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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643115/new-erp-methods-tailored-onto-single-subject-neuroanatomical-variability
#1
Massimo Girelli
Gebodh and coworkers present an innovative method for strengthening the reliability with which event-related potential (ERP) components are recorded. By tailoring the experimental design to the neuroanatomical singularity of each observer, this method provides more robust and cleaner data.
June 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642698/enhanced-working-memory-binding-by-direct-electrical-stimulation-of-the-parietal-cortex
#2
Agustina Birba, Eugenia Hesse, Lucas Sedeño, Ezequiel P Mikulan, María Del C García, Juan Ávalos, Federico Adolfi, Agustina Legaz, Tristán A Bekinschtein, Máximo Zimerman, Mario Parra, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM) binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer's patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642263/volumetric-analysis-from-a-harmonized-multisite-brain-mri-study-of-a-single-subject-with-multiple-sclerosis
#3
R T Shinohara, J Oh, G Nair, P A Calabresi, C Davatzikos, J Doshi, R G Henry, G Kim, K A Linn, N Papinutto, D Pelletier, D L Pham, D S Reich, W Rooney, S Roy, W Stern, S Tummala, F Yousuf, A Zhu, N L Sicotte, R Bakshi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging can be used to measure structural changes in the brains of individuals with multiple sclerosis and is essential for diagnosis, longitudinal monitoring, and therapy evaluation. The North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Cooperative steering committee developed a uniform high-resolution 3T MR imaging protocol relevant to the quantification of cerebral lesions and atrophy and implemented it at 7 sites across the United States. To assess intersite variability in scan data, we imaged a volunteer with relapsing-remitting MS with a scan-rescan at each site...
June 22, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641686/a-case-study-of-human-roll-tilt-perception-in-hypogravity
#4
Torin K Clark, Laurence R Young
BACKGROUND: Increased gravito-inertial acceleration, or hypergravity, such as produced in a centrifuge or in an aircraft coordinated turn, causes humans to systematically overestimate their roll tilt in the dark. This is known as the "G-excess" illusion. We have previously modified a mathematical observer model of dynamic orientation perception to replicate these illusory tilt perceptions. This modified model also made a novel, previously untested, prediction that humans would underestimate acute roll tilt in reduced gravitational environments (hypogravity)...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634624/population-averaged-macaque-brain-atlas-with-high-resolution-ex-vivo-dti-integrated-into-in-vivo-space
#5
Lei Feng, Tina Jeon, Qiaowen Yu, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Virendra Mishra, Mihovil Pletikos, Nenad Sestan, Michael I Miller, Susumu Mori, Steven Hsiao, Shuwei Liu, Hao Huang
Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired...
June 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629975/anatomical-and-functional-properties-of-the-foot-and-leg-representation-in-areas-3b-1-and-2-of-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-humans-a-7t-fmri-study
#6
Michel Akselrod, Roberto Martuzzi, Andrea Serino, Wietske van der Zwaag, Roger Gassert, Olaf Blanke
Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) processes somatosensory information and is composed of multiple subregions. In particular, tactile information from the skin is encoded in three subregions, namely Brodmann areas (BAs) 3b, 1 and 2, with each area representing a complete map of the contralateral body. Although, much is known about the somatotopic organization of the hand in human S1, less research has been carried out regarding the somatotopic maps of the foot and leg in S1. Moreover, a latero-medial S1 organization along the superior part of the postcentral gyrus has been reported when moving from hip to toes, yet to date there is no study investigating leg/foot maps within the different subregions of S1...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589853/n-of-1-pathways-mixenrich-advancing-precision-medicine-via-single-subject-analysis-in-discovering-dynamic-changes-of-transcriptomes
#7
Qike Li, A Grant Schissler, Vincent Gardeux, Ikbel Achour, Colleen Kenost, Joanne Berghout, Haiquan Li, Hao Helen Zhang, Yves A Lussier
BACKGROUND: Transcriptome analytic tools are commonly used across patient cohorts to develop drugs and predict clinical outcomes. However, as precision medicine pursues more accurate and individualized treatment decisions, these methods are not designed to address single-patient transcriptome analyses. We previously developed and validated the N-of-1-pathways framework using two methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis Distance (MD), for personal transcriptome analysis derived from a pair of samples of a single patient...
