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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161771/tetramethylpyrazine-nitrone-activates-akt-creb-through-increasing-bdnf-expression-to-promote-post-ischemic-neuroregeneration-and-recovery-of-neurological-functions-in-rats
#1
Gaoxiao Zhang, Tao Zhang, Ning Li, Liangmiao Wu, Jianbo Gu, Cuimei Li, Chen Zhao, Wei Liu, Luchen Shan, Pei Yu, Xifei Yang, Yaohui Tang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yuqiang Wang, Yewei Sun, Zaijun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuronal regeneration from endogenous precursors is an attractive strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke; however, most stroke-generated new born neurons die over time. Therefore, a drug that is both neuroprotective and pro-neurogenic may be promising. In this study, we assessed the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic effects of tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN), a neuroprotective drug candidate for stroke, in a rat model of ischemic stroke. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161639/specification-plasticity-and-evolutionary-origin-of-peripheral-glial-cells
#2
REVIEW
Maria Eleni Kastriti, Igor Adameyko
Peripheral glia includes predominantly myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells in addition to satellite, terminal and enteric glia as well as other unresolved subtypes with localized functions. Of these subtypes, all of them originate from neural crest-derived embryonic Schwann cell precursors (SCPs). Specific gene regulatory networks control neural crest specification and downstream events, including SCP differentiation and myelination. Embryonic SCPs are multipotent and generate neuroendocrine cells, parasympathetic and enteric neurons, melanocytes and other cell types...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161599/perfluorinated-alkyl-acids-and-fecundity-assessment-in-striped-mullet-mugil-cephalus-at-merritt-island-national-wildlife-refuge
#3
Jacqueline T Bangma, Jessica L Reiner, Russell H Lowers, Theresa M Cantu, Jacob Scott, Jeffrey E Korte, Doug M Scheidt, Chris McDonough, Jonathan Tucker, Brenton Back, Douglas H Adams, John A Bowden
This study investigated wild caught striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) for levels of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in tandem with individual fecundity measurements (Oocyte sub-stage 2 late, n=42) and oocyte reproductive stages (Stages 1-5, n=128). PFAA measurements were quantified in striped mullet liver (n=128), muscle (n=49), and gonad (n=10). No significant negative impacts of liver PFAA burden on wild-caught, mullet fecundity endpoints were observed in this study; however, changes in PFAA were observed in the liver as mullet progressed through different sub-stages of oocyte development...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161592/tumor-suppressor-inactivation-of-gdf11-occurs-by-precursor-sequestration-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#4
Sameer S Bajikar, Chun-Chao Wang, Michael A Borten, Elizabeth J Pereira, Kristen A Atkins, Kevin A Janes
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous carcinoma in which various tumor-suppressor genes are lost by mutation, deletion, or silencing. Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC. GDF11 promotes an epithelial, anti-invasive phenotype in 3D triple-negative cultures and intraductal xenografts by sustaining expression of E-cadherin and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2). Surprisingly, clinical TNBCs retain the GDF11 locus and expression of the protein itself...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161499/polymerization-of-well-aligned-organic-nanowires-on-a-ferromagnetic-rare-earth-surface-alloy
#5
Mikel Abadía, Maxim Ilyn, Ignacio Piquero-Zulaica, Pierluigi Gargiani, Celia Rogero, Jose Enrique Ortega, Jens Brede
The high reactivity of magnetic substrate toward molecular overlayers has so far inhibited the realization of more sophisticated on-surface reactions thereby depriving these interfaces of a significant class of chemically tailored organics such as graphene nanoribbons, oligonuclear spin-chains, and metal-organic networks. Here, we present a multi-technique characterization of the polymerization of 4,4″-dibromo-p-terphenyl precursors into ordered poly (p-phenylene) arrays on top of the bi-metallic GdAu$_2$ surface alloy...
