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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052930/comprehensive-functional-characterization-of-the-glycoside-hydrolase-family-3-enzymes-from-cellvibrio-japonicus-reveals-unique-metabolic-roles-in-biomass-saccharification
#1
Cassandra E Nelson, Mohamed A Attia, Artur Rogowski, Carl Morland, Harry Brumer, Jeffrey G Gardner
Lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;3)/β(1&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), and β(1&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052342/supported-housing-for-adults-with-psychiatric-disabilities-how%C3%A2-tenants-confront-the-problem-of-loneliness
#2
Myra Piat, Judith Sabetti, Deborah Padgett
The objective of this study was to examine the experience of loneliness among people with psychiatric disabilities after moving from custodial housing, including group homes, boarding homes, and family-type residences to independent, supported apartments in the community. Qualitative research methods guided by a naturalistic/constructivist framework were used. Data collection occurred between May 2014 and July 2015 and consisted of individual semi-structured interviews with 24 tenants residing in five supported housing sites across three Canadian provinces; interviews were also conducted with a designated family member for each tenant and with their service providers...
October 19, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052307/instrumental-learning-and-cognitive-flexibility-processes-are-impaired-in-children-exposed-to-early-life-stress
#3
Madeline B Harms, Katherine E Shannon Bowen, Jamie L Hanson, Seth D Pollak
Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings...
October 19, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051728/exacerbation-of-brain-injury-by-post-stroke-exercise-is-contingent-upon-exercise-initiation-timing
#4
Fengwu Li, Xiaokun Geng, Hajra Khan, John T Pendy, Changya Peng, Xiaorong Li, Jose A Rafols, Yuchuan Ding
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that post-stroke physical rehabilitation may reduce morbidity. The effectiveness of post-stroke exercise, however, appears to be contingent upon exercise initiation. This study assessed the hypothesis that very early exercise exacerbates brain injury, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and promotes energy failure. A total of 230 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion for 2 h, and randomized into eight groups, including two sham injury control groups, three non-exercise and three exercise groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051019/the-american-college-of-preventive-medicine-policy-recommendations-on-public-health-funding
#5
Andrew S Karasick, Samuel Peik
The American College of Preventive Medicine Policy Committee makes policy guidelines and recommendations on Preventive Medicine and Public Health topics for Public Health decision makers. After a review of the current evidence available in 2016, the College is providing policy recommendations designed to inform public health investment. The American College of Preventive Medicine advocates for policies that recognize the health and economic value of public health funding and promote investment in these vital capabilities...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050910/default-mode-network-connectivity-of-fear-and-anxiety-related-cue-and-context-conditioning
#6
Francesca Zidda, Jamila Andoh, Sebastian Pohlack, Tobias Winkelmann, Ramona Dinu-Biringer, Juliana Cavalli, Michaela Ruttorf, Frauke Nees, Herta Flor
Classical fear conditioning is an important mechanism to adequately respond and adapt to environmental threats and has been related to the development of fear and anxiety. Both cue and context conditioning have been studied but little is known about their relation to relevant resting state networks. The default mode network (DMN) has been reported to be involved in affective learning and described as facilitating a state of readiness in responding to environmental changes. We examined resting state brain connectivity patterns of the default mode network (DMN) in 119 healthy volunteers...
