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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108394/unsmoothed-functional-mri-of-the-human-amygdala-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-during-processing-of-emotional-faces
#1
Ronald Sladky, Nicole Geissberger, Daniela M Pfabigan, Christoph Kraus, Martin Tik, Michael Woletz, Katharina Paul, Thomas Vanicek, Bastian Auer, Georg S Kranz, Claus Lamm, Rupert Lanzenberger, Christian Windischberger
Functional neuroimaging of the human amygdala has been of great interest to uncover the neural underpinnings of emotions, mood, motivation, social cognition, and decision making, as well as their dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Yet, several factors limit in vivo imaging of amygdalar function, most importantly its location deep within the temporal lobe adjacent to air-filled cavities that cause magnetic field inhomogeneities entailing signal dropouts. Additionally, the amygdala and the extended amygdalar region consist of several substructures, which have been assigned different functions and have important implications for functional and effective connectivity studies...
January 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106389/orthogonal-luciferase-luciferin-pairs-for-bioluminescence-imaging
#2
Krysten A Jones, William B Porterfield, Colin M Rathbun, David C McCutcheon, Miranda A Paley, Jennifer A Prescher
Bioluminescence imaging with luciferase-luciferin pairs is widely used in biomedical research. Several luciferases have been identified in nature, and many have been adapted for tracking cells in whole animals. Unfortunately, the optimal luciferases for imaging in vivo utilize the same substrate, and therefore cannot easily differentiate multiple cell types in a single subject. To develop a broader set of distinguishable probes, we crafted custom luciferins that can be selectively processed by engineered luciferases...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097208/muscle-synergies-after-stroke-are-correlated-with-perilesional-high-gamma
#3
Jason Godlove, Tanuj Gulati, Ben Dichter, Edward Chang, Karunesh Ganguly
Movements can be factored into modules termed "muscle synergies". After stroke, abnormal synergies are linked to impaired movements; however, their neural basis is not understood. In a single subject, we examined how electrocorticography signals from the perilesional cortex were associated with synergies. The measured synergies contained a mix of both normal and abnormal patterns and were remarkably similar to those described in past work. Interestingly, we found that both normal and abnormal synergies were correlated with perilesional high gamma...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091572/a-computational-psychiatry-approach-identifies-how-alpha-2a-noradrenergic-agonist-guanfacine-affects-feature-based-reinforcement-learning-in-the-macaque
#4
S A Hassani, M Oemisch, M Balcarras, S Westendorff, S Ardid, M A van der Meer, P Tiesinga, T Womelsdorf
Noradrenaline is believed to support cognitive flexibility through the alpha 2A noradrenergic receptor (a2A-NAR) acting in prefrontal cortex. Enhanced flexibility has been inferred from improved working memory with the a2A-NA agonist Guanfacine. But it has been unclear whether Guanfacine improves specific attention and learning mechanisms beyond working memory, and whether the drug effects can be formalized computationally to allow single subject predictions. We tested and confirmed these suggestions in a case study with a healthy nonhuman primate performing a feature-based reversal learning task evaluating performance using Bayesian and Reinforcement learning models...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076368/functional-laterality-of-task-evoked-activation-in-sensorimotor-cortex-of-preterm-infants-an-optimized-3-t-fmri-study-employing-a-customized-neonatal-head-coil
#5
Lukas Scheef, Jurek A Nordmeyer-Massner, Adam Pr Smith-Collins, Nicole Müller, Gaby Stegmann-Woessner, Jacob Jankowski, Jürgen Gieseke, Mark Born, Hermann Seitz, Peter Bartmann, Hans H Schild, Klaas P Pruessmann, Axel Heep, Henning Boecker
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in neonates has been introduced as a non-invasive method for studying sensorimotor processing in the developing brain. However, previous neonatal studies have delivered conflicting results regarding localization, lateralization, and directionality of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Amongst the confounding factors in interpreting neonatal fMRI studies include the use of standard adult MR-coils providing insufficient signal to noise, and liberal statistical thresholds, compromising clinical interpretation at the single subject level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063108/validation-of-18-f-fdg-pet-single-subject-optimized-spm-procedure-with-different-pet-scanners
#6
Luca Presotto, Tommaso Ballarini, Silvia Paola Caminiti, Valentino Bettinardi, Luigi Gianolli, Daniela Perani
(18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) allows early identification of neurodegeneration in dementia. The use of an optimized method based on the SPM software package highly improves diagnostic accuracy. However, the impact of different scanners for data acquisition on the SPM results and the effects of different pools of healthy subjects on the statistical comparison have not been investigated yet. Images from 144 AD patients acquired using six different PET scanners were analysed with an optimized single-subject SPM procedure to identify the typical AD hypometabolism pattern at single subject level...
