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Insuline resistance

Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Hiroshi Chadani, Soichiro Usui, Oto Inoue, Takashi Kusayama, Shin-Ichiro Takashima, Takeshi Kato, Hisayoshi Murai, Hiroshi Furusho, Ayano Nomura, Hirofumi Misu, Toshinari Takamura, Shuichi Kaneko, Masayuki Takamura
Selenoprotein P (SeP), a liver-derived secretory protein, functions as a selenium supply protein in the body. SeP has been reported to be associated with insulin resistance in humans through serial analysis of gene expression. Recently, SeP has been found to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated cell proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and impair angiogenesis in a mouse hind limb model. In this study, the role of SeP in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has been investigated...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gary J Hausman
Adipose tissue exists in many locations or depots that differ from one another based on numerous and various characteristics. The unique "layered" anatomical feature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in man and the pig is reviewed and discussed. The origin of fetal pig adipose tissue subcutaneous layers is reviewed before the onset of adipogenesis and after the overt adipogenesis. Furthermore, the distinguishing characteristics of developing outer SAT layer (OSQ) and middle SAT layer (MSQ) in pigs are reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
María José Garcés Hernández, Miguel Klünder, Nayely Garibay Nieto, Juan Carlos López Alvarenga, Jenny Vilchis Gil, Samuel Flores Huerta, Rosa Quispe Siccha, Joselin Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical model associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults, but studies on children failed to support this association. Our group has proposed a pediatric VAI model using pediatric ranges, but it has not yet been evaluated and needs further adjustments. The objective of this study was to further adjust the proposed pediatric VAI by age, creating a new pediatric metabolic index (PMI), and assess the correlation of the PMI with insulin resistance indexes and hepatic enzymes...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
(no author information available yet)
Honkala SM, Johansson J, Motiani KK, et al. Short-term interval training alters brain glucose metabolism in subjects with insulin resistance. J Cereb Blood Flow. Epub ahead of print 29 September 2017. DOI: 10.1177/0271678X17734998. The figures in this article appear in the wrong position. Figure 1 should appear where Figure 2 currently appears, and vice versa. The figure captions are correctly placed.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Ye Seul Yang, Min Hyuk Lim, Seong Ok Lee, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim, Andrea Mari, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
AIMS: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with renal protective effect. Additionally, they have been associated with the delayed onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations, and some ARB were reported to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. Therefore, we studied the effects of ARB on insulin secretion in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this open-labeled, active comparator-controlled and crossover study...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Michael Mendler, Stefan Kopf, Jan B Groener, Christin Riedinger, Thomas H Fleming, Peter P Nawroth, Jürgen G Okun
AIMS: 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) is an endogenous activator of AMPK, a central regulator of energy homeostasis. Loss and/or reduction of AMPK signaling plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. The loss of AMPK in diabetes could be due to a loss of AICAR. The aim of this study was to characterize urine levels of AICAR in diabetes and determine whether an association exists with respect to late complications, e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Mika Hilvo, Tuire Salonurmi, Aki S Havulinna, Dimple Kauhanen, Eva Ringdal Pedersen, Grethe S Tell, Klaus Meyer, Anna-Maria Teeriniemi, Tiina Laatikainen, Pekka Jousilahti, Markku J Savolainen, Ottar Nygård, Veikko Salomaa, Reijo Laaksonen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ceramide lipids have a role in the development of insulin resistance, diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we investigated four ceramides and their ratios to find the best predictors of incident diabetes. METHODS: A validated mass-spectrometric method was applied to measure Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0) and Cer(d18:1/24:1) from serum or plasma samples. These ceramides were analysed in a population-based risk factor study (FINRISK 2002, n = 8045), in a cohort of participants undergoing elective coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris (Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort [WECAC], n = 3344) and in an intervention trial investigating improved methods of lifestyle modification for individuals at high risk of the metabolic syndrome (Prevent Metabolic Syndrome [PrevMetSyn], n = 371)...