October 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048181/an-open-label-pilot-study-of-an-intervention-using-mobile-phones-to-deliver-contingency-management-of-tobacco-abstinence-to-high-school-students
#7
Grace Kong, Alissa L Goldberg, Jesse Dallery, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a smoking cessation intervention that used mobile phones to remotely deliver reinforcements contingent on tobacco abstinence (contingency management [CM]) and weekly in-person cognitive-behavioral therapy to adolescent smokers. Daily adolescent smokers (N = 15; 12 completed study procedures, 3 dropped out) were recruited to participate in a 4-week study. During the first 2 weeks, daily text messages sent at random times prompted participants to transmit a video of themselves providing a carbon monoxide (CO) sample...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046583/parallel-genome-reduction-in-symbionts-descended-from-closely-related-free-living-bacteria
#8
Vittorio Boscaro, Martin Kolisko, Michele Felletti, Claudia Vannini, Denis H Lynn, Patrick J Keeling
Endosymbiosis plays an important role in ecology and evolution, but fundamental aspects of the origin of intracellular symbionts remain unclear. The extreme age of many symbiotic relationships, lack of data on free-living ancestors and uniqueness of each event hinder investigations. Here, we describe multiple strains of the bacterium Polynucleobacter that evolved independently and under similar conditions from closely related, free-living ancestors to become obligate endosymbionts of closely related ciliate hosts...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045390/the-dynamics-of-molecular-evolution-over-60-000-generations
#9
Benjamin H Good, Michael J McDonald, Jeffrey E Barrick, Richard E Lenski, Michael M Desai
The outcomes of evolution are determined by a stochastic dynamical process that governs how mutations arise and spread through a population. However, it is difficult to observe these dynamics directly over long periods and across entire genomes. Here we analyse the dynamics of molecular evolution in twelve experimental populations of Escherichia coli, using whole-genome metagenomic sequencing at five hundred-generation intervals through sixty thousand generations. Although the rate of fitness gain declines over time, molecular evolution is characterized by signatures of rapid adaptation throughout the duration of the experiment, with multiple beneficial variants simultaneously competing for dominance in each population...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043020/secondary-invasion-when-invasion-success-is-contingent-on-other-invaders-altering-the-properties-of-recipient-ecosystems
#10
REVIEW
Luke S O'Loughlin, Peter T Green
Positive interactions between exotic species may increase ecosystem-level impacts and potentially facilitate the entry and spread of other exotic species. Invader-facilitated invasion success-"secondary invasion"-is a key conceptual aspect of the well-known invasional meltdown hypothesis, but remains poorly defined and empirically underexplored. Drawing from heuristic models and published empirical studies, we explore this form of "secondary invasion" and discuss the phenomenon within the recognized conceptual framework of the determinants of invasion success...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042716/effectiveness-of-behavioral-vaccine-on-the-oral-health-of-children-in-komarapalayam-south-india-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#11
N Umamaheswari, Sharath Asokan, S Thangakumaran
BACKGROUND: Oral health education and promotion have emerged as a strong force against the traditional, dominant, and curative model of health practice. In pediatric dentistry, the utilization of an entertaining, easy to understand, and practical educational material is warranted. Behavioral vaccine is a simple, scientifically proven practice that is repeated to increase well-being. AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of conventional (instructional) dental hygiene program and "Good Behavior Game" (GBG) (contingency dental hygiene program - a behavioral vaccine) on the practice of oral hygiene among 5-7-year-old schoolchildren...
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#12
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035917/decreases-in-smoking-during-treatment-for-methamphetamine-use-disorders-preliminary-evidence
#13
Sterling McPherson, Michael Orr, Crystal Lederhos, Michael McDonell, Emily Leickly, Katherine Hirchak, Oladunni A Oluwoye, Sean M Murphy, Matthew Layton, John M Roll
Despite high rates of smoking (70-90%) and the severely negative impact of smoking on physical and mental health, only 12% of individuals receiving stimulant-use disorder treatment also receive smoking-cessation treatment. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of a contingency management (CM) intervention targeting methamphetamine (MA) use on cigarette smoking. Sixty-one adults with MA-use disorders who were smokers were assigned to CM or standard psychosocial treatment. Rates of smoking-negative breath samples (carbon monoxide <3 ppm) were compared between the two groups while controlling for baseline carbon monoxide level, marijuana use, MA use, and time...
