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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916665/task-modulations-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-brain-functional-connectome-in-1615-fmri-datasets
#1
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Christine Lycke Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Karolina Kauppi, Francesco Bettella, Trine V Lagerberg, Akiah O Berg, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid S Melle, Torill Ueland, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: An abundance of experimental studies have motivated a range of models concerning the cognitive underpinnings of severe mental disorders, yet the conception that cognitive and brain dysfunction is confined to specific cognitive domains and contexts has limited ecological validity. Schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum disorders have been conceptualized as disorders of brain connectivity; yet little is known about the pervasiveness across cognitive tasks. METHOD: To address this outstanding issue of context specificity, we estimated functional network connectivity from fMRI data obtained during five cognitive tasks (0-back, 2-back, go/no-go, recognition of positive faces, negative faces) in 90 patients with schizophrenia, 97 patients with bipolar spectrum disorder, and 136 healthy controls, including 1615 fMRI datasets in total...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904236/influence-of-exercise-on-patients-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#2
Nicholas Simatos Arsenault, Pierre-Olivier Vincent, Bai He Shen Yu, Robin Bastien, Aaron Sweeney
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on improving physical outcomes in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Methods: The PubMed database was searched for articles published up to and including February 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), case reports, and quasi-experimental and single-subject designs published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals that assessed the impact of physical exercise on patients with GBS were included; study quality was assessed using Sackett's rules of evidence...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903441/optimising-experimental-design-for-meg-resting-state-functional-connectivity-measurement
#3
Lucrezia Liuzzi, Lauren E Gascoyne, Prejaas K Tewarie, Eleanor L Barratt, Elena Boto, Matthew J Brookes
The study of functional connectivity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an expanding area of neuroimaging, and adds an extra dimension to the more common assessments made using fMRI. The importance of such metrics is growing, with recent demonstrations of their utility in clinical research, however previous reports suggest that whilst group level resting state connectivity is robust, single session recordings lack repeatability. Such robustness is critical if MEG measures in individual subjects are to prove clinically valuable...
November 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891084/differential-effects-of-visual-acoustic-biofeedback-intervention-for-residual-speech-errors
#4
Tara McAllister Byun, Heather Campbell
Recent evidence suggests that the incorporation of visual biofeedback technologies may enhance response to treatment in individuals with residual speech errors. However, there is a need for controlled research systematically comparing biofeedback versus non-biofeedback intervention approaches. This study implemented a single-subject experimental design with a crossover component to investigate the relative efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback and traditional articulatory treatment for residual rhotic errors...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886012/histogram-based-feature-extraction-from-individual-gray-matter-similarity-matrix-for-alzheimer-s-disease-classification
#5
Iman Beheshti, Norihide Maikusa, Hiroshi Matsuda, Hasan Demirel, Gholamreza Anbarjafari
Automatic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been widely used in classification of patients who suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper presents an automatic CAD system based on histogram feature extraction from single-subject gray matter similarity-matrix for classifying the AD patients from healthy controls (HC) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The proposed CAD system is composed of five stages. In the first stage, segmentation is employed to perform pre-processing on the MRI images, and segment into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid using the voxel-based morphometric toolbox procedure...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876654/fast-bayesian-whole-brain-fmri-analysis-with-spatial-3d-priors
#6
Per Sidén, Anders Eklund, David Bolin, Mattias Villani
Spatial whole-brain Bayesian modeling of task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a great computational challenge. Most of the currently proposed methods therefore do inference in subregions of the brain separately or do approximate inference without comparison to the true posterior distribution. A popular such method, which is now the standard method for Bayesian single subject analysis in the SPM software, is introduced in Penny et al. (2005b). The method processes the data slice-by-slice and uses an approximate variational Bayes (VB) estimation algorithm that enforces posterior independence between activity coefficients in different voxels...
