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Annelies Baeck, Karen Maes, Chayenne Van Meel, Hans P Op de Beeck
Object recognition improves with training. This training effect only partially generalizes to untrained images of the trained objects (new exemplars, orientation,…). The aim of this study is to investigate whether and to what extent the learning transfer improves when participants are trained with more exemplars of an object. Participants were trained to recognize two sets of stimuli using a backward masking paradigm. During training with the first set, only one exemplar of each object was presented. The second set was trained using four exemplars of each object...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Keith C Radley, Evan H Dart, James W Moore, Allison A Battaglia, Zachary C LaBrot
Restricted and repetitive behavior is a central feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with such behaviors often resulting in lack of reinforcement in social contexts. The present study investigated training multiple exemplars of target behaviors and the utilization of lag schedules of reinforcement in the context of social skills training to promote appropriate and varied social behavior in children with ASD. Five participants with ASD between the ages of 7 and 9 attended a twice-weekly social skills group for 8 weeks...
July 5, 2016: Behavior Modification
Bridget O Hier, Tanya L Eckert
Substantial numbers of students in the United States are performing below grade-level expectations in core academic areas, and these deficits are most pronounced in the area of writing. Although performance feedback procedures have been shown to produce promising short-term improvements in elementary-aged students' writing skills, evidence of maintenance and generalization of these intervention effects is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate, generalized, and sustained effects of incorporating multiple exemplar training into the performance feedback procedures of a writing intervention using a randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
June 2016: Journal of School Psychology
Alberta Ipser, Melanie Ring, Jennifer Murphy, Sebastian B Gaigg, Richard Cook
Considerable research has addressed whether the cognitive and neural representations recruited by faces are similar to those engaged by other types of visual stimuli. For example, research has examined the extent to which objects of expertise recruit holistic representation and engage the fusiform face area. Little is known, however, about the domain-specificity of the exemplar pooling processes thought to underlie the acquisition of familiarity with particular facial identities. In the present study we sought to compare observers' ability to learn facial identities and handwriting styles from exposure to multiple exemplars...
May 2016: Neuropsychologia
Raksha A Mudar, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Justin Eroh, Lydia T Nguyen, Mandy J Maguire, Jeffrey S Spence, Fanting Kung, Michael A Kraut, John Hart
We examined the effects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) on behavioral (response times and error rates) and scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP) measures of response execution and inhibition, using Go/NoGo tasks involving basic and superordinate semantic categorization. Twenty-five aMCI (16 F; 68.5±8 years) and 25 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects (16 F; 65.4±7.1 years) completed two visual Go/NoGo tasks. In the single car task, responses were made based on single exemplars of a car (Go) and a dog (NoGo) (basic)...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Shigeru Watanabe, Kazutaka Shinozuka, Takefumi Kikusui
We showed mice videos of three conspecific social behaviors, namely sniffing, copulation, and fighting, in pairwise combinations using iPods and evaluated preference as determined by time spent in front of each iPod. Mice preferred the copulation video to the sniffing video, the fighting video to the sniffing video, and the fighting video to the copulation video. In Experiment 1a, we used a single video clip for each social behavior but used multiple video clips for each social behavior in Experiment 2a. Next, we trained mice to discriminate between the fighting and copulation videos using a conditioned-place-preference-like task in which one video was associated with injection of morphine and the other was not...
May 2016: Animal Cognition
Yangtao Wang, Lihui Chen
Recently, an attractive clustering approach named multiexemplar affinity propagation (MEAP) has been proposed as an extension to the single exemplar-based AP. MEAP is able to automatically identify multiple exemplars for each cluster associated with a superexemplar. However, if the cluster number is a prior knowledge and can be specified by the user, MEAP is unable to make use of such knowledge directly in its learning process. Instead, it has to rely on rerunning the process as many times as it takes by tuning parameters until it generates the desired number of clusters...
December 11, 2015: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Jacquelyn MacDonald, William H Ahearn
Observational learning (OL) is critical for the acquisition of social skills and may be an important skill for learning in traditional educational settings. Although OL occurs during early childhood in the typically developing population, research suggests that it may be limited in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of the present study was to develop an assessment to test for the presence of OL across a variety of tasks. If OL was deficient, we sought to teach it by training specific skills...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Leif Albright, Kenneth F Reeve, Sharon A Reeve, April N Kisamore
In the present study, equivalence-based instruction was used to teach 2 4-member classes representing high and low statistical variability to 10 college students. Computerized equivalence-based instruction with multiple-exemplar training was used to teach the classes. A pretest-training-posttest design evaluated performances on both computer-based tests and written multiple-choice tests. Scores improved from pretest to posttest on both the computerized and the multiple-choice tests for all students following equivalence-based instruction...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Camiel Doorenweerd, Erik J Van Nieukerken, Jae-Cheon Sohn, Conrad C Labandeira
With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points...
2015: Zootaxa
Alissa L Ferry, Susan J Hespos, Dedre Gentner
This research asks whether analogical processing ability is present in human infants, using the simplest and most basic relation-the same-different relation. Experiment 1 (N = 26) tested whether 7- and 9-month-olds spontaneously detect and generalize these relations from a single example, as previous research has suggested. The attempted replication failed. Experiment 2 asked whether infants could abstract the relation via analogical processing (Experiment 2, N = 64). Indeed, with four exemplars, 7- and 9-month-olds could abstract the same-different relation and generalize it to novel pairs...
