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Mark Galizio
Behavior analytic approaches and techniques have much to offer to the study of remembering. There is currently great interest in the development of animal models of human memory processes in order to enhance understanding of the neurobiology of memory and treatment of dementia and related disorders. Because rodent models are so important in contemporary neuroscience and genetics, development of procedures to study various forms of memory in rodents is a point of emphasis. The sense of smell plays an important role in rodent behavior and use of olfactory stimuli has permitted demonstrations of complex forms of stimulus control that have also served as baselines for studying drug effects on remembering...
November 2016: Behav Anal (Wash D C)
Thomas L McKenzie
Physical activity is place-based, and being able to assess the number of people and their characteristics in specific locations is important both for public health surveillance and for practitioners in their design of physical activity spaces and programs. Although physical activity measurement has improved recently, many investigators avoid or are at a loss regarding the assessment of physical activity in explicit locations, especially in open environments where many people come and go in a seemingly indiscriminate fashion...
October 17, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Joseph M Lambert, Bailey A Copeland, Erica L Karp, Crystal I Finley, Nealetta J Houchins-Juarez, Jennifer R Ledford
Individuals with developmental disabilities successfully participate in fewer recreation activities, including sports activities, than their typically developing peers. Although a functional basketball-playing repertoire might increase social opportunities and physical health for these individuals, no research has outlined a behavior-analytic strategy for teaching this sport. In our study, we taught a 13-year-old male diagnosed with autism to play basketball. During phase 1, we employed discrete-trial training to establish proficiency with nine fundamental basketball skills (i...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Dana M Blydenburg, James W Diller
This study investigates the consistency of behavior-analytic training with the Behavior Analysis Certification Board's task list. A survey about the content of behavior-analytic training programs was sent to Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB)-approved training program directors. There were many program directors that felt particular areas do not have sufficient coverage (e.g., Behavioral Pharmacology, Biological Bases of Behavior, Organizational Behavior Management), and several program directors reported that their course sequence does not adequately prepare students in basic research...
June 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Audrey N Hoffmann, Bethany P Contreras, Casey J Clay, Michael P Twohig
Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Jon E Krapfl
A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work...
May 2016: Behavior Analyst
Melissa R Nosik, James E Carr
In recent decades, behavior analysts have generally used two different concepts to speak about motivational influences on operant contingencies: setting event and motivating operation. Although both concepts still appear in the contemporary behavior-analytic literature and were designed to address the same antecedent phenomena, the concepts are quite different. The purpose of the present article is to describe and distinguish the concepts and to illustrate their current usage.
October 2015: Behavior Analyst
Mark R Dixon, Seth W Whiting, Karl F Gunnarsson, Jacob H Daar, Kyle E Rowsey
The purpose of the present review was to analyze research outcomes for all gambling studies reported in the behavior analysis literature. We used the search term "gambling" to identify articles that were published in behaviorally oriented journals between the years 1992 and 2012 and categorized the content of each article as empirical or conceptual. Next, we examined and categorized the empirical articles by inclusion of an experimental manipulation and treatment to alleviate at least some aspect of pathological gambling, participant population used, type of gambling task employed in the research, whether the participants in the study actually gambled, and the behavioral phenomena of interest...
October 2015: Behavior Analyst
Linda J Hayes, Mitch J Fryling
Like all natural sciences, behavior science has much to offer toward an understanding of the world. The extent to which the promise of behavior science is realized, though, depends upon the extent to which we keep what we know before us. This paper considers fundamental concepts in behavior science, including the concepts of behavior, stimulation, setting conditions, and language. In considering these concepts, we revisit comments from B. F. Skinner and J. R. Kantor and also consider some areas of behavior analytic research and the implications they have for reconsidering long-held assumptions about the analysis of behavior...
October 2015: Behavior Analyst
Nicole Neil, Emily A Jones
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review was conducted to identify effective intervention strategies for communication in individuals with Down syndrome. METHODS: We updated and extended previous reviews by examining: (1) participant characteristics; (2) study characteristics; (3) characteristics of effective interventions (e.g., strategies and intensity); (4) whether interventions are tailored to the Down syndrome behavior phenotype; and (5) the effectiveness (i.e., percentage nonoverlapping data and Cohen's d) of interventions...
August 18, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
April N Kisamore, Amanda M Karsten, Charlotte C Mann
Reciprocal conversations, instructional activities, and other social interactions are replete with multiply controlled intraverbals, examples of which have been conceptualized in terms of conditional discriminations. Although the acquisition of conditional discriminations has been examined extensively in the behavior-analytic literature, little research has evaluated procedures to establish multiply controlled intraverbals. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of procedures based on conditional discrimination training on the acquisition of multiply controlled intraverbals with 7 participants who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mark R Dixon
The imbalance of supply and demand for behavior analytic services will change in the near future. Behavior analysts, who want to survive in an increasing competitive marketplace, will need to show quality results and better results than the next behavior analyst. Trumpet Behavioral Health is a company designed to infuse scientific research with clinical practices. In the years ahead, look to companies like Trumpet as role models of the next generation of autism service providers.
