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Annie Lévesque, Aimee N C Campbell, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Robrina Walker, Erin A McClure, Udi E Ghitza, Genie Bailey, Maxine Stitzer, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: Coping strategies are a predictor of abstinence among patients with substance use disorders. However, little is known regarding the role of coping strategies in the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Using data from a 12week randomized control trial assessing the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Education System (TES), an internet-delivered version of the CRA combined with contingency management, we tested the role of coping strategies as a mediator of treatment effectiveness...
September 30, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Ali Ghanchi
On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations...
October 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Maureen Ritchey, Andrew M McCullough, Charan Ranganath, Andrew P Yonelinas
Acute stress has been shown to modulate memory for recently learned information, an effect attributed to the influence of stress hormones on medial temporal lobe (MTL) consolidation processes. However, little is known about which memories will be affected when stress follows encoding. One possibility is that stress interacts with encoding processes to selectively protect memories that had elicited responses in the hippocampus and amygdala, two MTL structures important for memory formation. There is limited evidence for interactions between encoding processes and consolidation effects in humans, but recent studies of consolidation in rodents have emphasized the importance of encoding "tags" for determining the impact of consolidation manipulations on memory...
October 24, 2016: Hippocampus
Julian Wiemer, Paul Pauli
Fear-relevant illusory correlations (ICs) are defined as the overestimation of the relationship between a fear-relevant stimulus and aversive consequences. ICs reflect biased cognitions affecting the learning and unlearning of fear in anxiety disorders, and a deeper understanding might help to improve treatment. A model for the maintenance of ICs is proposed that highlights the importance of amplified aversiveness and salience of fear-relevant outcomes, impaired executive contingency monitoring and an availability heuristic...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Sonia Johnson, Luke Sheridan Rains, Steven Marwaha, John Strang, Thomas Craig, Tim Weaver, Paul McCrone, Michael King, David Fowler, Stephen Pilling, Louise Marston, Rumana Z Omar, Meghan Craig, Mark Hinton
BACKGROUND: Around 35-45 % of people in contact with services for a first episode of psychosis are using cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with delays in remission, poorer clinical outcomes, significant increases in the risk of relapse, and lower engagement in work or education. While there is a clear need for effective interventions, so far only very limited benefits have been achieved from psychological interventions. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioural intervention in which specified desired behavioural change is reinforced through financial rewards...
October 22, 2016: Trials
Mario Bonato, Matteo Lisi, Sara Pegoraro, Gilles Pourtois
Voluntary orienting of spatial attention is typically investigated by visually presented directional cues, which are called predictive when they indicate where the target is more likely to appear. In this study, we investigated the nature of the potential link between cue predictivity (the proportion of valid trials) and the strength of the resulting covert orienting of attention. Participants judged the orientation of a unilateral Gabor grating preceded by a centrally presented, non-directional, color cue, arbitrarily prompting a leftwards or rightwards shift of attention...
October 21, 2016: Psychological Research
Fernando A Wagner, Payam Sheikhattari, Jane Buccheri, Mary Gunning, Lisa Bleich, Christine Schutzman
: Smoking disproportionally affects minority and underserved populations but only a handful of interventions tailored to these populations have demonstrated effectiveness in real-life situations. We use community-based participatory research (CBPR) to test two interventions delivered by a community-based health care center. METHODS: Participants randomly assigned to individual or group-based intervention for smoking cessation (N= 400). Both included cessation counseling and health education, a contingency behavioral program, Nicotine Replacement Therapy, and health care for other comorbidities...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Pedro T Magalhães
The thesis that the theory of charismatic-plebiscitary democracy developed by Max Weber in the wake of the Weimar Republic was developed to its ultimate consequences by Carl Schmitt in the final crisis of Weimar has been hotly debated since it was first advanced in the 1950s. This paper proposes a fresh look at the controversy. By comparing both authors' concepts of politics in their relation to the problem of modernity, it argues that the Weber-Schmitt affair is neither a baseless legend nor a case of natural continuity...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Nils Kasties, Sarah Starosta, Onur Güntürkün, Maik C Stüttgen
Animals exploit visual information to identify objects, form stimulus-reward associations, and prepare appropriate behavioral responses. The nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), an associative region of the avian endbrain, contains neurons exhibiting prominent response modulation during presentation of reward-predicting visual stimuli, but it is unclear whether neural activity represents valuation signals, stimulus properties, or sensorimotor contingencies. To test the hypothesis that NCL neurons represent stimulus value, we subjected pigeons to a Pavlovian sign-tracking paradigm in which visual cues predicted rewards differing in magnitude (large vs...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jie Liu, Liang Guo, Jiping Jiang, Dexun Jiang, Peng Wang
In the emergency management relevant to chemical contingency spills, efficiency emergency rescue can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, an emergency material scheduling model (EMSM) with time-effective and cost-effective objectives is developed to coordinate both allocation and scheduling of the emergency materials. Meanwhile, an improved genetic algorithm (IGA) which includes a revision operation for EMSM is proposed to identify the emergency material scheduling schemes...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rosalind L Coleman, Susie McLean
