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Linda Resnik, He Helen Huang, Anna Winslow, Dustin L Crouch, Fan Zhang, Nancy Wolk
BACKGROUND: Although electromyogram (EMG) pattern recognition (PR) for multifunctional upper limb prosthesis control has been reported for decades, the clinical benefits have rarely been examined. The study purposes were to: 1) compare self-report and performance outcomes of a transradial amputee immediately after training and one week after training of direct myoelectric control and EMG pattern recognition (PR) for a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) prosthesis, and 2) examine the change in outcomes one week after pattern recognition training and the rate of skill acquisition in two subjects with transradial amputations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Qi Zhu, Jiashuang Huang, Xijia Xu
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome, and its causes have not been well determined. The objective of this study was to investigate the alteration of brain functional connectivity between schizophrenia and healthy control, and present a practical solution for accurately identifying schizophrenia at single-subject level. METHODS: 24 schizophrenia patients and 21 matched healthy subjects were recruited to undergo the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning...
March 13, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Vishwesh Nath, Kurt G Schilling, Prasanna Parvathaneni, Justin Blaber, Allison E Hainline, Zhaohua Ding, Adam Anderson, Bennett A Landman
The diffusion tensor model is nonspecific in regions where micrometer structural patterns are inconsistent at the millimeter scale (i.e., brain regions with pathways that cross, bend, branch, fan, etc.). Numerous models have been proposed to represent crossing fibers and complex intravoxel structure from in vivo diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (e.g., high angular resolution diffusion imaging-HARDI). Here, we present an empirical comparison of two HARDI approaches-persistent angular structure MRI (PAS-MRI) and Q-ball-using a newly acquired reproducibility dataset...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Fiorenzo Artoni, Arnaud Delorme, Scott Makeig
Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has proven to be an effective data driven method for analyzing EEG data, separating signals from temporally and functionally independent brain and non-brain source processes and thereby increasing their definition. Dimension reduction by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has often been recommended before ICA decomposition of EEG data, both to minimize the amount of required data and computation time. Here we compared ICA decompositions of fourteen 72-channel single subject EEG data sets obtained (i) after applying preliminary dimension reduction by PCA, (ii) after applying no such dimension reduction, or else (iii) applying PCA only...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Prasanna Parvathaneni, Vishwesh Nath, Justin A Blaber, Kurt G Schilling, Allison E Hainline, Ed Mojahed, Adam W Anderson, Bennett A Landman
Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) has been gaining prominence for estimating multiple diffusion compartments from MRI data acquired in a clinically feasible time. To establish a pathway for adoption of NODDI in clinical studies, it is important to understand the sensitivity and reproducibility of NODDI metrics on empirical data in the context of acquisition protocol and brain anatomy. Previous studies addressed reproducibility across the 3 T scanners and within session and between subject reproducibility at 1...
March 8, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Zhen Fan, Melanie Dani, Grazia D Femminella, Melanie Wood, Valeria Calsolaro, Mattia Veronese, Federico Turkheimer, Steve Gentleman, David J Brooks, Rainer Hinz, Paul Edison
PURPOSE: Neuroinflammation and microglial activation play an important role in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of neuroinflammation in MCI subjects, using spectral analysis (SA) to generate parametric maps and quantify11 C-PBR28 PET, and compared these with compartmental and other kinetic models of quantification. METHODS: Thirteen MCI and nine healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Gerald Ulrich, Georg Juckel, Willi Schlösser
We report on a new quantitative EEG-approach, called Ipsative Trend Assessment which is based on the spatio-temporally defined patterns which are generated by the global interaction of cortical neurons. METHODS: The data were acquired from EEGs being recorded under resting conditions. Target variables are not the usually employed absolute values of the spectral parameters but rather their change being calculated from successive recordings with a single subjects design. RATIONALE: Since the resting-EEG does not provide specific information, we had to decide what else might be addressed by that method...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Günther Bauernfeind, Selina C Wriessnegger, Sabine Haumann, Thomas Lenarz
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging technique for the assessment of functional activity of the cerebral cortex. Recently fNIRS was also envisaged as a novel neuroimaging approach for measuring the auditory cortex activity in the field of in auditory diagnostics. This study aimed to investigate differences in brain activity related to spatially presented sounds with different intensities in 10 subjects by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We found pronounced cortical activation patterns in the temporal and frontal regions of both hemispheres...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Garam Jo, Brenda Rossow-Kimball, Gwitaek Park, Yongho Lee
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of virtual reality exercise (VRE) using Nintendo Wii-Fit on physical fitness of Korean adults with schizophrenia living in a mental health facility located in South Korea. Two male participants diagnosed with schizophrenia, ages 53 and 61, were recruited and selected for inclusion in this study. The intervention using the Nintendo Wii-Fit consisted of 35-min sessions, 3 times per week for 8 weeks and was facilitated by the primary researcher and two graduate students...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Christine Holyfield, Jessica Gosnell Caron, Kathryn Drager, Janice Light
PURPOSE: Visual scene displays (VSDs) and just-in-time programming supports are augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology features with theoretical benefits for beginning communicators of all ages. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a communication application (app) on mobile technology that supported the just-in-time programming of VSDs on the communication of preadolescents and adolescents who were beginning communicators. METHOD: A single-subject multiple-baseline across participant design was employed to evaluate the effect of the AAC app with VSDs programmed just-in-time by the researcher on the communication turns expressed by five preadolescents and adolescents (9-18 years old) who were beginning communicators...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Vishakha W Rawool, Chelsea Campbell
OBJECTIVE: This investigation was designed to determine the effectiveness of earmuffs worn by a single individual during shooting practice. DESIGN: Single subject experimental design. STUDY SAMPLE: A 21-year old female recreational shooter, who practiced shooting on a regular basis while using earmuffs participated in the study. She reported occasional noise exposures of other types including car races and demolition derbies but no hearing difficulties or symptoms such as tinnitus...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
Michael F Dorman, Sarah Natale, Louise Loiselle
BACKGROUND: Sentence understanding scores for patients with cochlear implants (CIs) when tested in quiet are relatively high. However, sentence understanding scores for patients with CIs plummet with the addition of noise. PURPOSE: To assess, for patients with CIs (MED-EL), (1) the value to speech understanding of two new, noise-reducing microphone settings and (2) the effect of the microphone settings on sound source localization. RESEARCH DESIGN: Single-subject, repeated measures design...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Sangeetha Madhavan, Anjali Sivaramakrishnan, Sam Bond, Qin Li Jiang
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been explored as a neuromodulatory tool to prime motor function in several neurological disorders. Studies using tDCS in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are limited. We investigated the safety, feasibility and effects of long-term tDCS in an individual with ALS. METHODS: A 36-year-old male diagnosed with clinically definite ALS received 12 sessions each of anodal, sham, and cathodal tDCS. Outcome measures included disease progression (revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R)), clinical measures of endurance and mobility, and corticomotor excitability...