October 2014: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Kathryn M Peterson, Cathleen C Piazza, Valerie M Volkert
Treatments of pediatric feeding disorders based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have the most empirical support in the research literature (Volkert & Piazza, 2012); however, professionals often recommend, and caregivers often use, treatments that have limited empirical support. In the current investigation, we compared a modified sequential oral sensory approach (M-SOS; Benson, Parke, Gannon, & Muñoz, 2013) to an ABA approach for the treatment of the food selectivity of 6 children with autism. We randomly assigned 3 children to ABA and 3 children to M-SOS and compared the effects of treatment in a multiple baseline design across novel, healthy target foods...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sigrid S Glenn
Three points discussed in Glenn (1993) are reviewed in the context of current events: the discipline of behavior analysis as a cultural system, the importance of that discipline in the training and regulation of behavior analytic practitioners, and Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) as a cultural subsystem that links to all the other parts and therefore links the other parts to one another. Noting similarities between behavior analysis and biology, I consider the growth of biological sciences as a model for behavior analysis...
October 2014: Behavior Analyst
Matthew T Brodhead, Lillian Durán, Sarah E Bloom
The number of individuals from various culture and language backgrounds who are receiving behavior-analytic services is growing. Therefore, a behavioral understanding of the role of cultural and linguistic diversity (CLD) in language acquisition may be warranted. We searched recent editions of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis to determine the degree to which researchers report the CLD of individuals with disabilities who participate in verbal behavior research. Our results indicate that researchers in these journals rarely report the culture and language background of their participants...
June 2014: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Patrick C Friman
Mainstream prominence was Skinner's vision for behavior analysis. Unfortunately, it remains elusive, even as we approach the 110th anniversary of his birth. It can be achieved, however, and there are many routes. One that seems overlooked in many (most?) behavior analytic training programs is what I call the front of the room. The front of the room is a very powerful locus for influencing people. Mastering it can turn a commoner into a king; a middling man into a mayor; or a group of disorganized, dispirited people into an energized force marching into battle...
October 2014: Behavior Analyst
Patrick C Friman
Primary pediatric medical care is as mainstream as any major cultural practice in the USA. Thus, publishing behavior analytic papers that pertain to problems that present in pediatric settings in pediatric medical journals is one route to mainstream relevance. With sufficient numbers of such papers, it could even lead to prominence. This article describes examples of publishing in pediatric journals and some lessons I learned from the experience. For example, (1) all child behavior problems that present in pediatric settings are of social importance but most are high-frequency, low-intensity problems that are not necessarily exotic or representative of serious pathology, and they usually respond to straightforward behavioral applications; (2) it is usually best to use a "colloquialized version of learning theory" when writing for and speaking to pediatric providers (and the families for whom they provide care); (3) pediatricians often have limited knowledge about behavior analytic research designs; and (4) when submissions are rejected by pediatric journals, the rejection can be exploited as an opportunity to educate pediatric editors and reviewers...
October 2014: Behavior Analyst
Stuart Vyse
Writing and publishing popular press books requires a set of skills, not natural to basic and applied researchers trained to publish in peer-referred behavior analytic journals or to practice behavior analysis in applied settings. This article provides suggestions and examples. These include finding a distinctive idea, securing a contract, hiring an agent (or not), deciding on a publisher, and writing engagingly for a broad audience. The last is the greatest challenge. Among my recommendations are to read good prose, good models, and good books about publishing; talk to experienced colleagues; read aloud to judge the appropriateness of your vocabulary and style; and interject humor, imagery, and drama...
October 2014: Behavior Analyst
Zachary H Morford, Benjamin N Witts, Kenneth J Killingsworth, Mark P Alavosius
Deterding et al. (Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, USA 15: 9-15, 2011) report a recent rise in popularity of video game inspired software designed to address issues in a variety of areas, including health, energy conservation, education, and business. These applications have been based on the concept of gamification, which involves a process by which nongame activities are designed to be more like a game. We provide examples of how gamification has been used to increase health-related behavior, energy consumption, academic performance, and other socially-significant behavior...
May 2014: Behavior Analyst
Bratislav Mišić, Olaf Sporns
Connections and interactions among distributed brain areas are increasingly recognized as the basis for cognitive operations and a diverse repertoire of behaviors. Analytic advances have allowed for brain connectivity to be represented and quantified at multiple levels: from single connections to communities and networks. This review traces the trajectory of network neuroscience, focusing on how connectivity patterns can be related to cognition and behavior. As recent initiatives for open science provide access to imaging and phenotypic data with great detail and depth, we argue that approaches capable of directly modeling multivariate relationships between brain and behavior will become increasingly important in the field...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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