November 19, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864079/temporal-reliability-of-ultra-high-field-resting-state-mri-for-single-subject-sensorimotor-and-language-mapping
#7
Paulo Branco, Daniela Seixas, São Luís Castro
Resting-state fMRI is a well-suited technique to map functional networks in the brain because unlike task-based approaches it requires little collaboration from subjects. This is especially relevant in clinical settings where a number of subjects cannot comply with task demands. Previous studies using conventional scanner fields have shown that resting-state fMRI is able to map functional networks in single subjects, albeit with moderate temporal reliability. Ultra-high resolution (7T) imaging provides higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spatial resolution and is thus well suited to assess the temporal reliability of mapping results, and to determine if resting-state fMRI can be applied in clinical decision making including preoperative planning...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858690/the-effects-of-a-standardized-belly-dance-program-on-perceived-pain-disability-and-function-in-women-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#8
Tabitha Castrillon, William J Hanney, Carey E Rothschild, Morey J Kolber, Xinliang Liu, Michael Masaracchio
BACKGROUND: An alternative approach to facilitate movement and control through the trunk and pelvis is belly dancing. Investigations of belly dancing mechanics indicate similar muscular activation patterns of those known to influence chronic low back pain (cLBP). However, no documented studies have examined its effectiveness as a treatment for cLBP. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a standardized belly dance program in women with cLBP...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852157/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-aquatic-treadmill-training-on-land-treadmill-running-kinematics-a-cross-over-and-single-subject-design-approach
#9
Eadric Bressel, Talin J Louder, James P Hoover, Luke C Roberts, Dennis G Dolny
The aim of this study was to determine if selected kinematic measures (foot strike index [SI], knee contact angle and overstride angle) were different between aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) running, and to determine if these measures were altered during LTM running as a result of 6 weeks of ATM training. Acute effects were tested using 15 competitive distance runners who completed 1 session of running on each treadmill type at 5 different running speeds. Subsequently, three recreational runners completed 6 weeks of ATM training following a single-subject baseline, intervention and withdrawal experiment...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846038/comparison-of-speech-in-noise-and-localization-benefits-in-unilateral-hearing-loss-subjects-using-contralateral-routing-of-signal-hearing-aids-or-bone-anchored-implants
#10
Hillary A Snapp, Fred D Holt, Xuezhong Liu, Suhrud M Rajguru
OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit of wireless contralateral routing of signal (CROS) technology to bone-anchored implant (BAI) technology in monaural listeners. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, single-subject. SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center. PATIENTS: Adult English speaking subjects using either a CROS hearing aid or BAI as treatment for unilateral severe-profound hearing loss. INTERVENTIONS: Aided performance utilizing the subjects BAI or CROS hearing device...
November 14, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836833/the-whole-brain-pattern-of-magnetic-susceptibility-perturbations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Arturo Cardenas-Blanco, Matthew J Betts, Michaela Butryn, Jose P Valdes-Herrera, Imke Galazky, Peter J Nestor
Although iron-mediated oxidative stress has been proposed as a potential pathomechanism in Parkinson's disease, the global distribution of iron accumulation in Parkinson's disease has not yet been elucidated. This study used a new magnetic resonance imaging contrast, quantitative susceptibility mapping, and state-of-the-art methods to map for the first time the whole-brain landscape of magnetostatic alterations as a surrogate for iron level changes in n = 25 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease versus n = 50 matched controls...
November 11, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814947/symptom-variability-affect-and-physical-activity-in-ambulatory-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-understanding-patterns-and-time-bound-relationships
#12
Susan L Kasser, Amanda Goldstein, Phillip K Wood, Jeremy Sibold
BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience a clinical course that is highly variable with daily fluctuations in symptoms significantly affecting functional ability and quality of life. Yet, understanding how MS symptoms co-vary and associate with physical and psychological health is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore variability patterns and time-bound relationships across symptoms, affect, and physical activity in individuals with MS...
October 17, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809243/a-cross-correlational-analysis-between-electroencephalographic-and-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-signals-methodological-issues-in-the-presence-of-missing-data-and-real-data-results
#13
Maria Sole Morelli, Alberto Giannoni, Claudio Passino, Luigi Landini, Michele Emdin, Nicola Vanello
Electroencephalographic (EEG) irreducible artifacts are common and the removal of corrupted segments from the analysis may be required. The present study aims at exploring the effects of different EEG Missing Data Segment (MDS) distributions on cross-correlation analysis, involving EEG and physiological signals. The reliability of cross-correlation analysis both at single subject and at group level as a function of missing data statistics was evaluated using dedicated simulations. Moreover, a Bayesian-based approach for combining the single subject results at group level by considering each subject's reliability was introduced...
