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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221619/economic-susceptibility-of-fire-prone-landscapes-in-natural-protected-areas-of-the-southern-andean-range
#1
Juan Ramón Molina, Roberto Moreno, Miguel Castillo, Francisco Rodríguez Y Silva
Large fires are the most important disturbances at landscape-level due to their ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This study aimed to develop an approach for the assessment of the socio-economic landscape susceptibility to fire. Our methodology focuses on the integration of economic components of landscape management based on contingent valuation method (CVM) and net-value change (NVC). This former component has been estimated using depreciation rates or changes on the number of arrivals to different natural protected areas after a large fire occurrence...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220679/interaction-between-pre-treatment-drug-use-and-heterogeneity-of-psychiatric-diagnosis-predicts-outcomes-in-outpatients-with-co-occurring-disorders
#2
Oladunni Oluwoye, Katherine Hirchak, Emily Leickly, Jordan Skalisky, Sterling McPherson, Debra Srebnik, John M Roll, Richard K Ries, Michael G McDonell
We examined whether the interaction of baseline stimulant use, assessed by urine drug tests, and type of serious mental illness (SMI) diagnosis predicted stimulant use in a trial of contingency management (CM). The interaction between baseline stimulant use and SMI diagnoses was significant in the overall sample (p=0.002) when controlling for the main effects of treatment condition, baseline stimulant use, and SMI diagnosis. Similar results were also found within the CM sample. Individuals with bipolar disorder were more or less likely, depending on their baseline stimulant-drug test results, to use stimulants during treatment compared to those with other SMI diagnoses...
November 29, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218791/a-novel-approach-to-training-attention-and-gaze-in-asd-a-feasibility-and-efficacy-pilot-study
#3
Leanne Chukoskie, Marissa Westerfield, Jeanne Townsend
In addition to the social, communicative and behavioral symptoms that define the disorder, individuals with ASD have difficulty re-orienting attention quickly and accurately. Similarly, fast re-orienting saccadic eye movements are also inaccurate and more variable in both endpoint and timing. Atypical gaze and attention are among the earliest symptoms observed in ASD. Disruption of these foundation skills critically affects development of higher level cognitive and social behavior. We propose that interventions aimed at these early deficits that support social and cognitive skills will be broadly effective...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217835/bayesian-prediction-intervals-for-assessing-p-value-variability-in-prospective-replication-studies
#4
Olga Vsevolozhskaya, Gabriel Ruiz, Dmitri Zaykin
Increased availability of data and accessibility of computational tools in recent years have created an unprecedented upsurge of scientific studies driven by statistical analysis. Limitations inherent to statistics impose constraints on the reliability of conclusions drawn from data, so misuse of statistical methods is a growing concern. Hypothesis and significance testing, and the accompanying P-values are being scrutinized as representing the most widely applied and abused practices. One line of critique is that P-values are inherently unfit to fulfill their ostensible role as measures of credibility for scientific hypotheses...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217329/-the-changing-profile-of-caregivers-of-persons-aged-65-years-and-over-with-disabilities-within-a-persisting-family-care-model
#5
Pilar Zueras, Jeroen Spijker, Amand Blanes
INTRODUCTION: The increasing participation of women in the workforce may make it difficult to sustain the current model of elderly care. The aim of this article was to determine the changing sociodemographic profile of informal elderly caregivers with disabilities, the interaction between employment and care, and the view of the public on the responsibility of that care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of secondary data from four national surveys were used: the disability surveys held in 1999 (N=3,936) and 2008 (N=5,257), the 2011-12 National Health Survey (N=439), and the Family and Gender survey of 2012 (N=1,359)...
December 4, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217147/a-study-of-the-natural-history-of-vitreomacular-traction-syndrome-by-oct
#6
Marie-Hélène Errera, Sidath E Liyanage, Petros Petrou, Pearse A Keane, Rene Moya, Eric Ezra, David G Charteris, Louisa Wickham
PURPOSE: To examine the natural history of vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMTS) in the absence of other ocular comorbidities. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 183 eyes of 159 patients diagnosed with VMTS with no other ocular comorbidity. METHODS: Patients with VMTS were identified from an OCT database at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Sequential OCT scans and patient notes were reviewed over a minimum period of 6 months...