January 6, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062443/a-novel-non-parametric-method-for-uncertainty-evaluation-of-correlation-based-molecular-signatures-its-application-on-pam50-algorithm
#7
Cristóbal Fresno, Germán Alexis González, Gabriela Alejandra Merino, Ana Georgina Flesia, Osvaldo Luis Podhajcer, Andrea Sabina Llera, Elmer Andrés Fernández
MOTIVATION: The PAM50 classifier is used to assign patients to the highest correlated breast cancer subtype irrespectively of the obtained value. Nonetheless, all subtype correlations are required to build the risk of recurrence (ROR) score, currently used in therapeutic decisions. Present subtype uncertainty estimations are not accurate, seldom considered or require a population-based approach for this context. RESULTS: Here we present a novel single-subject non-parametric uncertainty estimation based on PAM50's gene label permutations...
January 6, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057473/analysis-of-longitudinal-diffusion-weighted-images-in-healthy-and-pathological-aging-an-adni-study
#8
Frithjof Kruggel, Fumitaro Masaki, Ana Solodkin
BACKGROUND & NEW METHOD: The widely used framework of voxel-based morphometry for analyzing neuroimages is extended here to model longitudinal imaging data by exchanging the linear model with a linear mixed-effects model. The new approach is employed for analyzing a large longitudinal sample of 756 diffusion-weighted images acquired in 177 subjects of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging initiative (ADNI). RESULTS AND COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: While sample- and group-level results from both approaches are equivalent, the mixed-effect model yields information at the single subject level...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056153/effects-of-a-least-to-most-prompting-procedure-on-multisymbol-message-production-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-who-use-augmentative-and-alternative-communication
#9
Erinn H Finke, Jennifer M Davis, Morgan Benedict, Lauren Goga, Jennifer Kelly, Lauren Palumbo, Tanika Peart, Samantha Waters
Purpose: In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a least-to-most (LTM) prompting procedure (Ault & Griffen, 2013; MacDuff, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2001; Neitzel & Wolery, 2009) for increasing use of multisymbol messages in school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) during a storybook reading activity. Method: In the study, we used a single-subject, multiple-probe research design across participants (Kazdin, 1982) with 6 children (ages 8-12) with ASD and who used AAC systems for communication...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055332/temperature-measurement-and-control-system-for-transtibial-prostheses-single-subject-clinical-evaluation
#10
Kamiar Ghoseiri, Yong Ping Zheng, Aaron K L Leung, Mehdi Rahgozar, Gholamreza Aminian, Mehdi Masoumi, Mohammad Reza Safari
The snug fit of a prosthetic socket over the residual limb can disturb thermal balance and put skin integrity in jeopardy by providing an unpleasant and infectious environment. The prototype of a temperature measurement and control (TM&C) system was previously introduced to resolve thermal problems related to prostheses. This study evaluates its clinical application in a setting with reversal, single subject design. The TM&C system was installed on fabricated prosthetic socket of a man with unilateral transtibial amputation...
January 5, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054634/within-brain-area-tractography-suggests-local-modularity-using-high-resolution-connectomics
#11
Peter N Taylor, Yujiang Wang, Marcus Kaiser
Previous structural brain connectivity studies have mainly focussed on the macroscopic scale of around 1,000 or fewer brain areas (network nodes). However, it has recently been demonstrated that high resolution structural connectomes of around 50,000 nodes can be generated reproducibly. In this study, we infer high resolution brain connectivity matrices using diffusion imaging data from the Human Connectome Project. With such high resolution we are able to analyse networks within brain areas in a single subject...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025000/determination-of-water-soluble-and-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-tears-and-blood-serum-of-infants-and-parents-by-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#12
Maryam Khaksari, Lynn R Mazzoleni, Chunhai Ruan, Robert T Kennedy, Adrienne R Minerick
Tears serve as a viable diagnostic fluid with advantages including less invasive sample to collect and less complex to prepare for analysis. Several water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were detected and quantified in human tears and compared with blood serum levels. Samples from 15 family pairs, each pair consisting of a four-month-old infant and one parent were analyzed; vitamin concentrations were compared between tears and blood serum for individual subjects, between infants and parents, and against self-reported dietary intakes...