September 2015: Child Development
Rosa M Vizcaíno-Torres, Francisco J Ruiz, Carmen Luciano, Juan C López-López, Adrián Barbero-Rubio, Enriquel Gil
BACKGROUND: Relational training protocols based on Relational Frame Theory (RFT) are showing promising results in increasing intelligence quotient. This case study aimed at analyzing the effect of a training protocol in fluency and flexibility in relational responding on intelligence quotient with a 4-year-old child. METHOD: The child’s cognitive and psychomotor development was evaluated before and after the implementation of the training protocol using the McCarthy’s Aptitudes and Psychomotricity Scale (MSCA)...
2015: Psicothema
Francisco J Ruiz, Leticia Perete
BACKGROUND: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a contextual behavior therapy based on relational frame theory (RFT), a functional-contextual approach to human language and cognition. The main aim of ACT is to promote psychological flexibility, which has been defined in middle-level terms. The current study proposes that a recently developed RFT account of psychological flexibility might facilitate the adaptation of ACT to the work with young children. METHOD: A case study with a 5-year-old boy presenting problematic anger is presented to illustrate the previous suggestion...
2015: Psicothema
Raksha A Mudar, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Mandy J Maguire, Jeffrey S Spence, Justin Eroh, Michael A Kraut, John Hart
We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study age effects of perceptual (basic-level) vs. perceptual-semantic (superordinate-level) categorization on cognitive control using the go/nogo paradigm. Twenty-two younger (11 M; 21 ± 2.2 years) and 22 older adults (9 M; 63 ± 5.8 years) completed two visual go/nogo tasks. In the single-car task (SiC) (basic), go/nogo responses were made based on single exemplars of a car (go) and a dog (nogo). In the object animal task (ObA) (superordinate), responses were based on multiple exemplars of objects (go) and animals (nogo)...
2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Melissa L Allen, Calum Hartley, Kate Cain
The use of the Apple iPad has skyrocketed in educational settings, along with largely unsubstantiated claims of its efficacy for learning and communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we examine whether children with ASD are better able to learn new word-referent relations using an iPad or a traditional picture book. We also examine the hypothesis that presenting multiple, differently colored, exemplars of a target referent will promote adaptive label generalization compared to the use of a single exemplar...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Wookyoung Jung, John E Hummel
Kittur et al. (2004, 2006) and Jung and Hummel (2011, 2014) showed that people have great difficulty learning relation-based categories with a probabilistic (i.e., family resemblance) structure, in which no single relation is shared by all members of a category. Yet acquisition of such categories is not strictly impossible: in all these studies, roughly half the participants eventually learned to criterion. What are these participants doing that the other half are not? We hypothesized that successful participants were those who divided the nominal categories into two or more sub-categories, each of which individually had a deterministic structure...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Omer Linkovski, Eyal Kalanthroff, Avishai Henik, Gideon Emanuel Anholt
BACKGROUND: Repeated checking is a common ritual in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). van den Hout and Kindt (2003b) devised a task demonstrating paradoxical reductions in memory confidence following repeated checking. This effect was later found to be contingent upon response inhibition. The current study aims to (1) test an alternative interpretation, whereby repeated-checking effects are caused by viewing multiple exemplars, and (2) test whether repeated checking affects response inhibition...
December 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Stephen E G Lea, Victoire Poser-Richet, Christina Meier
Pigeons were trained to discriminate photographs of cat faces from dog faces, using either high- or low-pass spatial frequency filtered stimuli. Each pigeon was trained with multiple exemplars of the categories, but only with either high-pass or low-pass filtered stimuli. Not all pigeons reached the discrimination criterion. Successful pigeons were exposed in probe trials to test stimuli: cat and dog faces that had been subjected to the opposite kind of filtering from their training stimuli; the unfiltered original stimuli from which their training stimuli had been derived; and new exemplars of the cat- and dog-face categories, with the same filtering as was used in training...
March 2015: Behavioural Processes
Ana Leda F Brino, Olavo F Galvão, Carlos R F Picanço, Romariz S Barros, Carlos B A Souza, Paulo R K Goulart, William J McIlvane
A multiple-exemplar identity matching-to-sample baseline was established to encourage development of generalized IDMTS performances in three adult male capuchins. Mask (blank comparison) or Shuffled S- procedures were used to promote select (sample-S+) control in baseline relations and to assess stimulus control relations in generalized IDMTS tests. The IDMTS baseline comprised eight 3-stimulus sets or four 4-stimulus sets. Probe trials with new stimulus sets were substituted for baseline sets in successive testing sessions and subsequently converted to new baseline relations...
December 2014: Psychological Record
Michael C Hout, Stephen D Goldinger, Kyle J Brady
Cognitive theories in visual attention and perception, categorization, and memory often critically rely on concepts of similarity among objects, and empirically require measures of "sameness" among their stimuli. For instance, a researcher may require similarity estimates among multiple exemplars of a target category in visual search, or targets and lures in recognition memory. Quantifying similarity, however, is challenging when everyday items are the desired stimulus set, particularly when researchers require several different pictures from the same category...
2014: PloS One
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