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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736910/longitudinal-mr-spectroscopy-shows-altered-metabolism-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Andrew A Maudsley, Varan Govind, Gaurav Saigal, Stuart G Gold, Leo Harris, Sulaiman Sheriff
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain trauma is known to result in heterogeneous patterns of tissue damage and altered neuronal and glial metabolism that evolve over time following injury; however, little is known on the longitudinal evolution of these changes. In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) was used to map the distributions of altered metabolism in a single subject at five time points over a period of 28 months following injury. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging and volumetric MRSI data were acquired in a subject that had experienced a moderate traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale 13) at five time points, from 7 weeks to 28 months after injury...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736471/comparison-of-multi-fiber-reproducibility-of-pas-mri-and-q-ball-with-empirical-multiple-b-value-hardi
#2
Vishwesh Nath, Kurt G Schilling, Justin A Blaber, Zhaohua Ding, Adam W Anderson, Bennett A Landman
Crossing fibers are prevalent in human brains and a subject of intense interest for neuroscience. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can resolve tissue orientation but is blind to crossing fibers. Many advanced diffusion-weighted magnetic resolution imaging (MRI) approaches have been presented to extract crossing-fibers from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), but the relative sensitivity and specificity of approaches remains unclear. Here, we examine two leading approaches (PAS and q-ball) in the context of a large-scale, single subject reproducibility study...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726973/heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-stress-relief-program-for-depression-a-replicated-single-subject-design
#3
Bregje M A Hartogs, Agna Bartels-Velthuis, Karen Van der Ploeg, Elske H Bos
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders often have a chronic course and the efficacy of evidence-based treatments may be overestimated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of the Heart Rate Variability Stress Reduction Program (SRP) as a supplement to standard treatment in patients with depressive disorders. METHODS: The SRP was individually administered in eight weekly sessions. Seven participants completed the full protocol and were enrolled in a single-subject ABA multiple baseline experimental design...
July 19, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721443/a-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-based-tractographic-study-into-the-anatomical-subdivision-and-cortical-connectivity-of-the-ventral-external-capsule-uncinate-and-inferior-fronto-occipital-fascicles
#4
Sandip S Panesar, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Christopher P Deibert, David Fernandes-Cabral, Vijayakrishna Rowthu, Pinar Celtikci, Emrah Celtikci, William D Hula, Sudhir Pathak, Juan C Fernández-Miranda
PURPOSE: The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) are major fronto-capsular white matter pathways. IFOF connects frontal areas of the brain to parieto-occipital areas. UF connects ventral frontal areas to anterior temporal areas. Both fascicles are thought to subserve higher language and emotion roles. Controversy pertaining to their connectivity and subdivision persists in the literature, however. METHODS: High-definition fiber tractography (HDFT) is a non-tensor tractographic method using diffusion spectrum imaging data...
July 18, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715990/single-subject-studies-in-translational-nutrition-research
#5
Nicholas J Schork, Laura H Goetz
There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715554/variable-practice-to-enhance-speech-learning-in-ultrasound-biofeedback-treatment-for-childhood-apraxia-of-speech-a-single-case-experimental-study
#6
Jonathan L Preston, Megan C Leece, Kerry McNamara, Edwin Maas
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of practice variability, through prosodic variation during speech sound training, in biofeedback treatment for children with childhood apraxia of speech. It was hypothesized that variable practice would facilitate speech sound learning. Method: Six children ages 8-16 years with persisting speech sound errors due to childhood apraxia of speech participated in a single-subject experimental design. For each participant, 2 speech sound targets were treated with ultrasound visual feedback training: one with prosodic variation (i...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697674/training-adults-with-acquired-brain-injury-how-to-help-seek-when-wayfinding-an-understudied-critical-life-skill
#7
Young Susan Cho, McKay Moore Sohlberg, Richard Albin, Leonard Diller, Robert Horner, Joseph Rath, Michael Bullis
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a group treatment protocol called NICE (Noticing you have a problem, Identifying the information you need for help, Compensatory strategies, Evaluating progress) to train help-seeking when wayfinding for individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). Seven participants completed the NICE group treatment in an outpatient rehabilitation department at a university medical centre. A single subject multiple baseline design was employed to evaluate the efficacy of the NICE group treatment...