December 23, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018210/measuring-the-moment-to-moment-variability-of-tinnitus-the-trackyourtinnitus-smart-phone-app
#13
Winfried Schlee, Rüdiger C Pryss, Thomas Probst, Johannes Schobel, Alexander Bachmeier, Manfred Reichert, Berthold Langguth
Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound without a corresponding external sound, is a frequent disorder which causes significant morbidity. So far there is no treatment available that reliably reduces the tinnitus perception. The research is hampered by the large heterogeneity of tinnitus and the fact that the tinnitus perception fluctuates over time. It is therefore necessary to develop tools for measuring fluctuations of tinnitus perception over time and for analyzing data on single subject basis. However, this type of longitudinal measurement is difficult to perform using the traditional research methods such as paper-and-pencil questionnaires or clinical interviews...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018165/investigating-the-group-level-impact-of-advanced-dual-echo-fmri-combinations
#14
Ádám Kettinger, Christopher Hill, Zoltán Vidnyánszky, Christian Windischberger, Zoltán Nagy
Multi-echo fMRI data acquisition has been widely investigated and suggested to optimize sensitivity for detecting the BOLD signal. Several methods have also been proposed for the combination of data with different echo times. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these advanced echo combination methods provide advantages over the simple averaging of echoes when state-of-the-art group-level random-effect analyses are performed. Both resting-state and task-based dual-echo fMRI data were collected from 27 healthy adult individuals (14 male, mean age = 25...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007582/kmen-analyzing-noisy-and-bidirectional-transcriptional-pathway-responses-in-single-subjects
#15
Qike Li, A Grant Schissler, Vincent Gardeux, Joanne Berghout, Ikbel Achour, Colleen Kenost, Haiquan Li, Hao Helen Zhang, Yves A Lussier
MOTIVATION: Understanding dynamic, patient-level transcriptomic response to therapy is an important step forward for precision medicine. However, conventional transcriptome analysis aims to discover cohort-level change, lacking the capacity to unveil patient-specific response to therapy. To address this gap, we previously developed two N-of-1-pathways methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis distance, to detect unidirectionally responsive transcripts within a pathway using a pair of samples from a single subject...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997945/the-use-of-one-or-three-semantic-associative-primes-in-treating-anomia-in-aphasia
#16
Naomi Hashimoto
Purpose: The aims of the study were to investigate the use of semantic associative relationships as primes in treating naming deficits, or anomia, in aphasia and to determine if differential treatment effects would be found if 1 or 3 primes were presented. Method: Ten individuals with varying degrees of anomia participated in the study. A single-subject, A-B treatment design with a cross-over component was used. A 1-PRIME condition (use of 1 prime) was compared with a 3-PRIMES condition (use of 3 primes) for each participant...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989777/hand-classification-of-fmri-ica-noise-components
#17
Ludovica Griffanti, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Janine Bijsterbosh, Stefania Evangelisti, Fidel Alfaro-Almagro, Matthew F Glasser, Eugene P Duff, Sean Fitzgibbon, Robert Westphal, Davide Carone, Christian F Beckmann, Stephen M Smith
We present a practical "how-to" guide to help determine whether single-subject fMRI independent components (ICs) characterise structured noise or not. Manual identification of signal and noise after ICA decomposition is required for efficient data denoising: to train supervised algorithms, to check the results of unsupervised ones or to manually clean the data. In this paper we describe the main spatial and temporal features of ICs and provide general guidelines on how to evaluate these. Examples of signal and noise components are provided from a wide range of datasets (3T data, including examples from the UK Biobank and the Human Connectome Project, and 7T data), together with practical guidelines for their identification...
December 16, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986990/multiparametric-computer-aided-differential-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-using-structural-and-advanced-mri
#18
Esther E Bron, Marion Smits, Janne M Papma, Rebecca M E Steketee, Rozanna Meijboom, Marius de Groot, John C van Swieten, Wiro J Niessen, Stefan Klein
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the added diagnostic value of arterial spin labelling (ASL) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to structural MRI for computer-aided classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and controls. METHODS: This retrospective study used MRI data from 24 early-onset AD and 33 early-onset FTD patients and 34 controls (CN). Classification was based on voxel-wise feature maps derived from structural MRI, ASL, and DTI...
December 16, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977521/exploring-the-effects-of-using-an-oral-appliance-to-reduce-movement-dysfunction-in-an-individual-with-parkinson-disease-a-single-subject-design-study
#19
Hillary Lane, Lindsey E Rose, Megan Woodbrey, David Arghavani, Michael Lawrence, James T Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical reports suggest that wearing an oral appliance can improve the gait and balance of an individual with Parkinson disease (PD). Our primary purpose was to systematically explore this effect using a single-subject study design and quantitative motion analysis. Secondarily, we sought to examine the quality-of-life outcomes following 1-month of routine oral appliance wear. METHODS: The participant was a 73-year-old ambulatory man with mid-stage PD...
January 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973322/acquisition-retention-and-generalization-of-rhotics-with-and-without-ultrasound-visual-feedback
#20
Greta M Sjolie, Megan C Leece, Jonathan L Preston
PURPOSE: The purpose was to provide a preliminary within-participant comparison of speech therapy with and without exposure to ultrasound visual feedback for postvocalic rhotics (/r/- colored vowels). Effects of the two treatments on acquisition, retention, and generalization were explored. It was hypothesized that treatment with ultrasound would facilitate acquisition but hinder retention and generalization. METHODS: A single subject randomized block design was replicated across four American English-speaking participants ages 7-9 years...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
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