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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535048/control-of-maillard-reactions-in-foods-strategies-and-chemical-mechanisms
#1
Marianne N Lund, Colin Ray
Maillard reactions lead to changes in food color, organoleptic properties, protein functionality, and protein digestibility. Numerous different strategies for controlling Maillard reactions in foods have been attempted during the last decades. In this paper, recent advances in strategies for controlling the Maillard reaction and subsequent downstream reaction products in food systems are critically reviewed. The underlying mechanisms at play are presented, strengths and weaknesses of each strategy are discussed, and reasonable reaction mechanisms are proposed to reinforce the evaluations...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534782/reinforce-an-ensemble-approach-for-inferring-ppi-network-from-ap-ms-data
#2
Bo Tian, Qiong Duan, Can Zhao, Ben Teng, Zengyou He
Affinity Purification-Mass Spectrometry (AP-MS) is one of the most important technologies for constructing protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. In this paper, we propose an ensemble method, Reinforce, for inferring PPI network from AP-MS data set. The new algorithm named Reinforce is based on rank aggregation and false discovery rate control. Under the null hypothesis that the interaction scores from different scoring methods are randomly generated, Reinforce follows three steps to integrate multiple ranking results from different algorithms or different data sets...
May 17, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534476/effect-of-short-message-service-on-management-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-anhui-province-china-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Xue-Hui Fang, Shi-Yang Guan, Li Tang, Fang-Biao Tao, Zheng Zou, Ji-Xiang Wang, Xiao-Hong Kan, Quan-Zhi Wang, Zhi-Ping Zhang, Hong Cao, Dong-Chun Ma, Hai-Feng Pan
BACKGROUND To explore the significance of short message service (SMS) on the management of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in reinforcing the treatment adherence and health awareness, and provide scientific evidences for popularizing this model and formulating related polices and measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Six counties (districts) were selected by stratified cluster sampling method, and randomly divided into control group and intervention group. Pulmonary TB patients eligible to the study criteria were included in the study...
May 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534263/n-acetylaspartylglutamate-inhibits-heroin-self-administration-and-heroin-seeking-behaviors-induced-by-cue-or-priming-in-rats
#4
Huaqiang Zhu, Miaojun Lai, Weisheng Chen, Disen Mei, Fuqiang Zhang, Huifeng Liu, Wenhua Zhou
Activation of presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) inhibits drug reward and drug-seeking behavior, but the role of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), an agonist of endogenous mGluR2/3, in heroin reward and heroin-seeking behavior remained unclear. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of exogenous NAAG on heroin self-administration and heroin-seeking behavior. First, rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule for 10 days, then received NAAG (50 or 100 μg/10 μL in each nostril) in the absence or presence of LY341495 (1 mg/kg, i...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534097/increased-hpa-axis-activity-and-serum-tryptophan-in-naswar-dipping-tobacco-users-a-case-control-study
#5
Faiza Sajid, Samina Bano
Nicotine is the principal addictive agent present in Naswar, a smokeless dipping tobacco product. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been implicated in the reinforcement properties of nicotine. Also, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is of vital importance in evaluating the response to stress and nicotine addiction. The study aimed to evaluate serum tryptophan and cortisol levels in Naswar users in relation to addiction. Additionally, serum cotinine levels were also determined to assess daily nicotine exposure...
May 22, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534063/-the-new-law-on-radiation-protection-as-a-consequence-of-the-eu-safety-standard-of-2013
#6
REVIEW
G Layer
The transformation of a European guideline (2013/59/Euratom) from 2013 into national law requires adaptation of the national statutory regulations. This year, all areas of protection from ionizing radiation will be subject to the new radiation protection law (StrlSchG). Through this, the German X‑ray and Radiation Protection Acts will be combined to form a higher level of authority. The main parts of the StrlSchG will receive a new classification and will be organized according to the exposure scenario: radiation protection in planned exposure scenarios, radiation protection in emergency exposure scenarios, radiation protection in existing exposure scenarios, and the regulation of overall exposure scenarios...