December 4, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216282/sequential-combined-test-second-trimester-maternal-serum-markers-and-circulating-fetal-cells-to-select-women-for-invasive-prenatal-diagnosis
#7
Paolo Guanciali Franchi, Chiara Palka, Elisena Morizio, Giulia Sabbatinelli, Melissa Alfonsi, Donatella Fantasia, Giammaria Sitar, Peter Benn, Giuseppe Calabrese
From January 1st 2013 to August 31st 2016, 24408 pregnant women received the first trimester Combined test and contingently offered second trimester maternal serum screening to identify those women who would most benefit from invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD). The screening was based on first trimester cut-offs of ≥1:30 (IPD indicated), 1:31 to 1:899 (second trimester screening indicated) and ≤1:900 (no further action), and a second trimester cut-off of ≥1:250. From January 2014, analysis of fetal cells from peripheral maternal blood was also offered to women with positive screening results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216275/co-existence-of-multiple-trade-off-currencies-shapes-evolutionary-outcomes
#8
Alan A Cohen, Caroline Isaksson, Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Evolutionary studies often assume that energy is the primary resource (i.e. "currency") at the heart of the survival-reproduction trade-off, despite recent evidence to the contrary. The evolutionary consequences of having a single trade-off currency versus multiple competing currencies are unknown. Using simulations, we modeled the evolution of either a single physiological currency between reproduction and survival, or of multiple such currencies. For a wide array of model specifications varying functional forms and strengths of the trade-offs, we show that the presence of multiple currencies (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216241/discussion-about-different-cut-off-values-of-conventional-hamstring-to-quadriceps-ratio-used-in-hamstring-injury-prediction-among-professional-male-football-players
#9
Monika Grygorowicz, Martyna Michałowska, Tomasz Walczak, Adam Owen, Jakub Krzysztof Grabski, Andrzej Pyda, Tomasz Piontek, Tomasz Kotwicki
OBJECTIVE: To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213509/comparative-analysis-of-the-electroencephalogram-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-diffuse-axonal-injury-patients-and-healthy-controls-using-loreta-analysis
#10
Jéssica Natuline Ianof, Francisco José Fraga, Leonardo Alves Ferreira, Renato Teodoro Ramos, José Luiz Carlos Demario, Regina Baratho, Luís Fernando Hindi Basile, Ricardo Nitrini, Renato Anghinah
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a dementia that affects a large contingent of the elderly population characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a non-degenerative injury caused by an external mechanical force. One of the main causes of TBI is diffuse axonal injury (DAI), promoted by acceleration-deceleration mechanisms. Objective: To understand the electroencephalographic differences in functional mechanisms between AD and DAI groups...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213256/determinism-and-contingency-shape-metabolic-complementation-in-an-endosymbiotic-consortium
#11
Miguel Ponce-de-Leon, Daniel Tamarit, Jorge Calle-Espinosa, Matteo Mori, Amparo Latorre, Francisco Montero, Juli Pereto
Bacterial endosymbionts and their insect hosts establish an intimate metabolic relationship. Bacteria offer a variety of essential nutrients to their hosts, whereas insect cells provide the necessary sources of matter and energy to their tiny metabolic allies. These nutritional complementations sustain themselves on a diversity of metabolite exchanges between the cell host and the reduced yet highly specialized bacterial metabolism-which, for instance, overproduces a small set of essential amino acids and vitamins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211775/potential-to-curb-the-environmental-burdens-of-american-beef-consumption-using-a-novel-plant-based-beef-substitute
#12
Benjamin Goldstein, Rebekah Moses, Norman Sammons, Morten Birkved
The food demands of the United States (US) impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211158/continuous-cash-benefit-bcp-for-disabled-individuals-access-barriers-and-intersectoral-gaps
#13
Jeni Vaitsman, Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa Lobato
The 1988 Constitution approved the Continuous Cash Benefit (BCP) directed to elders and disabled persons with a household per capita income of 25% of the minimum wage, and around 4 million people received this benefit in 2015. The design of BPC for disabled persons involves organizations of social security, social welfare and health. This paper discusses how some intersectoral coordination mechanisms gaps between these areas produce access barriers to potential beneficiaries. Results stem from a qualitative study performed with physicians, administrative staff and social workers from the National Institute of Social Security (INSS) and of the Social Welfare Reference Center (CRAS) in three municipalities of different Brazilian regions...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209139/bayes-theorem-the-roc-diagram-and-reference-values-definition-and-use-in-clinical-diagnosis
#14
REVIEW
Anders Kallner
Medicine is diagnosis, treatment and care. To diagnose is to consider the probability of the cause of discomfort experienced by the patient. The physician may face many options and all decisions are liable to uncertainty to some extent. The rational action is to perform selected tests and thereby increase the pre-test probability to reach a superior post-test probability of a particular option. To draw the right conclusions from a test, certain background information about the performance of the test is necessary...