July 11, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693482/the-development-and-feasibility-of-a-personal-health-optimization-system-for-people-with-bipolar-disorder
#8
Øystein Eiring, Kari Nytrøen, Simone Kienlin, Soudabeh Khodambashi, Magne Nylenna
BACKGROUND: People with bipolar disorder often experience ill health and have considerably reduced life expectancies. Suboptimal treatment is common and includes a lack of effective medicines, overtreatment, and non-adherence to medical interventions and lifestyle measures. E- and m-health applications support patients in optimizing their treatment but often exhibit conceptual and technical shortcomings. The objective of this work was to develop and test the usability of a system targeting suboptimal treatment and compare the service to other genres and strategies...
July 10, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687062/evaluation-of-hand-orthoses-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#9
Johanna Weichbrodt, Britt-Marie Eriksson, Anna-Karin Kroksmark
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether treatment of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using hand orthoses could benefit joint mobility, grip strength, or fine motor function. METHOD: Eight boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were provided with individually customised rest orthoses. The results were analysed using single-subject design. The study included a baseline and an intervention phase. A follow-up examination was also performed. RESULTS: Boys with less than 50° passive wrist extension mobility were included...
July 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675941/implementing-a-manualized-classroom-transition-intervention-for-students-with-asd-in-underresourced-schools
#10
Suzannah Iadarola, Wendy Shih, Michelle Dean, Erica Blanch, Robin Harwood, Susan Hetherington, David Mandell, Connie Kasari, Tristram Smith
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public education settings experience difficulties with transitions during classroom routines, which can result in challenging behavior. Single-subject research supports techniques for transitions, but school-based approaches often require resources and training unavailable in low-resource districts, limiting implementation. We developed and evaluated the Schedules, Tools, and Activities for Transitions (STAT) program, a short-term, manualized intervention of behavioral supports to support daily routine transitions for students with ASD (K-5) in underresourced districts...
July 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659653/effects-of-semantic-context-on-access-to-words-of-low-imageability-in-deep-phonological-dysphasia-a-treatment-case-study
#11
Laura Mary McCarthy, Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar, Francine Kohen, Nadine Martin
BACKGROUND: Deep dysphasia is a relatively rare subcategory of aphasia, characterised by word repetition impairment and a profound auditory-verbal short-term memory (STM) limitation. Repetition of words is better than nonwords (lexicality effect) and better for high-image than low-image words (imageability effect). Another related language impairment profile is phonological dysphasia, which includes all of the characteristics of deep dysphasia except for the occurrence of semantic errors in single word repetition...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654416/the-evaluation-of-a-personal-narrative-language-intervention-for-school-age-children-with-down-syndrome
#12
Lizbeth Finestack, Katy H O'Brien, Jolene Hyppa-Martin, Kristen A Lyrek
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject experimental design study. Participants completed 18 intervention sessions that targeted personal narrative goals. Parents completed a survey regarding their perspectives of the intervention...
July 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643115/new-erp-methods-tailored-onto-single-subject-neuroanatomical-variability
#13
Massimo Girelli
Gebodh and coworkers present an innovative method for strengthening the reliability with which event-related potential (ERP) components are recorded. By tailoring the experimental design to the neuroanatomical singularity of each observer, this method provides more robust and cleaner data.