May 24, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582883/evidence-to-support-treatment-options-for-children-with-swallowing-and-feeding-disorders-a-systematic-review
#8
Memorie M Gosa, Hillary T Carden, Courtney C Jacks, Amy Y Threadgill, Tara C Sidlovsky
PURPOSE: A rise in pediatric patients with swallowing and feeding problems has resulted in increased interest in multidisciplinary treatments to address these issues. This evidence based systematic review (EBSR) examined the published evidence for the use of common strategies used by clinicians across disciplines to treat pediatric swallowing and feeding problems. METHODS: A systematic search of 10 electronic databases was completed to identify relevant, peer reviewed literature published in English prior to December 2015 reporting original data that addressed at least one of the five identified clinical questions...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562172/applying-fmri-complexity-analyses-to-the-single-subject-a-case-study-for-proposed-neurodiagnostics
#9
Anca R Rădulescu, Emily R Hannon
Nonlinear dynamic tools have been statistically validated at the group level to identify subtle differences in system wide regulation of brain meso-circuits, often increasing clinical sensitivity over conventional analyses alone. We explored the feasibility of extracting information at the single-subject level, illustrating two pairs of healthy individuals with psychological differences in stress reactivity. We applied statistical and nonlinear dynamic tools to capture key characteristics of the prefrontal-limbic loop...
May 31, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559793/initial-validation-for-the-estimation-of-resting-state-fmri-effective-connectivity-by-a-generalization-of-the-correlation-approach
#10
Nan Xu, R Nathan Spreng, Peter C Doerschuk
Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is widely used to noninvasively study human brain networks. Network functional connectivity is often estimated by calculating the timeseries correlation between blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal from different regions of interest (ROIs). However, standard correlation cannot characterize the direction of information flow between regions. In this paper, we introduce and test a new concept, prediction correlation, to estimate effective connectivity in functional brain networks from rs-fMRI...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553138/children-s-and-adolescents-relationship-to-pain-during-cancer-treatment-a-preliminary-validation-of-the-pain-flexibility-scale-for-children
#11
Jenny Thorsell Cederberg, Sandra Weineland Strandskov, JoAnne Dahl, Gustaf Ljungman
OBJECTIVES: Children with cancer often suffer from pain. Pain is associated with psychological distress, which may amplify the pain experience. In chronic pain, it has been shown that psychological acceptance is helpful for both adults and children. For experimentally induced pain, interventions fostering psychological acceptance have been shown to predict increases in pain tolerance and reductions in pain intensity and discomfort of pain. A single subject study aiming to nurture psychological acceptance for children with cancer experiencing pain has shown promising results...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552782/a-fast-and-implicit-measure-of-semantic-categorisation-using-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials
#12
George Stothart, Susanne Quadflieg, Alexander Milton
There is a great need for objective measures of perception and cognition that are reliable at the level of the individual subject. Although traditional electroencephalography (EEG) techniques can act as valid bio-markers of cognition, they typically involve long recording times and the computation of group averages. To overcome these well-known limitations of EEG, vision scientists have recently introduced a steady state method known as fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS). This method allows them to study visual discrimination at the individual level...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552011/testing-for-differentially-expressed-genetic-pathways-with-single-subject-n-of-1-data-in-the-presence-of-inter-gene-correlation
#13
A Grant Schissler, Walter W Piegorsch, Yves A Lussier
Modern precision medicine increasingly relies on molecular data analytics, wherein development of interpretable single-subject ("N-of-1") signals is a challenging goal. A previously developed global framework, N-of-1- pathways, employs single-subject gene expression data to identify differentially expressed gene set pathways in an individual patient. Unfortunately, the limited amount of data within the single-subject, N-of-1 setting makes construction of suitable statistical inferences for identifying differentially expressed gene set pathways difficult, especially when non-trivial inter-gene correlation is present...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548002/precursors-of-language-development-in-asc-a-longitudinal-single-subject-study-of-gestures-in-relation-to-phonetic-prosody
#14
Pia M Nordgren
We longitudinally investigated the development of deictic and general accompanying gestures in one 5-year-old boy with autism spectrum condition (ASC) and intellectual disability. The investigation was performed during an intervention focusing on phonological segments. The purpose was to see whether gestures developed in conjunction with language. We found that deictic and general accompanying gestures increased during the study, despite not being trained. There was also a positive temporal correlation between deictic gestures and speech...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543270/acoustic-plus-electric-speech-processing-long-term-results
#15
Bruce J Gantz, Camille C Dunn, Jacob Oleson, Marlan R Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated the stability of residual hearing and speech perception outcomes in individuals who were implanted with a shorter electrode device. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal, single-subject design. METHODS: Fifty subjects who received a Nucleus Hybrid (Cochlear, Sydney, Australia) short electrode cochlear implant (CI) and had a minimum of 2 years (and up to 15 years) of postoperative longitudinal experience were included in this study...
