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Lisa M Stevenson, Richard A Carlson
We examined the hypothesis that skilled performance is monitored on the basis of fluency, where fluency is operationally defined as temporal regularity or rhythmicity rather than speed. Since error is often associated with variable timing, we tested the possibility that people use varied timing as a metacognitive cue. Using a sequential counting task, which may be representative of the broader class of skilled, multi-step tasks, we found that shifting between irregular and regular timing led to greater confidence ratings when the timing associated with the task was regular...
January 12, 2018: Psychological Research
Jason D Wagman, Kristen E Lukas, Patricia M Dennis, Mark A Willis, Joe Carroscia, Curt Gindlesperger, Mandi W Schook
Zoo-housed bears are prone to exhibiting stereotypic behaviors, generally considered indicators of negative welfare. We explored the effects of a variable-time feeding enrichment schedule on behavioral indicators of welfare in four bear species at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. We distributed the diets of eight bears in one of five enrichment items, for two consecutive days each, and monitored behavior throughout the day. In Experiment 1, we compared variable-time to fixed-time presentation of enrichment over two, 10-day periods...
January 7, 2018: Zoo Biology
Petr Neuzil, Béla Merkely, Andrejs Erglis, Germanas Marinskis, Joris R de Groot, Herwig Schmidinger, Manuel Rodriguez Venegas, Michiel Voskuil, Thomas Sturmberger, Jan Petru, Niels Jongejan, Josef Aichinger, Ginta Kamzola, Audrius Aidietis, Laszlo Gellér, Tomas Mraz, Istvan Osztheimer, Yuval Mika, Steven Evans, Daniel Burkhoff, Karl-Heinz Kuck
BACKGROUND: Many patients requiring a pacemaker have persistent hypertension with systolic blood pressures above recommended levels. We evaluated a pacemaker-based Programmable Hypertension Control (PHC) therapy that uses a sequence of variably timed shorter and longer atrioventricular intervals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients indicated for dual-chamber pacing with office systolic blood pressure (oSBP) >150 mm Hg despite stable medical therapy were implanted with a Moderato™ pulse generator that delivers PHC therapy...
December 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Joseph Nathanael Mastron, Andrei Tokmakoff
While time-resolved infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy provides insight on structural dynamics of solution-phase systems, current techniques are limited to high concentrations. Fluorescence-encoded infrared spectroscopy (FEIR) can be used to encode IR-driven vibrational excitations into excited electronic states that fluoresce, which can be detected at lower concentrations than a coherently-detected IR signal. Here, we report on the development of Fourier transform FEIR as an alternate approach for high sensitivity IR spectroscopy...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Mario Müller, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Stephanie Rodgers, Birgit Kleim, Erich Seifritz, Stefan Vetter, Stephan T Egger, Wulf Rössler, Enrique Castelao, Martin Preisig, Caroline Vandeleur
Epidemiological data on the chronicity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to trauma type and underlying pathways are rare. The current study explored how PTSD symptoms change over time across different trauma types and examined mediators of their persistence. A trauma-exposed community sample, whereof approximately one quarter met diagnostic criteria for PTSD, provided retrospective data on the duration of PTSD symptoms. Those who remitted and those who had not at the time of assessment were compared regarding worst trauma, symptom severity, comorbidity, demographic and treatment-seeking variables...
December 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Taofiq Oludemi, Lillian Barros, M A Prieto, Sandrina A Heleno, Maria F Barreiro, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The extraction of triterpenoids and phenolic compounds from Ganoderma lucidum was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM), using heat and ultrasound assisted extraction techniques (HAE and UAE). The obtained results were compared with that of the standard Soxhlet procedure. RSM was applied using a circumscribed central composite design with three variables (time, ethanol content, and temperature or ultrasonic power) and five levels. The conditions that maximize the responses (extraction yield, triterpenoids and total phenolics) were: 78...
December 7, 2017: Food & Function
Rachel P Ogilvie, Pamela L Lutsey, Rachel Widome, Melissa N Laska, Nicole Larson, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
OBJECTIVE: To test the associations between sleep indices and eating behaviours in young adults, a group vulnerable to suboptimal sleep. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of survey measures of sleep (i.e. time in bed, variability, timing and quality) and dietary patterns (i.e. breakfast skipping, eating at fast-food restaurants, consumption of sports and energy drinks, and sugar-free, sugar-sweetened and caffeinated beverages). SETTING: Minneapolis/St...
December 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Elda Kara, Elisa Della Valle, Sara De Vincentis, Vincenzo Rochira, Bruno Madeo
Spontaneous or fine-needle aspiration (FNAB)-induced remission of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) may occur, especially for cystic lesions. However, the disease generally relapses over a short time period. We present a case of PHPT due to an enlarged hyperfunctioning parathyroid that underwent long-term (almost 9 years) clinical and ultrasonographic remission after the disappearance of the lesion following ultrasound (US)-assisted FNAB. A 67-year-old woman with PHPT underwent biochemical and US examinations that confirmed the diagnosis and showed a lesion suggestive for parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Yusuf A Rajabally, Shahram Attarian
A systematic review of the literature was performed on the association of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with malignancy. Hematologic disorders are the most common association, particulalry non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. CIDP frequently precedes the malignancy diagnosis, and there is a favorable CIDP response to treatment more than 70% of the time. Melanoma is the second most common association, and may be accompanied by antiganglioside antibodies; the CIDP shows a good response to immunotherapy...
