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Jaclyn K Schwartz, Roger O Smith
OBJECTIVE: Many people with chronic health conditions fail to take their medications as prescribed, resulting in declines in health and function. The purpose of this study was to perform a Phase I feasibility study to understand whether an integrated occupational therapy intervention could help people with chronic health conditions improve their adherence to medications. METHOD: Using a small-N design, we report single-subject analyses of the medication adherence of 11 participants before and after either an occupational therapy intervention or a standard care intervention...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Steven T Lanier, Jing Liu, Claudia Chavez-Munoz, Thomas A Mustoe, Robert D Galiano
There is a growing interest in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents that improve the cosmetic appearance of scars. Existing nonhuman animal models to study scarring, while valuable, have well-acknowledged limitations, as it is accepted that the biology of human scarring differs significantly from scarring in other species. Moreover, human clinical trials of scarring require large numbers of subjects to achieve statistical power and are plagued by inherent intersubject variability because of the complex nature of wound healing in human beings...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Emily S Finn, R Todd Constable
Functional brain connectivity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a popular technique for investigating neural organization in both healthy subjects and patients with mental illness. Despite a rapidly growing body of literature, however, functional connectivity research has yet to deliver biomarkers that can aid psychiatric diagnosis or prognosis at the single-subject level. One impediment to developing such practical tools has been uncertainty regarding the ratio of intra- to interindividual variability in functional connectivity; in other words, how much variance is state- versus trait-related...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Gang Chen, Paul A Taylor, Yong-Wook Shin, Richard C Reynolds, Robert W Cox
It has been argued that naturalistic conditions in FMRI studies provide a useful paradigm for investigating perception and cognition through a synchronization measure, inter-subject correlation (ISC). However, one analytical stumbling block has been the fact that the ISC values associated with each single subject are not independent, and our previous paper (Chen et al., 2016) used simulations and analyses of real data to show that the methodologies adopted in the literature do not have the proper control for false positives...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Stefan Elmer
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Stephanie Noble, Dustin Scheinost, Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, Xenophon Papademetris, Sarah C McEwen, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Doreen M Olvet, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon, R Todd Constable
Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of multisite MRI functional connectivity (fcMRI) studies. While multisite studies are an efficient way to speed up data collection and increase sample sizes, especially for rare clinical populations, any effects of site or MRI scanner could ultimately limit power and weaken results. Little data exists on the stability of functional connectivity measurements across sites and sessions. In this study, we assess the influence of site and session on resting state functional connectivity measurements in a healthy cohort of traveling subjects (8 subjects scanned twice at each of 8 sites) scanned as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS)...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Douglas P Sladen, Matthew L Carlson, Brittany P Dowling, Amy P Olund, Kathryn Teece, Melissa D DeJong, Alyce Breneman, Ann Peterson, Charles W Beatty, Brian A Neff, Colin L Driscoll
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study was designed to examine speech recognition and self-perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL) received from cochlear implantation among a cohort of adults and children with a short duration of unilateral hearing loss greater than 6 months, but less than 2 years. STUDY DESIGN: Single-subject repeated measures prospective study. METHODS: This study assessed changes in speech recognition and self-perceived quality of life by prospectively analyzing data at the preoperative evaluation and at the 3-month and 6-month postactivation intervals...
October 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
Claudia Barth, Christopher J Steele, Karsten Mueller, Vivien P Rekkas, Katrin Arélin, Andre Pampel, Inga Burmann, Jürgen Kratzsch, Arno Villringer, Julia Sacher
Sex hormones fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. Evidence from animal studies suggests similar subtle fluctuations in hippocampal structure, predominantly linked to estrogen. Hippocampal abnormalities have been observed in several neuropsychiatric pathologies with prominent sexual dimorphism. Yet, the potential impact of subtle sex-hormonal fluctuations on human hippocampal structure in health is unclear. We tested the feasibility of longitudinal neuroimaging in conjunction with rigorous menstrual cycle monitoring to evaluate potential changes in hippocampal microstructure associated with physiological sex-hormonal changes...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Huiwei Zhang, Ping Wu, Sibylle I Ziegler, Yihui Guan, Yuetao Wang, Jingjie Ge, Markus Schwaiger, Sung-Cheng Huang, Chuantao Zuo, Stefan Förster, Kuangyu Shi
OBJECTIVES: In brain (18)F-FDG PET data intensity normalization is usually applied to control for unwanted factors confounding brain metabolism. However, it can be difficult to determine a proper intensity normalization region as a reference for the identification of abnormal metabolism in diseased brains. In neurodegenerative disorders, differentiating disease-related changes in brain metabolism from age-associated natural changes remains challenging. This study proposes a new data-driven method to identify proper intensity normalization regions in order to improve separation of age-associated natural changes from disease related changes in brain metabolism...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
Paulo Tan, Erna Alant
This study employed an A-B singled subject design to explore the extent to which a peer-mediated intervention supported a first-grade student with autism's usage both in purpose and frequency of a speech-generating device (SGD) during mathematics activities. The intervention involved teaching a peer without a disability to encourage the student with autism to use the SGD during partnered mathematics activities. Our analysis involved visual and descriptive examination of trends and patterns over time, and comparison of means between and within phases...
October 3, 2016: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Han-Kyu Lee, Clara Velazquez Sanchez, Mei Chen, Peter J Morin, John M Wells, Eugene B Hanlon, Weiming Xia
The testing of candidate drugs to slow progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires clinical trials that are lengthy and expensive. Efforts to model the biochemical milieu of the AD brain may be greatly facilitated by combining two cutting edge technologies to generate three-dimensional (3D) human neuro-spheroid from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from AD subjects. We created iPSC from blood cells of five AD patients and differentiated them into 3D human neuronal culture. We characterized neuronal markers of our 3D neurons by immunocytochemical staining to validate the differentiation status...
