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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333912/the-resting-state-fmri-arterial-signal-predicts-differential-blood-transit-time-through-the-brain
#1
Yunjie Tong, Jinxia Fiona Yao, J Jean Chen, Blaise deB Frederick
Previous studies have found that aperiodic, systemic low-frequency oscillations (sLFOs) are present in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) data. These signals are in the same low frequency band as the "resting state" signal; however, they are distinct signals which represent non-neuronal, physiological oscillations. The same sLFOs are found in the periphery (i.e. finger tips) as changes in oxy/deoxy-hemoglobin concentration using concurrent near-infrared spectroscopy. Together, this evidence points toward an extra-cerebral origin of these sLFOs...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320933/gray-matter-networks-and-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Carolina M Rimkus, Menno M Schoonheim, Martijn D Steenwijk, Hugo Vrenken, Anand Jc Eijlers, Joep Killestein, Mike P Wattjes, Claudia C Leite, Frederik Barkhof, Betty M Tijms
BACKGROUND: Coordinated patterns of gray matter morphology can be represented as networks, and network disruptions may explain cognitive dysfunction related to multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether single-subject gray matter network properties are related to impaired cognition in MS. METHODS: We studied 148 MS patients (99 female) and 33 healthy controls (HC, 21 female). Seven network parameters were computed and compared within MS between cognitively normal and impaired subjects, and associated with performance on neuropsychological tests in six cognitive domains with regression models...
January 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313873/the-value-of-incorporating-personally-relevant-stimuli-into-consciousness-assessment-with-the-coma-recovery-scale-revised-a-pilot-study
#3
Jonas Stenberg, Alison K Godbolt, Marika C Möller
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the use of personally relevant stimuli, for some tasks in the Coma Recovery Scale - Revised (CRS-R), generates more responses in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness compared with neutral stimuli. DESIGN: Multiple single-case design. SUBJECTS: Three patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness recruited from an inpatient department at a regional brain injury rehabilitation clinic in Stockholm, Sweden...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311072/pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-cefiderocol-a-novel-siderophore-cephalosporin-for-gram-negative-bacteria-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Yutaka Saisho, Takayuki Katsube, Scott White, Hiroyuki Fukase, Jingoro Shimada
Cefiderocol is a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin that shows potent efficacy against various Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains, in vitro and in preclinical models of infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of cefiderocol after both single and multiple dosing by intravenous infusion over 60 min in healthy adult subjects. A single-ascending-dose study at doses of 100, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg was conducted in 40 healthy Japanese males and females (six active and two placebo per cohort)...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307012/a-method-for-pre-operative-single-subject-thalamic-segmentation-based-on-probabilistic-tractography-for-essential-tremor-deep-brain-stimulation
#5
Erik H Middlebrooks, Vanessa M Holanda, Ibrahim S Tuna, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Markus Bredel, Leonardo Almeida, Harrison C Walker, Barton L Guthrie, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun
PURPOSE: Deep brain stimulation is a common treatment for medication-refractory essential tremor. Current coordinate-based targeting methods result in variable outcomes due to variation in thalamic structure and the optimal patient-specific functional location. The purpose of this study was to compare the coordinate-based pre-operative targets to patient-specific thalamic segmentation utilizing a probabilistic tractography methodology. METHODS: Using available diffusion MRI of 32 subjects from the Human Connectome Project database, probabilistic tractography was performed...
January 6, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282130/what-does-not-kill-it-makes-it-weaker-effects-of-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-ivermectin-on-the-locomotor-activity-of-anopheles-aquasalis
#6
Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Gustavo Bueno da Silva Rivas, Kevin Kobylinski, Yudi Tatiana Pinilla, Paulo Filemon Paolluci Pimenta, José Bento Pereira Lima, Rafaela Vieira Bruno, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health concern. Vector control measures based solely on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have demonstrated not to be feasible for malaria elimination. It has been shown that ivermectin affects several aspects of Anopheles species biology. Along the Latin American seacoast, Anopheles aquasalis Curry plays an important role in malaria transmission. The observation of mosquitoes locomotor activity under laboratory conditions can reveal details of their daily activity rhythms, which is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock that seems to be influenced by external signals, such as light and temperature...
December 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280711/efficacy-of-occupational-therapy-using-ayres-sensory-integration%C3%A2-a-systematic-review
#7
Roseann C Schaaf, Rachel L Dumont, Marian Arbesman, Teresa A May-Benson
This systematic review addresses the question "What is the efficacy of occupational therapy using Ayres Sensory Integration® (ASI) to support functioning and participation as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for persons with challenges in processing and integrating sensory information that interfere with everyday life participation?" Three randomized controlled trials, 1 retroactive analysis, and 1 single-subject ABA design published from 2007 to 2015, all of which happened to study children with autism, met inclusion criteria...