November 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161318/loss-of-mtorc2-signaling-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-delays-myelination
#6
Mark D Grier, Kathryn L West, Nathaniel D Kelm, Cary Fu, Mark D Does, Brittany Parker, Eleanor McBrier, Andre H Lagrange, Kevin C Ess, Robert P Carson
Myelin abnormalities are increasingly being recognized as an important component of a number of neurologic developmental disorders. The integration of many signaling pathways and cell types are critical for correct myelinogenesis. The PI3-K and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways have been found to play key roles. mTOR is found within two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 activity has been shown to play a major role during myelination, while the role of mTORC2 is not yet well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161234/synthesis-of-methyl-4-dihydrotrisporate-b-and-methyl-trisporate-b-morphogenetic-factors-of-zygomycetes-fungi
#7
Yoko Nakamura, Christian Paetz, Wilhelm Boland
(9Z)-Methyl 4-dihydrotrisporate B and (9Z)-methyl trisporate B, pheromones of Zygomycetes fungi, have been synthesized using Stille cross-coupling from previously described cyclohexenone precursors. Conducting the coupling without protection groups allowed for a short and stereospecific synthesis route of the late trisporoids. Stability studies for both the compounds revealed (9Z)-methyl trisporate B to be very unstable against UV irradiation.
November 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161024/performance-and-stability-enhancement-of-in-sn-zn-o-tfts-using-sio2-gate-dielectrics-grown-by-low-temperature-atomic-layer-deposition
#8
Jiazhen Sheng, Ju-Hwan Han, Wan-Ho Choi, Jozeph Park, Jin-Seong Park
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) films were synthesized by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using BTBAS (bis(tertiarybutylamino) silane) as the precursor and O2 plasma as the reactant, at a temperature range of 50 to 200 °C. While dielectric constant values larger than 3.7 are obtained at all deposition temperatures, the leakage current levels are drastically reduced to below 10-12 A at temperatures above 150 °C, which are similar to those obtained in thermally oxidized and PECVD grown SiO2. Thin film transistors (TFTs) based on In-Sn-Zn-O (ITZO) semiconductors were fabricated using thermal SiO2, PECVD SiO2 and PEALD SiO2 grown at 150 °C as the gate dielectrics, and superior device performance and stability are observed in the last case...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160957/insect-cuticular-melanins-are-distinctly-different-from-those-of-mammalian-epidermal-melanins
#9
Hanine Barek, Manickam Sugumaran, Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
Melanin from several insect samples were isolated and subjected to chemical degradation and HPLC analysis for melanin markers. Quantification of different melanin markers reveals that insect melanins are significantly different from that of the mammalian epidermal melanins. The eumelanin produced in mammals are derived from the oxidative polymerization of both 5,6-dihydroxyindole and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid. The pheomelanin is formed by the oxidative polymerization of cysteinyldopa. Thus dopa is the major precursor for both eumelanin and pheomelanin in mammals...
November 21, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160847/multifunctional-carbon-aerogels-derived-by-sol-gel-process-of-natural-polysaccharides-of-different-botanical-origin
#10
Monika Bakierska, Agnieszka Chojnacka, Michał Świętosławski, Piotr Natkański, Marta Gajewska, Małgorzata Rutkowska, Marcin Molenda
In this manuscript, we describe the results of our recent studies on carbon aerogels derived from natural starches. A facile method for the fabrication of carbon aerogels is presented. Moreover, the complete analysis of the carbonization process of different starch aerogels (potato, maize, and rice) was performed using thermogravimetric studies combined with a detailed analysis of evolved decomposition products. The prepared carbon aerogels were studied in terms of their morphology and electrical properties to relate the origin of starch precursor with final properties of carbon materials...
