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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434161/can-valproic-acid-regulate-neurogenesis-from-nestin-cells-in-the-adult-midbrain
#1
Parisa Farzanehfar, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) causes the motor symptoms (e.g. tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability) of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is generally agreed that replacing these neurons will provide better motor symptom relief and fewer side effects than current pharmacotherapies. One potential approach to this is up-regulating endogenous DA neurogenesis in SNc. In the present study, we conducted bioinformatics analyses to identify signalling pathways that control expression of Pax6 and Msx1 genes, which have been identified as potentially important neurogenic regulators in the adult midbrain...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433954/lipidomic-profile-in-three-species-of-dinoflagellates-amphidinium-carterae-cystodinium-sp-and-peridinium-aciculiferum-containing-very-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#2
Tomáš Řezanka, Jaromír Lukavský, Linda Nedbalová, Karel Sigler
This study describes the identification of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) in three strains of dinoflagellates (Amphidinium carterae, Cystodinium sp., and Peridinium aciculiferum). The strains were cultivated and their lipidomic profiles were obtained by high resolution mass spectrometry with the aid of positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode by Orbitrap apparatus. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC/ESI) was used to separate major lipid classes of the three genera of dinoflagellates by neutral loss scan showing the ion [M + H-28:8](+), where 28:8 was octacosaoctaenoic acid, and by precursor ion scanning of ions at m/z 407, which was an ion corresponding to the structure of acyl of 28:8 acid (C27H39COO(-))...
April 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433661/differential-protein-acetylation-assists-import-of-excess-sod2-into-mitochondria-and-mediates-sod2-aggregation-associated-with-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-the-murine-sod2-tg-heart
#3
Liwen Zhang, Chwen-Lih Chen, Patrick T Kang, Zhicheng Jin, Yeong-Renn Chen
SOD2 is the primary antioxidant enzyme neutralizing ((•))O2((-)) in mitochondria. Cardiac-specific SOD2 overexpression (SOD2-tg) induces supernormal function and cardiac hypertrophy in the mouse heart. However, the reductive stress imposed by SOD2 overexpression results in protein aggregation of SOD2 pentamers and differential hyperacetylation of SOD2 in the mitochondria and cytosol. Here, we studied SOD2 acetylation in SOD2-tg and wild-type mouse hearts. LC-MS/MS analysis indicated the presence of four acetylated lysines in matrix SOD2 and nine acetylated lysines in cytosolic SOD2 from the SOD2-tg heart...
April 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433617/induced-and-controlled-dietary-ketosis-as-a-regulator-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-pathologies
#4
Madeline K Gibas, Kelly J Gibas
A worsening epidemic of diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is engulfing America. A healthy individual, with proper glucose regulation has an ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates. It has been suggested that signaling errors within this homeostatic system, characterized by impaired switching of substrate oxidation from glucose to fat in response to insulin, can contribute to the etiology of metabolic syndrome and occurs before the development of type II diabetes. Glucose regulation with restored insulin sensitivity facilitated through clinically regulated, benign dietary ketosis (BDK), may significantly reduce, regulate and reverse the adverse pathologies common to MetS and obesity...
March 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433598/mir-590-5p-a-density-sensitive-microrna-inhibits-tumorigenesis-by-targeting-yap1-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
Chunlin Ou, Zhenqiang Sun, Xiayu Li, Xiaoling Li, Weiguo Ren, Zailong Qin, Xuemei Zhang, Weitang Yuan, Jia Wang, Wentao Yu, Shiwen Zhang, Qiu Peng, Qun Yan, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Jian Ma
YAP1, a transcription co-activator, mediates the biological functions of the Hippo pathway. YAP1 inactivation is involved in cell-cell contact inhibition. In various tumors, YAP1 is upregulated through multiple mechanisms, and it functions as an oncogene. Here, we provided evidence that YAP1 influenced multiple signaling pathways in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We reported that miR-590-5p directly targets YAP1 and inhibits tumorigenesis in CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo xenograft model. We analyzed different cell densities and found that increased density caused increased expression of miR-590-5p, and decreased expression of its precursors (pri- and pre-miR-590)...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433146/chemo-bacterial-synthesis-of-conjugatable-glycosaminoglycans
#6
Bernard Priem, Julien Peroux, Philippe Colin-Morel, Sophie Drouillard, Sébastien Fort
Conjugatable glycosaminoglycans hold promise for medical applications involving the vectorization of specific molecules. Here, we set out to produce bacterial chondroitin and heparosan from a conjugatable precursor using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains. The major barrier to this procedure was the glucuronylation of a lactosyl acceptor required for polymerization. To overcome this barrier, we designed E. coli strains expressing mouse β-1,3-glucuronyl transferase and E. coli K4 chondroitin and K5 heparosan synthases...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433053/the-envelope-proteins-of-the-bunyavirales
#7
Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Félix A Rey
The Bunyavirales Order encompasses nine families of enveloped viruses containing a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome divided into three segments. The small (S) and large (L) segments encode proteins participating in genome replication in the infected cell cytoplasm. The middle (M) segment encodes the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are derived from a precursor polyprotein by host cell proteases. Entry studies are available only for a few viruses in the Order, and in each case they were shown to enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433018/atomistic-insight-into-the-non-classical-nucleation-mechanism-during-solidification-in-ni