May 22, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533930/early-onset-lyme-carditis-with-concurrent-disseminated-erythema-migrans
#7
Kinjan P Patel, Peter D Farjo, Joy J Juskowich, Ali Hama Amin, James D Mills
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease is an infection that is estimated to affect over 300,000 people in the United States annually. Typically, it presents with erythema migrans (EM), an annular rash at the site of tick attachment, within 3 to 30 days of inoculation. Untreated patients may progress to early disseminated disease. A further complication, Lyme carditis is rare but may occur several weeks later. It commonly manifests as a variable atrioventricular (AV) conduction block, with a high-grade AV block occurring in only 1% of untreated patients...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533863/management-and-outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-at-muhimbili-orthopaedic-institute-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#8
Respicious Boniface, Edwin Rwebugisa Lugazia, Abel Mussa Ntungi, Othman Kiloloma
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain Injuries represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and road traffic crashes accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. However, access to neurosurgical care is poor in low income countries like Tanzania. The aim of this study was to assess the management and outcome of Traumatic brain injury patients at a tertiary level health facility in Tanzania. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of Traumatic brain injury patients attended at Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute between January 2014 and June 2014...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533584/reversal-learning-deficits-in-criminal-offenders-effects-of-psychopathy-substance-use-and-childhood-maltreatment-history
#9
Monika Dargis, Richard C Wolf, Michael Koenigs
Deficits in reinforcement learning are presumed to underlie the impulsive and incorrigible behavior exhibited by psychopathic criminals. However, previous studies documenting reversal learning impairments in psychopathic individuals have not investigated this relationship across a continuous range of psychopathy severity, nor have they examined how reversal learning impairments relate to different psychopathic traits, such as the interpersonal-affective and lifestyle-antisocial dimensions. Furthermore, previous studies have not considered the role that childhood maltreatment and substance use may have in this specific cognitive deficit...
June 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533127/primary-human-polarized-small-intestinal-epithelial-barriers-respond-differently-to-a-hazardous-and-an-innocuous-protein
#10
A D Eaton, C Zimmermann, B Delaney, B P Hurley
An experimental platform employing human derived intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line monolayers grown on permeable Transwell(®) filters was previously investigated to differentiate between hazardous and innocuous proteins. This approach was effective at distinguishing these types of proteins and perturbation of monolayer integrity, particularly transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), was the most sensitive indicator. In the current report, in vitro indicators of monolayer integrity, cytotoxicity, and inflammation were evaluated using primary (non-transformed) human polarized small intestinal epithelial barriers cultured on Transwell(®) filters to compare effects of a hazardous protein (Clostridium difficile Toxin A [ToxA]) and an innocuous protein (bovine serum albumin [BSA])...
May 19, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532665/evaluation-of-the-behavioral-characteristics-of-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-through-operant-conditioning-procedures
#11
Matthew Lewon, Christina M Peters, Pam M Van Ry, Dean J Burkin, Kenneth W Hunter, Linda J Hayes
The mdx mouse is an important nonhuman model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) research. Characterizing the behavioral traits of the strain relative to congenic wild-type (WT) mice may enhance our understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in some humans with DMD and contribute to treatment development and evaluation. In this paper we report the results of a number of experiments comparing the behavior of mdx to WT mice in operant conditioning procedures designed to assess learning and memory. We found that mdx outperformed WT in all learning and memory tasks involving food reinforcement, and this appeared to be related to the differential effects of the food deprivation motivating operation on mdx mice...
May 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532521/animal-board-invited-review-sheep-birth-distribution-in-past-herds-a-review-for-prehistoric-europe-6th-to-3rd-millennia-bc
#12
M Balasse, A Tresset, A Bălăşescu, E Blaise, C Tornero, H Gandois, D Fiorillo, É Á Nyerges, D Frémondeau, E Banffy, M Ivanova
In temperate latitudes sheep have a seasonal reproductive behaviour, which imposes strong constraints on husbandry in terms of work organization and availability of animal products. During the last 50 years, researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms driving small ruminants' reproduction cycles and finding ways to control them. This characteristic is inherited from their wild ancestor. However, the history of its evolution over the 10 millennia that separates present day European sheep from their Near Eastern ancestors' remains to be written...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532509/barriers-and-facilitators-to-healthcare-professional-behaviour-change-in-clinical-trials-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework-a-case-study-of-a-trial-of-individualized-temperature-reduced-haemodialysis
#13
Justin Presseau, Brittany Mutsaers, Ahmed A Al-Jaishi, Janet Squires, Christopher W McIntyre, Amit X Garg, Manish M Sood, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Implementing the treatment arm of a clinical trial often requires changes to healthcare practices. Barriers to such changes may undermine the delivery of the treatment making it more likely that the trial will demonstrate no treatment effect. The 'Major outcomes with personalized dialysate temperature' (MyTEMP) is a cluster-randomised trial to be conducted in 84 haemodialysis centres across Ontario, Canada to investigate whether there is a difference in major outcomes with an individualized dialysis temperature (IDT) of 0...