November 21, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160835/vitamin-d-and-neurological-diseases-an-endocrine-view
#11
REVIEW
Carolina Di Somma, Elisabetta Scarano, Luigi Barrea, Volha V Zhukouskaya, Silvia Savastano, Chiara Mele, Massimo Scacchi, Gianluca Aimaretti, Annamaria Colao, Paolo Marzullo
Vitamin D system comprises hormone precursors, active metabolites, carriers, enzymes, and receptors involved in genomic and non-genomic effects. In addition to classical bone-related effects, this system has also been shown to activate multiple molecular mediators and elicit many physiological functions. In vitro and in vivo studies have, in fact, increasingly focused on the "non-calcemic" actions of vitamin D, which are associated with the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular morbidity, autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160805/indole-3-butyric-acid-induces-ectopic-formation-of-metaxylem-in-the-hypocotyl-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-without-conversion-into-indole-3-acetic-acid-and-with-a-positive-interaction-with-ethylene
#12
Laura Fattorini, Federica Della Rovere, Eleonora Andreini, Marilena Ronzan, Giuseppina Falasca, Maria Maddalena Altamura
The role of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and of the auxin-interacting phytohormone ethylene, on the ectopic formation of primary xylem (xylogenesis in planta) is still little known. In particular, auxin/ethylene-target tissue(s), modality of the xylary process (trans-differentiation vs. de novo formation), and the kind of ectopic elements formed (metaxylem vs. protoxylem) are currently unknown. It is also unclear whether IBA may act on the process independently of conversion into IAA...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160697/cascade-synthesis-of-3-functionalized-indoles-from-nitrones-and-their-conversion-to-cycloheptanone-fused-indoles
#13
Michelle A Kroc, Ami Prajapati, Donald J Wink, Laura L Anderson
A cascade reaction of N-aryl-α,β-unsaturated nitrones and electron-deficient allenes has been discovered that allows single-step access to 3-functionalized indoles that usually require pre-formation and alkylation of an indole precursor. The heterocycles prepared through the hydrogen-bond-donor catalyzed cascade reaction are poised to undergo a McMurry coupling to form previously synthetically elusive cycloheptanone-fused indoles. The scope of these transformations is discussed, as well as mechanistic experiments describing proposed intermediates of the cascade reaction, and an initial catalytic asymmetric example that generates a carbon stereocenter during the cascade process...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160321/uv-photodissociation-dynamics-of-chi2cl-and-its-role-as-a-photolytic-precursor-for-a-chlorinated-criegee-intermediate
#14
Kara M Kapnas, Benjamin W Toulson, Elizabeth S Foreman, Sarah A Block, J Grant Hill, Craig Murray
Photolysis of geminal diiodoalkanes in the presence of molecular oxygen has become an established route to the laboratory production of several Criegee intermediates, and such compounds also have marine sources. Here, we explore the role that the trihaloalkane, chlorodiiodomethane (CHI2Cl), may play as a photolytic precursor for the chlorinated Criegee intermediate ClCHOO. CHI2Cl has been synthesized and its UV absorption spectrum measured; relative to that of CH2I2 the spectrum is shifted to longer wavelength and the photolysis lifetime is calculated to be less than two minutes...
November 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160314/a-bimetallic-carbide-derived-from-a-mof-precursor-for-increasing-electrocatalytic-oxygen-evolution-activity
#15
Jinjie Qian, Ting-Ting Li, Yue Hu, Shaoming Huang
We have successfully obtained heterometallic oxides and/or carbides that are calcined from a new bimetallic metal-organic framework (InOF-16, [(Me2NH2)2][In3(BTC)5Co2(DMF)6]·solvent). Through different thermal treatments, the change in the resultant composition has been observed, thus leading to the product of InOF-16-Ar/O2-T (T = 550, 700 and 1000 °C) for efficient oxygen evolving reactions.