October 31, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808003/effects-of-a-fifty-six-month-electrical-stimulation-cycling-program-after-tetraplegia-case-report
#14
David R Dolbow, Ashraf S Gorgey, Refka K Khalil, David R Gater
BACKGROUND: Functional electrical stimulation cycling is a common clinical treatment for individuals with spinal cord injury and other paralytic conditions, however, the long term effects of home-based functional electrical stimulation cycling remains unreported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a long-term home-based functional electrical stimulation lower extremities cycling (FES-LEC) program on body composition. PARTICIPANT: An adult male 52...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806549/the-effectiveness-of-teaching-cognitive-behavioral-techniques-in-enhancing-resilience-in-hemodialysis-patients
#15
Mohammad Mehrtak, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Abdollah Rajaee-Khiavi, Arezo Azari, Aziz Kamran
INTRODUCTION: Despite the positive effects of hemodialysis on end-stage renal disease, patients face many physical and psychological stressors while receiving this treatment. These physical and psycho-social problems lead to serious problems that ultimately affect the patients' quality of life. The present study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques in enhancing resilience in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: The present clinical trial was conducted on 74 hemodialysis patients selected through census sampling from the dialysis department of Valiasr Hospital, Meshkin Shahr, Iran, in 2015...
August 26, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797661/a-case-series-on-the-effects-of-kripalu-yoga-for-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#16
Jessica R Morgan, Marlysa Sullivan, Akihiko Masuda, Erin Tully, Lindsey L Cohen, Page L Anderson
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with substantial impairment and poor treatment response. Yoga influences processes that are linked to the maintenance of GAD including mindfulness, anxiety, and heart rate variability, but has yet to be evaluated among people with the disorder. The present study is a first step toward documenting the efficacy of yoga for reducing worry among people with GAD using a single-subject AB design case series and daily ratings of worry...
January 2016: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790136/dual-tasking-for-the-differentiation-between-depression-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
Florian G Metzger, Markus A Hobert, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Sandra E Hasmann, Tim Hahn, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Daniela Berg, Andreas J Fallgatter, Walter Maetzler
: Differentiation of mild cognitive impairment from depression in elderly adults is a clinically relevant issue which is not sufficiently solved. Gait and dual task (DT) parameters may have the potential to complement current diagnostic work-up, as both dementia and depression are associated with changes of gait and DT parameters. METHODS: Seven hundred and four participants of the TREND study (Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of NeuroDegeneration) aged 50-80 years were assessed using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Plus test battery for testing cognition and Beck's Depression Inventory for evaluation of depression...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785843/comparison-of-a-non-stationary-voxelation-corrected-cluster-size-test-with-tfce-for-group-level-mri-inference
#18
Huanjie Li, Lisa D Nickerson, Thomas E Nichols, Jia-Hong Gao
Two powerful methods for statistical inference on MRI brain images have been proposed recently, a non-stationary voxelation-corrected cluster-size test (CST) based on random field theory and threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) based on calculating the level of local support for a cluster, then using permutation testing for inference. Unlike other statistical approaches, these two methods do not rest on the assumptions of a uniform and high degree of spatial smoothness of the statistic image. Thus, they are strongly recommended for group-level fMRI analysis compared to other statistical methods...
October 27, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782309/individual-changes-in-preclinical-spinocerebellar-ataxia-identified-via-increased-motor-complexity
#19
Winfried Ilg, Zofia Fleszar, Cornelia Schatton, Holger Hengel, Florian Harmuth, Peter Bauer, Dagmar Timmann, Martin Giese, Ludger Schöls, Matthis Synofzik
BACKGROUND: Movement changes in autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxias are suggested to occur many years before clinical manifestation. Detecting and quantifying these changes in the preclinical phase offers a window for future treatment interventions and allows the clinician to decipher the earliest dysfunctions starting the evolution of spinocerebellar ataxia. We hypothesized that quantitative movement analysis of complex stance and gait tasks allows to (i) reveal movement changes already at early stages of the preclinical phase when clinical ataxia signs are still absent and to (ii) quantify motor progression in this phase...
October 26, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773827/variance-decomposition-for-single-subject-task-based-fmri-activity-estimates-across-many-sessions
#20
Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Gang Chen, Thomas E Nichols, Peter A Bandettini
Here we report an exploratory within-subject variance decomposition analysis conducted on a task-based fMRI dataset with an unusually large number of repeated measures (i.e., 500 trials in each of three different subjects) distributed across 100 functional scans and 9 to 10 different sessions. Within-subject variance was segregated into four primary components: variance across-sessions, variance across-runs within a session, variance across-blocks within a run, and residual measurement/modeling error. Our results reveal inhomogeneous and distinct spatial distributions of these variance components across significantly active voxels in grey matter...
October 20, 2016: NeuroImage
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