January 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277374/aerobic-exercise-as-an-adjuvant-to-aphasia-therapy-theory-preliminary-findings-and-future-directions
#8
Stacy M Harnish, Amy D Rodriguez, Deena Schwen Blackett, Christopher Gregory, Lauren Seeds, Jeffrey H Boatright, Bruce Crosson
PURPOSE: This study investigated whether participation in aerobic exercise enhances the effects of aphasia therapy, and the degree to which basal serum brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) concentrations fluctuate after the beginning of aerobic exercise or stretching activities in individuals with poststroke aphasia. METHODS: The study used a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Seven individuals with chronic poststroke aphasia participated in 2 Blocks of aphasia therapy: aphasia therapy alone (Block 1), followed by aphasia therapy with the addition of aerobic activity via bicycle ergometer (n = 5) or stretching (n = 2) (Block 2)...
December 22, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246629/one-year-safety-and-efficacy-of-inosine-to-increase-the-serum-urate-level-for-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-in-japan
#9
Hirotaka Iwaki, Rina Ando, Noriyuki Miyaue, Satoshi Tada, Tomoaki Tsujii, Hayato Yabe, Noriko Nishikawa, Masahiro Nagai, Masahiro Nomoto
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have repeatedly reported that increased serum urate level is associated with a slower progress of Parkinson's disease (PD). The urate precursor, inosine, raises the serum urate level and is therefore a candidate for a disease modifying treatment. However, an elevated serum urate level is a risk factor for gout, urolithiasis, and cardiovascular diseases. Although there have been previous clinical studies, the use of inosine in a clinical setting is still limited, and its safety is unclear, especially in an Asian population...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236563/feasibility-of-a-modified-ride-on-car-intervention-on-play-behaviors-during-an-inclusive-playgroup
#10
Samantha Mae Ross, Michele Catena, Erica Twardzik, Christina Hospodar, Erika Cook, Apoorva Ayyagari, Kelsey Inskeep, Bethany Sloane, Megan M MacDonald, Samuel W Logan
AIMS: Children with mobility related disabilities often experience limited participation and access to social interactions. An emerging pediatric powered mobility device are modified ride-on cars that provide self-directed mobility experiences to children with disabilities. This study aimed to determine: (1) the feasibility of a modified ride-on car intervention during an inclusive playgroup, (2) the effect of a modified ride-on car intervention on the play behaviors of children with and without mobility related disabilities...
December 13, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218907/emergence-of-pathway-level-composite-biomarkers-from-converging-gene-set-signals-of-heterogeneous-transcriptomic-responses
#11
Samir Rachid Zaim, Qike Li, A Grant Schissler, Yves A Lussier
Recent precision medicine initiatives have led to the expectation of improved clinical decisionmaking anchored in genomic data science. However, over the last decade, only a handful of new single-gene product biomarkers have been translated to clinical practice (FDA approved) in spite of considerable discovery efforts deployed and a plethora of transcriptomes available in the Gene Expression Omnibus. With this modest outcome of current approaches in mind, we developed a pilot simulation study to demonstrate the untapped benefits of developing disease detection methods for cases where the true signal lies at the pathway level, even if the pathway's gene expression alterations may be heterogeneous across patients...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218900/single-subject-transcriptome-analysis-to-identify-functionally-signed-gene-set-or-pathway-activity
#12
Joanne Berghout, Qike Li, Nima Pouladi, Jianrong Li, Yves A Lussier
Analysis of single-subject transcriptome response data is an unmet need of precision medicine, made challenging by the high dimension, dynamic nature and difficulty in extracting meaningful signals from biological or stochastic noise. We have proposed a method for single subject analysis that uses a mixture model for transcript fold-change clustering from isogenically paired samples, followed by integration of these distributions with Gene Ontology Biological Processes (GO-BP) to reduce dimension and identify functional attributes...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218005/distributed-neural-activity-patterns-during-human-to-human-competition
#13
Matthew Piva, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Steve W C Chang, Joy Hirsch
Interpersonal interaction is the essence of human social behavior. However, conventional neuroimaging techniques have tended to focus on social cognition in single individuals rather than on dyads or groups. As a result, relatively little is understood about the neural events that underlie face-to-face interaction. We resolved some of the technical obstacles inherent in studying interaction using a novel imaging modality and aimed to identify neural mechanisms engaged both within and across brains in an ecologically valid instance of interpersonal competition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202861/the-mcmaster-toronto-arthritis-patient-preference-questionnaire-mactar-a-methodological-study-of-reliability-and-minimal-detectable-change-after-a-6%C3%A2-week-period-of-acupuncture-treatment-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Nina Brodin, Wilhelmus J A Grooten, Sara Stråt, Elin Löfberg, Helene Alexanderson
