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Michael E May, Ashley M Shayter, Ayla Schmick, Becky Barron, Meghan Doherty, Matthew Johnson
Law enforcement agencies stress that public reporting of terror-related crime is the predominant means for disrupting these actions. However, schools may be unprepared because the majority of the populace may not understand the threat of suspicious materials or what to do when they are found on school grounds. The purpose of this study was to systematically teach preschool children to identify and report suspicious packages across three experiments. In the first experiment, we used multiple exemplar training to teach children to identify the characteristics of safe and unsafe packages...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Simon Snape, Andrea Krott, Joseph P McCleery
Individuals with ASD seem to construct categories via processes different to typically developing individuals. We examined whether individuals with ASD engage in structural alignment of exemplars when constructing categories. We taught children with ASD and typically developing children novel nouns for either single or multiple exemplars, and then examined their extensions of the learned nouns to objects that were either a perceptual or conceptual match to the original exemplar(s). Results indicated that, unlike typically developing participants, those with ASD gained no benefit from seeing multiple exemplars of the category and, thus, did not appear to engage in structural alignment in their formation of categories...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Aria C Attia, Judith Wolf, Ana E Núñez
The major impediment to increased human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage in young males and females is lack of health care provider recommendation. Despite its efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, HPV vaccination in females (49.5%) and males (37.5%) ages 13 through 17 falls well below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Healthy People 2020 target of 80% coverage. Parents' willingness to vaccinate their child has been shown to be much higher when physicians share personal vaccination decisions for their own children as well as what other parents have done at that particular clinic...
May 2018: Annals of Medicine
Maithri Sivaraman
The purpose of the study was to use multiple exemplar training to teach empathetic responding to two children with autism. Three emotions-happiness, frustration and sadness/pain-were chosen for this purpose. Treatment consisted of verbal prompting and reinforcement of empathetic responses. Four experimenter-defined categories with discriminative stimuli were used for each emotion. The multiple exemplar component of the model consisted of teaching responses in the presence of several discriminative stimuli drawn from the predefined categories for each emotion delivered by two persons across two environments...
December 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Leyre Castro, Edward A Wasserman
Prior categorization studies have shown that pigeons reliably track features that are perfect predictors of category membership (Castro & Wasserman, 2014, 2016a). One might further ask whether pigeons would also track features that are relevant, but imperfect predictors of category membership. In our present project, pigeons had to categorize multiple exemplars from 2 different artificial categories, in which the exemplars were composed of 4 different features that were associated with 1 of 2 different report responses...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
William F Perez, Roberta Kovac, Yara C Nico, Daniel M Caro, Adriana P Fidalgo, Ila Linares, João Henrique de Almeida, Júlio C de Rose
According to Relational Frame Theory (RFT) Crel denotes a contextual stimulus that controls a particular type of relational response (sameness, opposition, comparative, temporal, hierarchical etc.) in a given situation. Previous studies suggest that contextual functions may be indirectly acquired via transfer of function. The present study investigated the transfer of Crel contextual control through equivalence relations. Experiment 1 evaluated the transfer of Crel contextual functions for relational responses based on sameness and opposition...
November 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Kate C Dixon, Greg D Reynolds, Alexandra C Romano, Kelly C Roth, Alexa L Stumpe, Maggie W Guy, Sara M Mosteller
The goal of this study was to investigate 9-month-old infants' ability to individuate and categorize other-species faces at the subordinate level. We were also interested in examining the effects of initial exposure conditions on infant categorization and individuation processes. Infants were either familiarized with a single monkey face in an individuation procedure or familiarized with multiple exemplars of monkey faces from the same species in a categorization procedure. Event-related potentials were recorded while the infants were presented: familiar faces, novel faces from the familiar species, or novel faces from a novel species...
October 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Amy K Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize how "-omics" technologies can inform rehabilitation-relevant outcomes for a range of populations with neurologically related disability by including outcome metrics linked to the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) domains of impairments in body function, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, nearly every area of medicine uses biomarkers in some capacity to aid in understanding how personal biology informs clinical care...
September 19, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Adel C Najdowski, Ryan Bergstrom, Jonathan Tarbox, Megan St Clair
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty inferring the private events of others, including private verbal behavior (e.g., thoughts), private emotional responses, and private establishing operations, often referred to as "perspective taking" by the general psychology community. Children with ASD also have difficulty responding to disguised mands. Skinner's description of the "disguised mand" is verbal behavior wherein the speaker's mand directly describes neither its reinforcer nor the corresponding establishing operations...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Shigeru Watanabe
C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task...