#8
Grisell Díaz Leines, Ralf Drautz, Jutta Rogal
Nucleation is a key step during crystallization, but a complete understanding of the fundamental atomistic processes remains elusive. We investigate the mechanism of nucleation during solidification in nickel for various undercoolings using transition path sampling simulations. The temperature dependence of the free energy barriers and rate constants that we obtain is consistent with the predictions of classical nucleation theory and experiments. However, our analysis of the transition path ensemble reveals a mechanism that deviates from the classical picture of nucleation: the growing solid clusters have predominantly non-spherical shapes and consist of face-centered-cubic and random hexagonal-close-packed coordinated atoms surrounded by a cloud of prestructured liquid...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432909/source-receptor-relationships-for-pm2-5-during-typical-pollution-episodes-in-the-pearl-river-delta-city-cluster-china
#9
Yiming Liu, Yingying Hong, Qi Fan, Xuemei Wang, Pakwai Chan, Xiaoyang Chen, Anqi Lai, Mingjie Wang, Xunlai Chen
Located in the Southern China monsoon region, pollution days in Pearl River Delta (PRD) were classified into "Western type", "Central type" or "Eastern type", with a relative percentage of 67%, 24% and 9%, respectively. Using this classification system, three typical pollution events were selected for numerical simulations using the WRF-Chem model. The source sensitivity method for anthropogenic emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors was applied to identify the source-receptor relationships for PM2.5 among 9 cities in PRD...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#10
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432799/the-transformation-of-hybrid-silica-nanoparticles-from-solid-to-hollow-or-yolk-shell-nanostructures
#11
Xingwen Liu, Guangren Qian, Zheng Jiao, Minghong Wu, Haijiao Zhang
Here, a facile self-templating approach has been presented for synthesis of hollow and yolk-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs and YMSNs) through a selective etching of hybrid silica nanoparticles. The hybrid silica nanoparticles are from the co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (TSD) by a simple one-step process. Two kinds of products including HMSNs and YMSNs can be easily prepared only by tuning the TSD amounts in the precursor. Significantly, the transformation of hollow structure does not use any sacrificial template and surface protective agent...
April 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432452/fluorescent-angioscopic-imaging-of-calcium-phosphate-tribasic-precursor-of-hydroxyapatite-the-major-calcium-deposit-in-human-coronary-plaques
#12
Takanobu Kobayashi, Osamu Nakagawa, Seiichiro Shirai, Ei Shimoyama, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Yasumi Uchida
Coronary calcification is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Hydroxyapatite that is formed by polymerization from calcium phosphate tribasic (CPT) is the major constituent of coronary calcium deposits. If CPT could be visualized, coronary calcification could be predicted and prevented. We discovered that when CPT and collagen I, the main constituent of collagen fibers, are mixed with lac dye (LD) and then exposed to fluorescent light excited at 345 ± 15 nm and emitted at 420 nm, a purple fluorescence that is characteristic of CPT only is elicited...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432293/quiescence-of-adult-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-requires%C3%A2-thyroid-hormone-and-hypoxia-to-activate-runx1
#13
Yasuhito Tokumoto, Shinpei Tamaki, Yasuaki Kabe, Keiyo Takubo, Makoto Suematsu
The adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a population of slowly dividing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), i.e., adult OPCs, which supply new oligodendrocytes throughout the life of animal. While adult OPCs develop from rapidly dividing perinatal OPCs, the mechanisms underlying their quiescence remain unknown. Here, we show that perinatal rodent OPCs cultured with thyroid hormone (TH) under hypoxia become quiescent and acquire adult OPCs-like characteristics. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15/INK4b plays crucial roles in the TH-dependent cell cycle deceleration in OPCs under hypoxia...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432281/the-role-of-non-thermal-atmospheric-pressure-biocompatible-plasma-in-the-differentiation-of-osteoblastic-precursor-cells-mc3t3-e1
#14
Ihn Han, Eun Ha Choi
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is ionized matter, composed of highly reactive species that include positive ions, negative ions, free radicals, neutral atoms, and molecules. Recent reports have suggested that non-thermal biocompatible plasma (NBP) can selectively kill a variety of cancer cells, and promote stem cell differentiation. However as of yet, the regulation of proliferation and differentiation potential of NBP has been poorly understood.Here, we investigated the effects of NBP on the osteogenic differentiation of precursor cell lines of osteoblasts, MC3T3 E1 and SaOS-2...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431880/photo-controlled-release-of-fipronil-from-a-coumarin-triggered-precursor
#15
Zhenhong Gao, Pengtao Yuan, Donghui Wang, Zhiping Xu, Zhong Li, Xusheng Shao
Developing efficient controlled release system of insecticide can facilitate the better use of insecticide. We described here a first example of photo-controlled release of an insecticide by linking fipronil with photoresponsive coumarin covalently. The generated coumarin-fipronil (CF) precursor could undergo cleavage to release free fipronil in the presence of blue light (420nm) or sunlight. Photophysical studies of CF showed that it exhibited strong fluorescence properties. The CF had no obvious activity against mosquito larvae under dark, but it can be activated by light inside the mosquito larvae...
