a response, expiration of MCM components, or lack of local availability of approved MCMs. To augment supplies of community-based and forward-deployed nerve agent countermeasures, the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) supports several strategies: (1) The use of expired atropine, diazepam, and pralidoxime auto-injectors and vials if non-expired drugs are unavailable; and (2) Investigation, development, and identification of alternative countermeasures-commonly stocked drugs that are not approved for nerve agent poisoning but are in the same therapeutic class as approved drugs...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663423/linking-internal-and-external-signals-for-performance-monitoring-an-event-related-potential-study
#12
Christian Valt, Mona Katharina Sprengeler, Birgit Stürmer
The present study explored the relevance of internal signals for the dynamics of personal and nonpersonal feedback processing. To this end, pairs of participants performed concurrently a choice-response task and received external signals in four feedback contexts. In two contexts, feedback was informative about the personal performance (personal/private and personal/public); in the other two contexts, instructions suggested that feedback was informative about the other participant's performance (nonpersonal/other) or that it was random (nonpersonal/random)...
April 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660939/aberrant-cortical-event-related-potentials-during-associative-learning-in-rat-models-for-presymptomatic-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Bardia Nouriziabari, Susmita Sarkar, Stephanie E Tanninen, Robert D Dayton, Ronald L Klein, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
Trace eyeblink conditioning is a hippocampus-dependent associative learning paradigm which is impaired in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and animal AD models. Learning in this paradigm accompanies changes in oscillatory activity in forebrain regions, some of which are loci of pathogenic changes in prodromal AD stages. These observations motivated us to examine how cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) during this paradigm are affected by two features of the asymptomatic, AD-related brain abnormality, entorhinal tau accumulation and mild cholinergic deficit...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660545/the-effect-of-packaging-on-consumer-eating-quality-of-beef
#14
R J Polkinghorne, J Philpott, Jessira Perovic, J Lau, L Davies, W Mudannayake, R Watson, G Tarr, J M Thompson
This experiment examined 3 packaging systems: overwrap packaging using oxygen permeable film (OWP); vacuum skin packaging (VSP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 80%O2 and 20%CO2 ) on consumer sensory. Three primals from 48 carcasses were aged in vacuum packs for 5, 12 or 40 days. Steaks from longissimus lumborum, gluteus medius and psoas major muscles were packed in OWP, VSP and MAP for 9 days. Untrained consumers scored grilled steaks for tenderness, juiciness, liking of flavour and overall acceptability...
April 5, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659679/surveillance-imaging-with-fdg-pet-ct-in-the-post-operative-follow-up-of-stage-3-melanoma
#15
J Lewin, L Sayers, D Kee, I Walpole, A Sanelli, L Te Marvelde, A Herschtal, J Spillane, D Gyorki, D Speakman, V Estall, S Donahoe, M Pohl, K Pope, M Chua, S Sandhu, G A McArthur, C J McCormack, M Henderson, R J Hicks, M Shackleton
Background: As early detection of recurrent melanoma maximizes treatment options, patients usually undergo post-operative imaging surveillance, increasingly with FDG-PET/CT (PET). To assess this, we evaluated stage 3 melanoma patients who underwent prospectively applied and sub-stage-specific schedules of PET surveillance. Patients and Methods: From 2009, patients with stage 3 melanoma routinely underwent PET +/- MRI brain scans via defined schedules based on sub-stage-specific relapse probabilities...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658762/relationships-with-former-stepgrandparents-after-remarriage-dissolution
#16
Caroline Sanner, Marilyn Coleman, Lawrence Ganong
Increases in stepfamily formation and longevity suggest that more children have stepgrandparent relationships than ever before. Because remarriages end in divorce more often than first marriages, many children experience the involuntary dissolution of stepgrandparent ties. Little is known about stepgrandparent relationships in general, and even less is known about how these relationships are affected by remarriage dissolution. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, the purpose of this study was to understand how stepgrandchildren make sense of their relationships with former stepgrandparents...
March 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658736/seeing-their-side-versus-feeling-their-pain-differential-consequences-of-perspective-taking-and-empathy-at-work
#17
Natalie H Longmire, David A Harrison
Perspective taking and empathic concern (empathy) have each been proposed as constructive approaches to social relationships. However, their potential distinctions, limitations, and consequences in task contexts are not well understood. We meta-analytically examined 304 independent samples to uncover unique effects of perspective taking and empathic concern on important work-related outcomes. We develop and test a contingency model of those effects, based on three facets of psychological interdependence: outcome, hierarchical (or power asymmetry), and social category (or in-group/out-group distinctions)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656722/toward-a-contingency-model-for-hospital-based-health-technology-assessment-evidence-from-adhophta-project
#18
Americo Cicchetti, Valentina Iacopino, Silvia Coretti, Alessandra Fiore, Marco Marchetti, Laura Sampietro-Colom, Kristian Kidholm, Jean-Blaise Wasserfallen, Rabia Kahveci, Esa Halmesmäki, Magdalene Rosenmöller, Claudia Wild, Raul-Allan Kivet
OBJECTIVES: Hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) is becoming increasingly relevant because of its role in managing the introduction and withdrawal of health technologies. The organizational arrangement in which HB-HTA activities are conducted depends on several contextual factors, although the dominant models have several similarities. The aims of this study were to explore, describe, interpret, and explain seven cases of the application of HB-HTA logic and to propose a classification for HB-HTA organizational models which may be beneficial for policy makers and HTA professionals...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656509/melioration-revisited-a-systematic-replication-of-vaughan-1981
#19
Vikki J Bland, Sarah Cowie, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
Organisms that behave so as to forfeit a relatively higher overall rate of reinforcement in favor of a relatively lower rate are said to engage in suboptimal choice. Suboptimal choice has been linked with maladaptive behavior in humans. Melioration theory offers one explanatory framework for suboptimal choice. Melioration theory suggests behavior is controlled by differences in local reinforcer rates between alternatives. Vaughan (1981) arranged two experimental conditions in which maximizing the overall rate of reinforcement required behavior that was compatible, or incompatible, with melioration...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653397/when-some-triggers-a-scalar-inference-out-of-the-blue-an-electrophysiological-study-of-a-stroop-like-conflict-elicited-by-single-words
#20
Cécile Barbet, Guillaume Thierry
Some studies in experimental pragmatics have concluded that scalar inferences (e.g., 'some X are Y' implicates 'not all X are Y') are context-dependent pragmatic computations delayed relative to semantic computations. However, it remains unclear whether strong contextual support is necessary to trigger such inferences. Here we tested if the scalar inference 'not all' triggered by some can be evoked in a maximally neutral context. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) amplitude modulations elicited by Stroop-like conflicts in participants instructed to indicate whether strings of letters were printed with all their letters in upper case or otherwise...
April 10, 2018: Cognition
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