May 23, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536045/toward-defining-deep-brain-stimulation-targets-in-mni-space-a-subcortical-atlas-based-on-multimodal-mri-histology-and-structural-connectivity
#16
REVIEW
Siobhan Ewert, Philip Plettig, Ningfei Li, M Mallar Chakravarty, D Louis Collins, Todd M Herrington, Andrea A Kühn, Andreas Horn
Three-dimensional atlases of subcortical brain structures are valuable tools to reference anatomy in neuroscience and neurology. For instance, they can be used to study the position and shape of the three most common deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal part of the pallidum (GPi) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) in spatial relationship to DBS electrodes. Here, we present a composite atlas based on manual segmentations of a multimodal high resolution brain template, histology and structural connectivity...
May 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532179/capturing-context-related-change-in-emotional-dynamics-via-fixed-moderated-time-series-analysis
#17
Janne K Adolf, Manuel C Voelkle, Annette Brose, Florian Schmiedek
Much of recent affect research relies on intensive longitudinal studies to assess daily emotional experiences. The resulting data are analyzed with dynamic models to capture regulatory processes involved in emotional functioning. Daily contexts, however, are commonly ignored. This may not only result in biased parameter estimates and wrong conclusions, but also ignores the opportunity to investigate contextual effects on emotional dynamics. With fixed moderated time series analysis, we present an approach that resolves this problem by estimating context-dependent change in dynamic parameters in single-subject time series models...
May 22, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503651/effect-of-play-based-occupational-therapy-on-symptoms-of-hospitalized-children-with-cancer-a-single-subject-study
#18
Ahmad Mohammadi, Afsoon Hassani Mehraban, Shahla A Damavandi
OBJECTIVE: Cancer is one of the four leading causes of death in children. Its courses of diagnosis and treatment can cause physiologic symptoms and psychological distress that secondarily affect children's quality of life and participation in daily activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of play-based occupational therapy on pain, anxiety, and fatigue in hospitalized children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: Two hospitalized children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at least 4 months after diagnoses who received two courses of chemotherapy participated in this pilot study...
April 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498732/early-writing-intervention
#19
Kristen L McMaster, Amy Kunkel, Jaehyun Shin, Pyung-Gang Jung, Erica Lembke
The purpose of this best evidence synthesis was to identify promising interventions that align with a theoretical model of early writing development, targeting three components of early writing: transcription, text generation, and self-regulation. We determined the extent to which these interventions are effective for children who struggle with early writing skills, by calculating effect sizes for group and single-subject designs, and we examined the overall quality of the research. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496422/systematic-observation-of-an-expert-driver-s-gaze-strategy-an-on-road-case-study
#20
Otto Lappi, Paavo Rinkkala, Jami Pekkanen
In this paper we present and qualitatively analyze an expert driver's gaze behavior in natural driving on a real road, with no specific experimental task or instruction. Previous eye tracking research on naturalistic tasks has revealed recurring patterns of gaze behavior that are surprisingly regular and repeatable. Lappi (2016) identified in the literature seven "qualitative laws of gaze behavior in the wild": recurring patterns that tend to go together, the more so the more naturalistic the setting, all of them expected in extended sequences of fully naturalistic behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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