September 2017: Behavioural Processes
Stacey Bord, Tina M Sidener, Kenneth F Reeve, David W Sidener
The present study used a multi-component intervention package to teach on-task rollerblading and ice-skating to a boy with autism. Intervention consisted of response prompts, stimulus prompts, multiple-exemplar training, and a conditioned reinforcement system. The participant learned to remain on-task while rollerblading in a circular route marked by cones for up to 26 min. Both stimulus and response generalization of skating were demonstrated in a variety of non-training settings, including ice-skating at a rink...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Kara L Wunderlich, Timothy R Vollmer
The current study compared the use of serial and concurrent methods to train multiple exemplars when teaching receptive language skills, providing a systematic replication of Wunderlich, Vollmer, Donaldson, and Phillips (2014). Five preschoolers diagnosed with developmental delays or autism spectrum disorders were taught to receptively identify letters or letter sounds. Subjects learned the target stimuli slightly faster in concurrent training and a high degree of generalization was obtained following both methods of training, indicating that both the serial and concurrent methods of training are efficient and effective instructional procedures...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Lydia T Nguyen, Raksha A Mudar, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Julie M Schneider, Mandy J Maguire, Michael A Kraut, John Hart
Growing evidence suggests that cognitive control processes are impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI); however the nature of these alterations needs further examination. The current study examined differences in electroencephalographic theta and alpha power related to cognitive control processes involving response execution and response inhibition in 22 individuals with aMCI and 22 age-, sex-, and education-matched cognitively normal controls. Two Go/NoGo tasks involving semantic categorization were used...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Natalie Tanner, Greg Jensen, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Category learning in animals is typically trained explicitly, in most instances by varying the exemplars of a single category in a matching-to-sample task. Here, we show that male rhesus macaques can learn categories by a transitive inference paradigm in which novel exemplars of five categories were presented throughout training. Instead of requiring decisions about a constant set of repetitively presented stimuli, we studied the macaque's ability to determine the relative order of multiple exemplars of particular stimuli that were rarely repeated...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Keith C Radley, Evan H Dart, James W Moore, John D K Lum, Jamie Pasqua
OBJECTIVE: The present study utilized lag schedules of reinforcement, in conjunction with training multiple exemplars and provision of prompts, to promote appropriate variability of social skills. METHODS: Participants included in three children between the ages of 5 and 7 with ASD. Participants attended a social skills training program twice per week for eight weeks. A multiple probe design across target social skills was used to assess the effects of intervention...
November 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Yune Sang Lee, Jihad T Zreik, Roy H Hamilton
Naming objects represents a substantial challenge for patients with chronic aphasia. This could be in part because the reorganized compensatory language networks of persons with aphasia may be less stable than the intact language systems of healthy individuals. Here, we hypothesized that the degree of stability would be instantiated by spatially differential neural patterns rather than either increased or diminished amplitudes of neural activity within a putative compensatory language system. We recruited a chronic aphasic patient (KL; 66 year-old male) who exhibited a semantic deficit (e...
January 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Annelies Baeck, Karen Maes, Chayenne Van Meel, Hans P Op de Beeck
Object recognition improves with training. This training effect only partially generalizes to untrained images of the trained objects (new exemplars, orientation,…). The aim of this study is to investigate whether and to what extent the learning transfer improves when participants are trained with more exemplars of an object. Participants were trained to recognize two sets of stimuli using a backward masking paradigm. During training with the first set, only one exemplar of each object was presented. The second set was trained using four exemplars of each object...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Keith C Radley, Evan H Dart, James W Moore, Allison A Battaglia, Zachary C LaBrot
Restricted and repetitive behavior is a central feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with such behaviors often resulting in lack of reinforcement in social contexts. The present study investigated training multiple exemplars of target behaviors and the utilization of lag schedules of reinforcement in the context of social skills training to promote appropriate and varied social behavior in children with ASD. Five participants with ASD between the ages of 7 and 9 attended a twice-weekly social skills group for 8 weeks...
July 5, 2016: Behavior Modification
Bridget O Hier, Tanya L Eckert
Substantial numbers of students in the United States are performing below grade-level expectations in core academic areas, and these deficits are most pronounced in the area of writing. Although performance feedback procedures have been shown to produce promising short-term improvements in elementary-aged students' writing skills, evidence of maintenance and generalization of these intervention effects is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate, generalized, and sustained effects of incorporating multiple exemplar training into the performance feedback procedures of a writing intervention using a randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
June 2016: Journal of School Psychology
Alberta Ipser, Melanie Ring, Jennifer Murphy, Sebastian B Gaigg, Richard Cook
Considerable research has addressed whether the cognitive and neural representations recruited by faces are similar to those engaged by other types of visual stimuli. For example, research has examined the extent to which objects of expertise recruit holistic representation and engage the fusiform face area. Little is known, however, about the domain-specificity of the exemplar pooling processes thought to underlie the acquisition of familiarity with particular facial identities. In the present study we sought to compare observers' ability to learn facial identities and handwriting styles from exposure to multiple exemplars...
May 2016: Neuropsychologia
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