June 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642698/enhanced-working-memory-binding-by-direct-electrical-stimulation-of-the-parietal-cortex
#14
Agustina Birba, Eugenia Hesse, Lucas Sedeño, Ezequiel P Mikulan, María Del C García, Juan Ávalos, Federico Adolfi, Agustina Legaz, Tristán A Bekinschtein, Máximo Zimerman, Mario Parra, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM) binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer's patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642263/volumetric-analysis-from-a-harmonized-multisite-brain-mri-study-of-a-single-subject-with-multiple-sclerosis
#15
R T Shinohara, J Oh, G Nair, P A Calabresi, C Davatzikos, J Doshi, R G Henry, G Kim, K A Linn, N Papinutto, D Pelletier, D L Pham, D S Reich, W Rooney, S Roy, W Stern, S Tummala, F Yousuf, A Zhu, N L Sicotte, R Bakshi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging can be used to measure structural changes in the brains of individuals with multiple sclerosis and is essential for diagnosis, longitudinal monitoring, and therapy evaluation. The North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Cooperative steering committee developed a uniform high-resolution 3T MR imaging protocol relevant to the quantification of cerebral lesions and atrophy and implemented it at 7 sites across the United States. To assess intersite variability in scan data, we imaged a volunteer with relapsing-remitting MS with a scan-rescan at each site...
June 22, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641686/a-case-study-of-human-roll-tilt-perception-in-hypogravity
#16
Torin K Clark, Laurence R Young
BACKGROUND: Increased gravito-inertial acceleration, or hypergravity, such as produced in a centrifuge or in an aircraft coordinated turn, causes humans to systematically overestimate their roll tilt in the dark. This is known as the "G-excess" illusion. We have previously modified a mathematical observer model of dynamic orientation perception to replicate these illusory tilt perceptions. This modified model also made a novel, previously untested, prediction that humans would underestimate acute roll tilt in reduced gravitational environments (hypogravity)...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634624/population-averaged-macaque-brain-atlas-with-high-resolution-ex-vivo-dti-integrated-into-in-vivo-space
#17
Lei Feng, Tina Jeon, Qiaowen Yu, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Virendra Mishra, Mihovil Pletikos, Nenad Sestan, Michael I Miller, Susumu Mori, Steven Hsiao, Shuwei Liu, Hao Huang
Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired...
June 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629975/anatomical-and-functional-properties-of-the-foot-and-leg-representation-in-areas-3b-1-and-2-of-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-humans-a-7t-fmri-study
#18
Michel Akselrod, Roberto Martuzzi, Andrea Serino, Wietske van der Zwaag, Roger Gassert, Olaf Blanke
Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) processes somatosensory information and is composed of multiple subregions. In particular, tactile information from the skin is encoded in three subregions, namely Brodmann areas (BAs) 3b, 1 and 2, with each area representing a complete map of the contralateral body. Although, much is known about the somatotopic organization of the hand in human S1, less research has been carried out regarding the somatotopic maps of the foot and leg in S1. Moreover, a latero-medial S1 organization along the superior part of the postcentral gyrus has been reported when moving from hip to toes, yet to date there is no study investigating leg/foot maps within the different subregions of S1...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589853/n-of-1-pathways-mixenrich-advancing-precision-medicine-via-single-subject-analysis-in-discovering-dynamic-changes-of-transcriptomes
#19
Qike Li, A Grant Schissler, Vincent Gardeux, Ikbel Achour, Colleen Kenost, Joanne Berghout, Haiquan Li, Hao Helen Zhang, Yves A Lussier
BACKGROUND: Transcriptome analytic tools are commonly used across patient cohorts to develop drugs and predict clinical outcomes. However, as precision medicine pursues more accurate and individualized treatment decisions, these methods are not designed to address single-patient transcriptome analyses. We previously developed and validated the N-of-1-pathways framework using two methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis Distance (MD), for personal transcriptome analysis derived from a pair of samples of a single patient...
May 24, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582883/evidence-to-support-treatment-options-for-children-with-swallowing-and-feeding-disorders-a-systematic-review
#20
Memorie M Gosa, Hillary T Carden, Courtney C Jacks, Amy Y Threadgill, Tara C Sidlovsky
PURPOSE: A rise in pediatric patients with swallowing and feeding problems has resulted in increased interest in multidisciplinary treatments to address these issues. This evidence based systematic review (EBSR) examined the published evidence for the use of common strategies used by clinicians across disciplines to treat pediatric swallowing and feeding problems. METHODS: A systematic search of 10 electronic databases was completed to identify relevant, peer reviewed literature published in English prior to December 2015 reporting original data that addressed at least one of the five identified clinical questions...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
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