April 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431685/galr3-mediates-galanin-proliferative-effects-on-postnatal-hippocampal-precursors
#16
D Khan, M Khan, Johan Runesson, M Zaben, W P Gray
Galanin, a neuropeptide co-released from noradrenergic and serotonergic projection neurons to the dentate gyrus, has recently emerged as an important mediator for signaling neuronal activity to the subgranular neurogenic stem cell niche supporting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Galanin and its receptors appear to play key roles in depression-like behavior, and effects on hippocampal neurogenesis are relevant to pharmacological strategies for treating depression, which in part appear to rely on restoring altered neurogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431335/minimization-of-the-amount-of-kryptofix-222-khco3-for-applications-to-microscale-18-f-radiolabeling
#17
Ren Iwata, Claudio Pascali, Kazunori Terasaki, Yoichi Ishikawa, Shozo Furumoto, Kazuhiko Yanai
Conversion of aqueous [(18)F]fluoride to reactive [(18)F]fluoride is an important first step in the radiosynthesis of (18)F-labeled compounds by nucleophilic substitution. A versatile method for the rapid preparation of reactive [(18)F]fluoride by the combined use of an Oasis MAX cartridge and a methanolic solution of the Kryptofix 222-KHCO3 complex (K.222/KHCO3) was developed. The latter amount was optimized with the aim to keep it as low as possible while achieving recovery yields of [(18)F]fluoride comparable to those attained with the commonly used QMA cartridge...
April 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431303/circular-shape-constrained-fuzzy-clustering-ciscfc-for-nucleus-segmentation-in-pap-smear-images
#18
Ratna Saha, Mariusz Bajger, Gobert Lee
Accurate detection and segmentation of cell nucleus is the precursor step towards computer aided analysis of Pap smear images. This is a challenging and complex task due to degree of overlap, inconsistent staining and poor contrast. In this paper, a novel nucleus segmentation method is proposed by incorporating a circular shape function in fuzzy clustering. The proposed method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively using the Overlapping Cervical Cytology Image Segmentation Challenge - ISBI 2014 challenge dataset comprised of 945 overlapping Pap smear images...
April 14, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431233/a-compendium-of-rna-binding-proteins-that-regulate-microrna-biogenesis
#19
Thomas Treiber, Nora Treiber, Uwe Plessmann, Simone Harlander, Julia-Lisa Daiß, Norbert Eichner, Gerhard Lehmann, Kevin Schall, Henning Urlaub, Gunter Meister
During microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, two endonucleolytic reactions convert stem-loop-structured precursors into mature miRNAs. These processing steps can be posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here, we have used a proteomics-based pull-down approach to map and characterize the interactome of a multitude of pre-miRNAs. We identify ∼180 RBPs that interact specifically with distinct pre-miRNAs. For functional validation, we combined RNAi and CRISPR/Cas-mediated knockout experiments to analyze RBP-dependent changes in miRNA levels...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431230/structural-basis-for-guide-rna-processing-and-seed-dependent-dna-targeting-by-crispr-cas12a
#20
Daan C Swarts, John van der Oost, Martin Jinek
The CRISPR-associated protein Cas12a (Cpf1), which has been repurposed for genome editing, possesses two distinct nuclease activities: endoribonuclease activity for processing its own guide RNAs and RNA-guided DNase activity for target DNA cleavage. To elucidate the molecular basis of both activities, we determined crystal structures of Francisella novicida Cas12a bound to guide RNA and in complex with an R-loop formed by a non-cleavable guide RNA precursor and a full-length target DNA. Corroborated by biochemical experiments, these structures reveal the mechanisms of guide RNA processing and pre-ordering of the seed sequence in the guide RNA that primes Cas12a for target DNA binding...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
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