November 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160237/chemical-vapor-deposition-growth-of-boron-carbon-nitrogen-layers-from-methylamine-borane-thermolysis-products
#16
Fabrice Leardini, Eduardo Flores, Andres R Galvis, Isabel Jimenez-Ferrer, Jose-Ramon Ares, Carlos Sanchez, Pablo Molina, Herko P van der Meulen, Cristina Gomez-Navarro, Guillermo Lopez-Polin, Fernando J Urbanos, Daniel Granados, F Javier Garcia-Garcia, Umit B Demirci, Pascal G Yot, Filippo Mastrangelo, Maria Grazia Betti, Carlo Mariani
This work investigates the growth of B-C-N layers by Chemical Vapor Deposition using methylamine borane (MeAB) as single-source precursor. MeAB has been synthesized and characterized, paying particular attention to the analysis of its thermolysis products, which are the gaseous precursors for B-C-N growth. Samples have been grown on Cu foils and transferred onto different substrates for their morphological, structural, chemical, electronic and optical characterizations. The results of these characterizations indicate a segregation of h-BN and Graphene-like (Gr) domains...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160228/controlled-synthesis-of-quantum-confined-cspbbr3-perovskite-nanocrystals-under-ambient-condition
#17
Huimei He, Bing Tang, Ying Ma
Room temperature recrystallization is a simple and convenient method for synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite nanomaterials with excellent luminescent properties. However, the fast crystallization usually brings the colloidal stability and uncontrollable synthesis issues in the formation of all-inorganic perovskite. In the present study, we present a new strategy to prepare the quantum confined CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with controlled morphology under ambient condition. With the assist of fatty acid-capped precursor, the crystallization and the following growth rate can be retarded...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160161/serum-from-differently-exercised-subjects-induces-myogenic-differentiation-in-lhcn-m2-human-myoblasts
#18
D Vitucci, E Imperlini, R Arcone, A Alfieri, A Canciello, L Russomando, D Martone, A Cola, G Labruna, S Orrù, D Tafuri, A Mancini, P Buono
Myogenesis is the formation of muscle tissue from muscle precursor cells. Physical exercise induces satellite cell activation in muscle. Currently, C2C12 murine myoblast cells are used to study myogenic differentiation. Herein, we evaluated whether human LHCN-M2 myoblasts can differentiate into mature myotubes and express early (myotube formation, creatine kinase activity and myogenin) and late (MyHC-β) muscle-specific markers when cultured in differentiation medium (DM) for 2, 4 and 7 days. We demonstrate that treatment of LHCN-M2 cells with DM supplemented with 0...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159887/bio-derived-muconates-via-cross-metathesis-and-their-conversion-to-terephthalates
#19
Erisa Saraci, Lan Wang, Klaus Theopold, Raul Francisco Lobo
Renewable terephthalic acid or its precursors can be obtained via Diels-Alder cycloaddition and further dehydrogenation of biomass-derived muconic acid. We have investigated the synthesis of dialkyl muconates via cross-metathesis. We show that Ru-catalyzed cross-coupling of sorbates with acrylates-which can be bio-sourced-proceeds selectively to yield up to 41% di-ester muconates using very low catalyst amounts (0.5 - 3.0 mol.%) and no solvent. In the optimized procedure, the muconate precipitates as a solid and is easily recovered from the reaction medium...
November 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159878/arsenobetaine-an-ecophysiologically-important-organoarsenical-confers-cytoprotection-against-osmotic-stress-and-growth-temperature-extremes
#20
Tamara Hoffmann, Bianca Warmbold, Sander H J Smits, Britta Tschapek, Stefanie Ronzheimer, Abdallah Bashir, Chiliang Chen, Anne Rolbetzki, Marco Pittelkow, Mohamed Jebbar, Andreas Seubert, Lutz Schmitt, Erhard Bremer
Arsenic, a highly cytotoxic and cancerogenic metalloid, is brought into the biosphere through geochemical sources and anthropogenic activities. A global biogeochemical arsenic biotransformation cycle exists in which inorganic arsenic species are transformed into organoarsenicals, which are subsequently mineralized again into inorganic arsenic compounds. Microorganisms contribute to this biotransformation process greatly and one of the organoarsenicals synthesized and degraded in this cycle is arsenobetaine...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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