OBJECTIVES: The McMaster Toronto Arthritis patient preference questionnaire (MACTAR) is a semi-structured interview consisting of a baseline and a follow-up interview. The MACTAR baseline is reliable and valid, however the reliability of the MACTAR follow-up is scarcely described. The aim of this study was to describe aspects of reliability and ability to detect changes of the Swedish MACTAR follow-up following acupuncture treatment in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: The study was of Single Subject Experimental Design, with a 2-week non-interventional A-phase and a 6-week intervention B-phase...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198951/prospective-evaluation-of-chronic-pain-disorders-and-treatments
#15
REVIEW
Charles J Vierck, C Richard Chapman
BACKGROUND: The incidence of chronic pain is variable among individuals who have sustained traumatic or surgical injury. Also, treatments for pain rarely are effective consistently for a procedure or agent, and no therapies are considered effective for pain that is chronic. NEW METHOD: Difficulties with standard methods for conducting clinical trials call attention to a need for protocols that provide a new understanding of the development of and control over chronic pain...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186619/multisite-machine-learning-analysis-provides-a-robust-structural-imaging-signature-of-schizophrenia-detectable-across-diverse-patient-populations-and-within-individuals
#16
Martin Rozycki, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Nikolaos Koutsouleris, Guray Erus, Jimit Doshi, Daniel H Wolf, Yong Fan, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Eva M Meisenzahl, Chuanjun Zhuo, Hong Ying, Hao Yan, Weihua Yue, Dai Zhang, Christos Davatzikos
Past work on relatively small, single-site studies using regional volumetry, and more recently machine learning methods, has shown that widespread structural brain abnormalities are prominent in schizophrenia. However, to be clinically useful, structural imaging biomarkers must integrate high-dimensional data and provide reproducible results across clinical populations and on an individual person basis. Using advanced multi-variate analysis tools and pooled data from case-control imaging studies conducted at 5 sites (941 adult participants, including 440 patients with schizophrenia), a neuroanatomical signature of patients with schizophrenia was found, and its robustness and reproducibility across sites, populations, and scanners, was established for single-patient classification...
November 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165867/applying-behavior-analytic-methodology-to-the-science-and-practice-of-environmental-enrichment-in-zoos-and-aquariums
#17
Christina A Alligood, Nicole R Dorey, Lindsay R Mehrkam, Katherine A Leighty
Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Shepherdson, , International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, Bauman, & Perrin, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, , Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518)...
May 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163120/the-myosuit-bi-articular-anti-gravity-exosuit-that-reduces-hip-extensor-activity-in-sitting-transfers
#18
Kai Schmidt, Jaime E Duarte, Martin Grimmer, Alejandro Sancho-Puchades, Haiqi Wei, Chris S Easthope, Robert Riener
Muscle weakness-which can result from neurological injuries, genetic disorders, or typical aging-can affect a person's mobility and quality of life. For many people with muscle weakness, assistive devices provide the means to regain mobility and independence. These devices range from well-established technology, such as wheelchairs, to newer technologies, such as exoskeletons and exosuits. For assistive devices to be used in everyday life, they must provide assistance across activities of daily living (ADLs) in an unobtrusive manner...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152222/preprocessed-consortium-for-neuropsychiatric-phenomics-dataset
#19
Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Joke Durnez, Russell A Poldrack
Here we present preprocessed MRI data of 265 participants from the Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics (CNP) dataset. The preprocessed dataset includes minimally preprocessed data in the native, MNI and surface spaces accompanied with potential confound regressors, tissue probability masks, brain masks and transformations. In addition the preprocessed dataset includes unthresholded group level and single subject statistical maps from all tasks included in the original dataset. We hope that availability of this dataset will greatly accelerate research...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146283/a-computational-framework-for-estimating-statistical-power-and-planning-hypothesis-driven-experiments-involving-one-dimensional-biomechanical-continua
#20
Todd C Pataky, Mark A Robinson, Jos Vanrenterghem
Statistical power assessment is an important component of hypothesis-driven research but until relatively recently (mid-1990s) no methods were available for assessing power in experiments involving continuum data and in particular those involving one-dimensional (1D) time series. The purpose of this study was to describe how continuum-level power analyses can be used to plan hypothesis-driven biomechanics experiments involving 1D data. In particular, we demonstrate how theory- and pilot-driven 1D effect modeling can be used for sample-size calculations for both single- and multi-subject experiments...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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