May 22, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532184/a-review-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-sensory-feedback-in-upper-limb-prostheses
#14
Pamela Svensson, Ulrika Wijk, Anders Björkman, Christian Antfolk
The constant challenge to restore sensory feedback in prosthetic hands has provided several research solutions, but virtually none has reached clinical fruition. A prosthetic hand with sensory feedback that closely imitates an intact hand and provides a natural feeling may induce the prosthetic hand to be included in the body image and also reinforces the control of the prosthesis. Areas covered: This review presents non-invasive sensory feedback systems such as mechanotactile, vibrotactile, electrotactile and combinational systems which combine the modalities; multi-haptic feedback...
May 22, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532091/design-and-fabrication-of-carbon-fibers-with-needle-like-nano-ha-coating-to-reinforce-granular-nano-ha-composites
#15
Xudong Wang, Xueni Zhao, Li Zhang, Wanying Wang, Jing Zhang, Fuzhen He, Jianjun Yang
Carbon fibers (CFs) with needle-like nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) coating were first used as reinforcing materials named nHA-CFs to improve the mechanical properties of pure HA. A powder mixture containing nHA-CFs and granular nano-HA (gHA) was directly sintered by hot pressing at appropriate sintering pressure and temperature. A three-phase nHA-CFs/gHA composite was designed, fabricated, and used as an artificial bone. Results show that the bending strengths of the nHA-CFs/gHA composite are approximately 41.1% and 59...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532081/the-hot-deformation-behavior-and-microstructure-evolution-of-ha-mg-3zn-0-8zr-composites-for-biomedical-application
#16
Debao Liu, Yichi Liu, Yue Zhao, Y Huang, Minfang Chen
The hot deformation behavior of nano-sized hydroxylapatite (HA) reinforced Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr composites were performed by means of Gleeble-1500D thermal simulation machine in a temperature range of 523-673K and a strain rate range of 0.001-1s(-1), and the microstructure evolution during hot compression deformation were also investigated. The results show that the flow stress increases increasing strain rates at a constant temperature, and decreases with increasing deforming temperatures at a constant strain rate...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532077/preparation-of-robust-braid-reinforced-poly-vinyl-chloride-ultrafiltration-hollow-fiber-membrane-with-antifouling-surface-and-application-to-filtration-of-activated-sludge-solution
#17
Zhuang Zhou, Saeid Rajabzadeh, Lifeng Fang, Taro Miyoshi, Yuriko Kakihana, Hideto Matsuyama
Braid-reinforced hollow fiber membranes with high mechanical properties and considerable antifouling surface were prepared by blending poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with poly(vinyl chloride-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (poly(VC-co-PEGMA)) copolymer via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). The tensile strength of the braid-reinforced PVC hollow fiber membranes were significantly larger than those of previously reported various types of PVC hollow fiber membranes. The high interfacial bonding strength indicated the good compatibility between the coating materials and the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-braid...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532074/highly-effective-cu-zn-carbon-micro-nanofiber-polymer-nanocomposite-based-wound-dressing-biomaterial-against-the-p-aeruginosa-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains
#18
Mohammad Ashfaq, Nishith Verma, Suphiya Khan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is the most prevalent bacteria in the infections caused by burn, surgery, and traumatic injuries. Emergence of the P. aeruginosa bacterial resistance against various clinical drugs for wound treatment is the major concern nowadays. The present study describes the synthesis of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) polymeric composite film (~0.2mm thickness) reinforced with the Cu/Zn bimetal-dispersed activated carbon micro/nanofiber (ACF/CNF), as a wound dressing material...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532054/sintering-effects-of-mullite-doping-on-mechanical-properties-of-bovine-hydroxyapatite
#19
M Yetmez, Z E Erkmen, C Kalkandelen, A Ficai, F N Oktar
In this study, sintering effects on microstructural behavior of bovine derived hydroxyapatite doped with powder mullite are considered in the temperature range between 1000°C and 1300°C. Results show that maximum values of both compressive strength and microhardness are achieved in the samples sintered at 1200°C for all mullite additions of 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5wt%. Moreover, above 1000°C, decomposition of HA and new phase formations such as whitlockite and gehlenite play a major role in both compressive strength and microhardness properties which increase up to 10wt% mullite reinforcement...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532027/evaluation-of-different-surface-treatments-on-fiber-post-cemented-with-a-self-adhesive-system
#20
Maíra Prado, Juliana N Marques, Gisele Damiana Pereira, Eduardo M da Silva, Renata A Simão
Surface treatment of fiber-reinforced posts can increase adhesion, especially on the post/resin cement interface. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on fiber post cemented with a self-adhesive system. Sixty fiberglass epoxy resin posts were cleaned, dried and divided into 6 groups (n=10): Control (no surface treatment), silane (silane coupling agent was applied homogeneously on surface), 24% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (immersion during 1min), blasting (blasting with aluminum oxide for 30s), NH3 plasma (plasma treatment for 3min) and HMDSO plasma (plasma treatment for 15min)...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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