February 28, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Masaki Kato, Chihiro Yokoyama, Akihiro Kawasaki, Chiho Takeda, Taku Koike, Hirotaka Onoe, Atsushi Iriki
As with humans, vocal communication is an important social tool for nonhuman primates. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) often produce whistle-like 'phee' calls when they are visually separated from conspecifics. The neural processes specific to phee call perception, however, are largely unknown, despite the possibility that these processes involve social information. Here, we examined behavioral and whole-brain mapping evidence regarding the detection of individual conspecific phee calls using an audio playback procedure...
February 27, 2018: Animal Cognition
JoAnn P Silkes
Purpose: Masked priming has been suggested as a way to directly target implicit lexical retrieval processes in aphasia. This study was designed to investigate repeated use of masked repetition priming to improve picture naming in individuals with anomia due to aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple-baseline design was used across 6 people with aphasia. Training involved repeated exposure to pictures that were paired with masked identity primes or sham primes...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Blair Calancie, Dongliang Wang, Eufrosina Young, Natalia Alexeeva
A four-pulse pattern of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was compared to traditional dual-pulse TMS for its ability to modulate motor cortical excitability. This novel pattern consisted of a three-pulse train of subthreshold conditioning pulses followed by a suprathreshold test pulse (i.e., SC-T). The intervals between these superconditioning (SC) pulses (1, 3, or 6 ms) and the follow-on test pulse (1, 3, 10, or 25 ms) were varied, and the resultant MEPs were compared to those elicited by: (1) single-pulse TMS; and (2) dual-pulse conditioning-test (C-T) TMS with either short (3 ms) or long (10 ms) intervals to elicit short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) or intracortical facilitation (ICF), respectively...
February 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Niklaus Zoelch, Andreas Hock, Anke Henning
Quantification of magnetic resonance spectroscopy signals using the phantom replacement method requires an adequate correction of differences between the acquisition of the reference signal in the phantom and the measurement in vivo. Applying the principle of reciprocity, sensitivity differences can be corrected at low field strength by measuring the RF transmitter gain needed to obtain a certain flip angle in the measured volume. However, at higher field strength the transmit sensitivity may vary from the reception sensitivity, which leads to wrongly estimated concentrations...
February 21, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Christian Merkel, Jens-Max Hopf, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
Estimates of visual field topographies in human visual cortex obtained through fMRI traveling wave techniques usually provide the parameters of population receptive field (pRF) location (polar angle, eccentricity) and receptive field size. These parameters are obtained by fitting the recorded data to a standard model population receptive field. In this work, pRF profiles are measured directly by back-projecting preprocessed fMRI time-series to sweeps of a bar across the visual field in different angles. The current data suggest that the model-free pRF profiles contain information not only about receptive field location and size but also about the pRF shape characteristics...
February 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Zikuan Chen, Vince Calhoun
Spatial smoothing is a widely used preprocessing step in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. In this work, we report on the spatial smoothing effect on task-evoked fMRI brain functional mapping and functional connectivity. Initially, we decomposed the task fMRI data into a collection of components or networks by independent component analysis (ICA). The designed task paradigm helps identify task-modulated ICA components (highly correlated with the task stimuli). For the ICA-extracted primary task component, we then measured the task activation volume at the task response foci...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Michaël E Belloy, Maarten Naeyaert, Anzar Abbas, Disha Shah, Verdi Vanreusel, Johan van Audekerke, Shella D Keilholz, Georgios A Keliris, Annemie Van der Linden, Marleen Verhoye
Time-resolved 'dynamic' over whole-period 'static' analysis of low frequency (LF) blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations provides many additional insights into the macroscale organization and dynamics of neural activity. Although there has been considerable advancement in the development of mouse resting state fMRI (rsfMRI), very little remains known about its dynamic repertoire. Here, we report for the first time the detection of a set of recurring spatiotemporal Quasi-Periodic Patterns (QPPs) in mice, which show spatial similarity with known resting state networks...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
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