February 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206847/-gaining-or-losing-the-importance-of-the-perspective-in-primary-care-health-services-valuation
#15
Jesús Martín-Fernández, Gloria Ariza-Cardiel, Luz Mª Peña-Longobardo, Elena Polentinos-Castro, Juan Oliva-Moreno, Ana Isabel Gil-Lacruz, Héctor Medina-Palomino, Isabel Del Cura-González
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Economic theory classifies an intervention as socially beneficial if the total Willingness to Pay (WTP) of those who gain exceeds the total Willingness to accept (WTA) of those who are harmed. This paper examines the differences in health system users' valuation of a health care service in primary care setting based on the WTP and WTA perspectives, discussing the impact of personal and service variables, including risk attitudes, on these disparities. METHOD: Six hundred and sixty two subjects who asked for care in health centres in the Region of Madrid (Spain) were interviewed, using the contingent valuation method to estimate WTP and WTA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204867/talking-heads-or-talking-eyes-effects-of-head-orientation-and-sudden-onset-gaze-cues-on-attention-capture
#16
Robrecht P van der Wel, Timothy Welsh, Anne Böckler
The direction of gaze towards or away from an observer has immediate effects on attentional processing in the observer. Previous research indicates that faces with direct gaze are processed more efficiently than faces with averted gaze. We recently reported additional processing advantages for faces that suddenly adopt direct gaze (abruptly shift from averted to direct gaze) relative to static direct gaze (always in direct gaze), sudden averted gaze (abruptly shift from direct to averted gaze), and static averted gaze (always in averted gaze)...
December 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202666/dbcg-hypo-trial-validation-of-radiotherapy-parameters-from-a-national-data-bank-versus-manual-reporting
#17
Carsten Brink, Ebbe L Lorenzen, Simon Long Krogh, Jonas Westberg, Martin Berg, Ingelise Jensen, Mette Skovhus Thomsen, Esben Svitzer Yates, Birgitte Vrou Offersen
INTRODUCTION: The current study evaluates the data quality achievable using a national data bank for reporting radiotherapy parameters relative to the classical manual reporting method of selected parameters. METHODS: The data comparison is based on 1522 Danish patients of the DBCG hypo trial with data stored in the Danish national radiotherapy data bank. In line with standard DBCG trial practice selected parameters were also reported manually to the DBCG database...
December 5, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201563/facilitative-and-competitive-interaction-components-among-new-england-salt-marsh-plants
#18
John F Bruno, Tatyana A Rand, Nancy C Emery, Mark D Bertness
Intra- and interspecific interactions can be broken down into facilitative and competitive components. The net interaction between two organisms is simply the sum of these counteracting elements. Disentangling the positive and negative components of species interactions is a critical step in advancing our understanding of how the interaction between organisms shift along physical and biotic gradients. We performed a manipulative field experiment to quantify the positive and negative components of the interactions between a perennial forb, Aster tenuifolius, and three dominant, matrix-forming grasses and rushes in a New England salt marsh...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201229/antimicrobial-resistance-and-prevalence-of-cvfb-sek-and-seq-genes-among-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-paediatric-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#19
Bing-Shao Liang, Yan-Mei Huang, Yin-Shuang Chen, Hui Dong, Jia-Liang Mai, Yong-Qiang Xie, Hua-Min Zhong, Qiu-Lian Deng, Yan Long, Yi-Yu Yang, Si-Tang Gong, Zhen-Wen Zhou
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in neonatal cases of early and late-onset sepsis. Drug resistance profiles and carriage of toxin genes may affect the treatment and outcome of an infection. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and frequencies of the toxin-associated genes conserved virulence factor B (CvfB), staphylococcal enterotoxin Q (SEQ) and staphylococcal enterotoxin K (SEK) among S. aureus isolates recovered from paediatric patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Guangzhou (China)...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199844/a-scoping-review-and-meta-analysis-of-psychosocial-and-pharmacological-treatments-for-cannabis-and-tobacco-use-among-african-americans
#20
LaTrice Montgomery, Cendrine Robinson, Elizabeth L Seaman, Angela M Haeny
The rates of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use are higher among African Americans relative to other racial/ethnic groups. One plausible approach to treating co-use among African Americans is to examine the effectiveness of treatments for the sole use of cannabis and tobacco to identify effective approaches that might be combined to treat the dual use of these substances. The current meta-analysis sought to include studies that reported cannabis and/or tobacco use outcomes from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with 100% African American samples...
December 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
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