March 15, 2018: Diabetologia
Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xiang Song, Yan Zhang, Li Zhang, Wengang Song, Lixin Shi
Hypoxia-associated metabolic reprogramming modulates the biological functions of many immune and non-immune cells, and affects immune response types and intensities. Adenosine and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) are known immunosuppressors, and adenosine is a hypoxia-associated product. We investigated the impact of hypoxia on IDO production in dendritic cells (DCs). We found that hypoxia (1% O2 ) enhances IDO production in DCs, and this increase was dependent on the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R), but not A2aR or A2bR...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Brendan M Everett, Marc Y Donath, Aruna D Pradhan, Tom Thuren, Prem Pais, Jose C Nicolau, Robert J Glynn, Peter Libby, Paul M Ridker
BACKGROUND: Subclinical inflammation mediated in part by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) participates in peripheral insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that canakinumab, an IL-1β inhibitor, reduces incident diabetes. METHODS: The Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS) randomized 10,061 patients with prior MI and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥2 mg/L to placebo or canakinumab at doses of 50mg, 150mg, or 300mg subcutaneously once every three months...
March 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Ji Hee Kim, Ju Sun Heo, Kyung Suk Baek, Soo-Yeon Kim, Jung Hyun Kim, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Ki Eun Kim, Youn Ho Sheen
BACKGROUND: Zonulin is acknowledged as the only physiological mediator established to reversibly regulate intestinal permeability through modulation of intercellular tight junctions. We aimed to determine whether there are differences in zonulin levels between 74 subjects with overweight or obesity and 76 with normal-weight and to assess correlations of circulating zonulin levels with anthropometric measures and obesity-related biomarkers. METHODS: We assessed anthropometric and laboratory measures, including body mass indes (BMI) z-score, blood pressure, liver enzymes, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance...
March 12, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Charles Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda, Jiliu Xu, Kay D Beharry
OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates with chronic lung disease requiring oxygen therapy frequently experience fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation or intermittent hypoxia (IH). These infants are at risk for multi-organ developmental delay, reduced growth, and short stature. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) system, an important hormonal regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes neonatal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that increasing episodes of IH delay neonatal growth by influencing the GH/IGF-I axis...
March 8, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Kana Ide, Masaya Koshizaka, Hirotake Tokuyama, Takahiko Tokuyama, Takahiro Ishikawa, Yoshiro Maezawa, Minoru Takemoto, Koutaro Yokote
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Although hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) can reduce cardiovascular events, residual risk remains even after target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels have been achieved. Lipoprotein particle size and fraction changes are thought to contribute to such risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, on lipoprotein particle size, concentration, and glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia...
March 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Hobby Agarwal, Jitendra S Kanshana, Deepika Awasthi, Anand P Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Madhu Dikshit
Oxidative stress due to enhanced production or reduced scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with diet (dyslipidemia) induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR). The present study was undertaken to assess the role of p47phox in IR using wild type (WT) and p47phox-/- mice, fed with different diets (HFD, LFD or Chow). Augmented body weight, glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity were observed in p47phox-/- mice fed with 45% HFD and 10% LFD. Further, body fat and circulating lipids was increased significantly with 5 weeks LFD feeding in p47phox-/- mice, while parameters of energy homeostasis were reduced as compared to WT mice...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Christina Schumann, Michael Faust
BACKGROUND:  Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state are the most serious diabetic emergencies. Before the discovery of insulin in 1921 by Banting and Best the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was fatal ending in diabetic ketoacidosis equivalent to a torturous death. Today, mortality from diabetic ketoacidosis is low at approximately 2 %. But each death from these two acute metabolic complications of diabetes is potentially avoidable by improved patient and healthcare professional education...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Peter Riško, Jan Pláteník, Richard Buchal, Jana Potočková, Pavel J Kraml
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The increased iron level and the labile iron pool (LIP) in circulating monocytes are connected to a higher frequency of cardiovascular events. METHODS: The study investigates the relationship between LIP in circulating monocytes and markers of iron metabolism and atherosclerosis (inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and arterial elasticity) in long-term blood donors and non-donor volunteers. RESULTS: We found that donors had significantly higher LIP values than the control group (1...
March 3, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
So Yoon Han, Nan Hee Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seon Mee Kim
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity has significantly increased in Korea. This study aimed to use data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to investigate the association between sodium (Na) intake and insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: The study population consisted of 578 adolescents aged 12-18 years who were enrolled in the 2010 KNHANES. Subjects were classified into the following four groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values: normal BMI and HOMA-IR (Group 1), normal BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 2), ≥85% BMI and normal HOMA-IR (Group 3) and ≥85% BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 4)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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