INTRODUCTION: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Jonathan Denniss, Andrew T Astle
Purpose: To demonstrate methods that enable visual field sensitivities to be compared with normative data without restriction to a fixed test pattern. Methods: Healthy participants (n = 60, age 19-50) undertook microperimetry (MAIA-2) using 237 spatially dense locations up to 13° eccentricity. Surfaces were fit to the mean, variance, and 5th percentile sensitivities. Goodness-of-fit was assessed by refitting the surfaces 1000 times to the dataset and comparing estimated and measured sensitivities at 50 randomly excluded locations...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Dimitar K Penchev, Lilyana V Vladova, Miroslav Z Zashev, Radosvet P Gornev
AIM: To assess the effect of the factor 'hepatic metastatic disease' on long-term outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed retrospectively 200 randomly selected patients. Forty-two of them were excluded from the study for different reasons so the study contingent was 158 patients over a period of 23 years. All were diagnosed and treated in the Lozenetz University Hospital, in the Department of General Surgery. 125 of the patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer without distant metastases and 33 of the patients had liver metastases as a result of colorectal carcinoma...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Paco Calvo, František Baluška, Andrew Sims
In this article we consider the possibility that plants exhibit anticipatory behavior, a mark of intelligence. If plants are able to anticipate and respond accordingly to varying states of their surroundings, as opposed to merely responding online to environmental contingencies, then such capacity may be in principle testable, and subject to empirical scrutiny. Our main thesis is that adaptive behavior can only take place by way of a mechanism that predicts the environmental sources of sensory stimulation. We propose to test for anticipation in plants experimentally by contrasting two empirical hypotheses: "feature detection" and "predictive coding...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Luis Abdala-Roberts, Johnattan Hernández-Cumplido, Luis Chel-Guerrero, David Betancur-Ancona, Betty Benrey, Xoaquín Moreira
PREMISE OF STUDY: Although there is increasing recognition of the effects of plant intraspecific diversity on consumers, the mechanisms by which such effects cascade-up to higher trophic levels remain elusive. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of plant (lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus) intraspecific diversity on a suite of insect herbivores (leaf-chewers, aphids, and seed-eating beetles) and their third trophic-level associates (parasitoids and aphid-tending ants)...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Botany
Ali-Farid Safi, Marie-Theres Richter, Daniel Rothamel, Hans-Joachim Nickenig, Martin Scheer, Joachim Zöller, Matthias Kreppel
INTRODUCTION: One of the most important complications of orbital floor fractures is diplopia and restricted ocular movement. The role of the volume of soft tissue herniation on these clinical symptoms after orbital floor fractures is unclear and potentially may predict development of persistent clinical symptoms. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess pre- and postoperative complications associated to the volume of soft tissue herniation, with special interest to diplopia and bulbus motility impairment...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Paige Madison
Fossils are crucial pieces of evidence that illuminate the past. In the case of paleoanthropology, the discipline that studies human evolution, fossils are tangible objects that shape the ways we understand ourselves and our history. But how, exactly, do fossils find their way into these narratives, and into scientific journals and museums? How do they become pieces of evidence? The Forbes skull reveals a fossil that struggled to become a noteworthy piece of evidence. It was twice lost, first in a library cabinet on the Rock of Gibraltar, and later, in a London museum storeroom...
October 15, 2016: Endeavour
Landhing M Moran, Karran A Phillips, William J Kowalczyk, Udi E Ghitza, Daniel A Agage, David H Epstein, Kenzie L Preston
Aripiprazole blocks psychostimulant seeking in a rat model of relapse. However, in humans, it may increase ongoing use. We tested aripiprazole specifically for relapse prevention. Methadone-maintained outpatients who were abstinent from cocaine in weeks 11-12 were randomized to double-blind aripiprazole (15 mg daily) or placebo in weeks 13-27 after 12 weeks of contingency management. Participants reported craving through ecological momentary. We stopped the trial because very few (18/41) participants fulfilled the abstinence criterion...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Giacomo Vivanti, Heather J Nuske
We explore three challenges that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) poses to our understanding of the processes underlying early attachment. First, while caregiver-infant attachment and later social-affiliative behavior share common biobehavioral mechanisms, individuals with ASD are able to form secure attachment relationships, despite reduced social-emotional reciprocity and motivation for social interaction. Therefore, disruptions in social affiliation mechanisms can co-exist with secure caregiver-infant bonding...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Daniel R L Forrest, Marius Mather, Justin A Harris
Repeated presentation of a to-be-conditioned stimulus (CS) on its own results in an impairment in learning to respond to that CS when it is later paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). Evidence for this latent inhibition (LI) effect in humans is said to require a so-called masking task which diverts attention from the CS during preexposure. We present three experiments investigating whether LI can be demonstrated in humans without masking. In a computer-based task, subjects responded as quickly as possible to an imperative cue (the US) presented within a continuous stimulus stream...
October 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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