October 13, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035312/temperature-dependence-of-the-resonant-magnetoelectric-effect-in-layered-heterostructures
#14
Dmitrii A Burdin, Nikolai A Ekonomov, Dmitrii V Chashin, Leonid Y Fetisov, Yuri K Fetisov, Mikhail Shamonin
The dependence of the resonant direct magnetoelectric effect on temperature is studied experimentally in planar composite structures. Samples of rectangular shapes with dimensions of 5 mm × 20 mm employed ferromagnetic layers of either an amorphous (metallic glass) alloy or nickel with a thickness of 20-200 μm and piezoelectric layers of single crystalline langatate material or lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics with a thickness of 500 μm. The temperature of the samples was varied in a range between 120 and 390 K by blowing a gaseous nitrogen stream around them...
October 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035218/interacting-with-robots-to-investigate-the-bases-of-social-interaction
#15
Alessandra Sciutti, Giulio Sandini
Humans show a great natural ability at interacting with each other. Such efficiency in joint actions depends on a synergy between planned collaboration and emergent coordination, a subconscious mechanism based on a tight link between action execution and perception. This link supports phenomena as mutual adaptation, synchronization and anticipation, which cut drastically the delays in the interaction and the need of complex verbal instructions and result in the establishment of joint intentions, the backbone of social interaction...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035075/whatever-you-do-don-t-look-at-the-evaluating-guidance-by-an-exclusionary-attentional-template
#16
Valerie M Beck, Steven J Luck, Andrew Hollingworth
People can use a target template consisting of one or more features to guide attention and gaze to matching objects in a search array. But can we also use feature information to guide attention away from known irrelevant items? Some studies found a benefit from foreknowledge of a distractor feature, whereas others found a cost. Importantly, previous work has largely relied on end-of-trial manual responses; it is unclear how feature-guided avoidance might unfold as candidate objects are inspected. In the current experiments, participants were cued with a distractor feature to avoid, then performed a visual search task while eye movements were recorded...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034827/dealing-with-a-changing-work-environment-hospital-job-type-contingencies
#17
Jasmijn van Harten, Eva Knies, Peter Leisink
Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine whether workers in various hospital job groups differ in their perceptions of the provision of managerial support, and of their up-to-date expertise (UDE), willingness to change (WTC) and employment opportunities (EO). Second, to examine whether and how the relationships between managerial support, workers' UDE, WTC and their EO are moderated by hospital job type. Design/methodology/approach Survey data were collected from 1,764 employees of three Dutch hospitals...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034796/no-funeral-bells-public-reason-in-a-post-truth-age
#18
Sheila Jasanoff, Hilton R Simmet
The label 'post-truth' signals for many a troubling turn away from principles of enlightened government. The word 'post', moreover, implies a past when things were radically different and whose loss should be universally mourned. In this paper, we argue that this framing of 'post-truth' is flawed because it is ahistorical and ignores the co-production of knowledge and norms in political contexts. Debates about public facts are necessarily debates about social meanings, rooted in realities that are subjectively experienced as all-encompassing and complete, even when they are partial and contingent...
October 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034161/going-green-ex-post-valuation-of-a-multipurpose-water-infrastructure-in-northern-italy
#19
Arnaud Reynaud, Denis Lanzanova, Camino Liquete, Bruna Grizzetti
A contingent valuation approach is used to estimate how households value different multipurpose infrastructures (conventional or green) for managing flood risk and water pollution. As a case study we consider the Gorla Maggiore water park located in the Lombardy Region, in Northern Italy. The park is a neo-ecosystem including an infrastructure to treat waste water and store excess rain water, built in 2011 on the shore of the Olona River in an area previously used for poplar plantation. This park is the first one of this type built in Italy...
October 2017: Ecosystem Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034047/processing-of-internal-and-external-signals-for-performance-monitoring-in-the-context-of-emotional-faces
#20
Christian Christian Valt, Marina Palazova, Birgit Stürmer
Performance monitoring can be based on internal or external signals. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether relating performance to external signals affects internal performance monitoring. Thirty participants performed a task in which responses were followed by faces whose expressions were partially contingent upon performance. Instructions given to half of the participants mentioned a link between task performance and the upcoming face expression. Instructed participants showed smaller error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) to erroneous responses and larger N170 to faces as compared to participants in the not-instructed group...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
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