2016: PloS One
Lillian K Durán, Daphne Hartzheim, Emily M Lund, Vicki Simonsmeier, Theresa L Kohlmeier
Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine what bilingual or home language interventions have been found to be effective for 2- to 6-year-old dual language learners who have language impairment (LI) or are at risk for LI. Method: We conducted ancestral searches and searches of electronic databases, hand-searched article bibliographies, and searched 19 journals for experimental, quasiexperimental, or single-subject studies. Results: The review yielded 26 studies that were coded for quality, frequency and duration of the intervention, number of participants, location of intervention, interventionist, language(s) of intervention, and reported or calculated effect sizes...
September 27, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Tilmann H Sander, Bin Zhou
Despite rapid progress both in psychology and neuroimaging, there is still a convergence gap between the results of these two scientific disciplines. This is particularly unsatisfactory, as the variability between single subjects needs to be understood both for basic science and for patient diagnostics in, for example, the field of age-related cognitive changes. Active and passive behaviors are the observables in psychology and can be studied alone or in combination with the neuroimaging approach. Various physical signatures of brain activity are the observables in neuroimaging and can be measured concurrent with behaviors...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
Dörthe Brüggmann, Christina Wagner, Doris Klingelhöfer, Norman Schöffel, Michael Bendels, Frank Louwen, Jenny Jaque, David A Groneberg
Maternal depression can be accounted for one of the most common complications during pregnancy and the postpartum period affecting women all over the world. So far, no detailed map of the worldwide maternal depression research architecture has been constructed, which encompasses aspects of research activity, quality, and also socioeconomic features. Using the NewQIS platform, density-equalizing mapping projections, scientometric techniques, and economic benchmarking procedures were applied to evaluate global maternal depression research for the period between 1900 and 2012...
September 27, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Chiara Cerami, Alessandra Dodich, Lucia Greco, Sandro Iannaccone, Giuseppe Magnani, Alessandra Marcone, Elisabetta Pelagallo, Roberto Santangelo, Stefano F Cappa, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome due to different neurodegenerative conditions in which an accurate early diagnosis needs to be supported by a reliable diagnostic tool at the individual level. In this study, we investigated in PPA the FDG-PET brain metabolic patterns at the single-subject level, in order to assess the case-to-case variability and its relationship with clinical-neuropsychological findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 55 patients (i...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Brenda Pratt, Nancy S Hartshorne, Pam Mullens, Mary Lou Schilling, Sarah Fuller, Emily Pisani
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of 2 different playground environments on the physical activity of children with ambulatory cerebral palsy during their playground play. METHODS: Five 7- to 8-year-old children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Functional Classification System [GMFCS] level II) participated. Using an alternating treatment, single-subject design, stride patterns were obtained using an activity monitor on an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)-compliant and noncompliant playground...
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Leila Ghelichi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Shohreh Jalaie, Noureddin Nakhostin-Ansari, Bijan Forogh, Masoud Mehrpour
Background: Post-stroke dysphagia is common and is associated with the development of pneumonia. To investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with traditional dysphagia therapy (TDT) on swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: In this single-subject study, four patients with dysphagia post-stroke included. The patients received the rTMS applied to the intact cerebral hemisphere at 1 Hz with train of 1200 for 5 consecutive days combined with TDT 3 days per week for 6 weeks...
July 6, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
Antony Porcino
If the practice of therapeutic massage and bodywork (TMB) is to become evidence-informed, practitioners, educators, and presenters must better develop their research literacy and critical appraisal skills. Given that the IJTMB supports the publication of case reports as one fundamental form of knowledge development within the fields of TMB, it is imperative that researchers, educators, and practitioners know the difference between case reports and similar, but unrelated, forms of research. There are legal and ethical implications that must be carefully considered for each form of research or reporting...
September 2016: International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork
Ping-Hong Yeh, Cheng Guan Koay, Binquan Wang, John Morissette, Elyssa Sham, Justin Senseney, David Joy, Alex Kubli, Chen-Haur Yeh, Victora Eskay, Wei Liu, Louis M French, Terrence R Oakes, Gerard Riedy, John Ollinger
The aim of this study was to apply recently developed automated fiber segmentation and quantification methods using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and DTI-based deterministic and probabilistic tractography to access local and global diffusion changes in blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bmTBI). Two hundred and two (202) male active US service members who reported persistent post-concussion symptoms for more than 6 months after injury were recruited. An additional forty (40) male military controls were included for comparison...
September 15, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Steffan K Soosman, Nelly Joseph-Mathurin, Meredith N Braskie, Yvette M Bordelon, David Wharton, Maria Casado, Giovanni Coppola, Holly McCallum, Marc Nuwer, Pedro Coutin-Churchman, Liana G Apostolova, Tammie Benzinger, John M Ringman
The mechanisms underlying presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutation-associated spastic paraparesis (SP) are not clear. We compared diffusion and volumetric magnetic resonance measures between 3 persons with SP associated with the A431E mutation and 7 symptomatic persons with PSEN1 mutations without SP matched for symptom duration. We performed amyloid imaging and central motor and somatosensory conduction studies in 1 subject with SP. We found decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity in widespread white-matter areas including the corpus callosum, occipital, parietal, and frontal lobes in PSEN1 mutation carriers with SP...
August 8, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
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