December 1, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
Rahul Yadav, Salam Hama, Yifen Liu, Tarza Siahmansur, Jonathan Schofield, Akheel A Syed, Michael France, Philip Pemberton, Safwaan Adam, Jan Hoong Ho, Reza Aghamohammadzadeh, Shaishav Dhage, Rachelle Donn, Rayaz A Malik, John P New, Maria Jeziorska, Paul Durrington, Basil A Ammori, Handrean Soran
Purpose: Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment option for weight reduction in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Objective: To evaluate changes in lipoproteins, insulin resistance, mediators of systemic and vascular inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction following Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery in obese patients with and without diabetes. Materials and methods: Lipoproteins, insulin resistance, mediators of systemic and vascular inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction were measured in 37 obese patients with (n = 17) and without (n = 20) T2DM, before and 6 and 12 months after Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Pablo Martínez-Camblor, Juan Carlos Pardo-Fernández
The receiver operating characteristic curve is a popular graphical method often used to study the diagnostic capacity of continuous (bio)markers. When the considered outcome is a time-dependent variable, two main extensions have been proposed: the cumulative/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve and the incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve. In both cases, the main problem for developing appropriate estimators is the estimation of the joint distribution of the variables time-to-event and marker...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Nagamalleswara Rao Alluri, Venkateswaran Vivekananthan, Arunkumar Chandrasekhar, Sang-Jae Kim
Contrary to traditional planar flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs), highly adaptable hemispherical shape-flexible piezoelectric composite strip (HS-FPCS) based PNGs are required to harness/measure non-linear surface motions. Therefore, a feasible, cost-effective and less-time consuming groove technique was developed to fabricate adaptable HS-FPCSs with multiple lengths. A single HS-CSPNG generates 130 V/0.8 μA and can also work as a self-powered muscle monitoring system (SP-MMS) to measure maximum human body part movements, i...
November 27, 2017: Nanoscale
P Blavy, N C Friggens, K R Nielsen, J M Christensen, M Derks
The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of progesterone profile features and other cow-level factors on insemination success to provide a real-time predictor equation of probability of insemination success. Progesterone profiles from 26 dairy herds were analyzed and the effects of profile features (progesterone slope, cycle length, and cycle height) and cow traits (milk yield, parity, insemination during the previous estrus) on likelihood of artificial insemination success were estimated. The equation was fitted on a training data set containing data from 16 herds (6,246 estrous cycles from 3,404 lactations)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Juliana Cristina Abbate Tondo, Edinêis de Brito Guirardello
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nursing professionals' perception on safety climate, to check if this perception differs between categories and if there is correlation between the Safety Attitude Questionaire (SAQ) domains and personal and professional variables. METHOD: Quantitative and transversal study held in a teaching hospital in the countryside of São Paulo, in Brazil. Data collection occurred in the period from April to July 2014, with the application of the SAQ...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Frank Berthold, Marc Hömberg, Inna Proleskovskaya, Pavel Mazanek, Margarita Belogurova, Angela Ernst, Jaroslav Sterba
The metronomic therapy concept uses low doses of continuously applied chemotherapeutic, anti-angiogenetic, and immunomodulating drugs. Twenty patients with recurrent and 3 with refractory high-risk neuroblastoma were treated by the metronomic concept using celecoxib, cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, and etoposide for up to 24 months. The outcome was compared to 274 matched patients with a first recurrence from stage 4 neuroblastoma using the variables time from diagnosis to first recurrence, number of organs involved, and MYCN amplification...
November 17, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Michael G Cortes, Jimmy T Trinh, Lanying Zeng, Gábor Balázsi
Gene regulatory networks are largely responsible for cellular decision-making. These networks sense diverse external signals and respond by adjusting gene expression, enabling cells to reach environment-dependent decisions crucial for their survival or reproduction. However, information-carrying signals may arrive at variable times. Besides the intrinsic strength of these signals, their arrival time (timing) may also carry information about the environment and can influence cellular decision-making in ways that are poorly understood...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Sally H Adams, M Jane Park, Lauren Twietmeyer, Claire D Brindis, Charles E Irwin
Importance: Despite decades of adolescent preventive well visit and services promotion (Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services and Bright Futures), rates are below recommended levels and little is known of the effect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) implementation on these care rates. Objectives: To use Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data to determine (1) whether adolescent well visit rates increased from the pre-ACA period to post-ACA period, and (2) whether caregivers' reports of past-year preventive services delivery increased from the pre- to post-ACA period among adolescents with any past-year health care visit...
November 6, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
Saba Al-Wais, Suiyang Khoo, Tae Hee Lee, Lakshmanan Shanmugam, Saeid Nahavandi
This paper is devoted to the synchronization problem of tele-operation systems with time-varying delay, disturbances, and uncertainty. Delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of integral sliding surfaces are given in the form of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). This guarantees the global stability of the tele-operation system with known upper bounds of the time-varying delays. Unlike previous work, in this paper, the controller gains are designed but not chosen, which increases the degree of freedom of the design...
October 27, 2017: ISA Transactions
D Ekhart, H Wicht, T Kersken, H Ackermann, M Kaczmarczyk, G Pretzsch, H Alexander, H W Korf
Studies under real life conditions become more and more relevant in chronobiological and chronomedical research. The present study aims to analyze one of the most prominent biological rhythms: the core body temperature (CBT) rhythm in the real world outside the laboratory. CBT was recorded continuously in 37 healthy women (age between 21 and 44 years, median 29 years) with a newly developed intravaginal temperature sensor for up to 102 days. Sleep logs were available from 23 participants. To quantify the daily dynamics of each individual CBT-curve, novel measurement parameters are introduced which permit the quantification of the phase and shape of the CBT rhythms as well as their relation to the sleep-wake cycle...
November 6, 2017: Chronobiology International
Juan Diego Ruiz-Cárdenas, Juan José Rodríguez-Juan, Rowan R Smart, Jennifer M Jakobi, Gareth R Jones
The purposes of this study were: (i) Analyze the concurrent validity and reliability of an iPhone App for measuring time, velocity and power during a single sit-to-stand (STS) test compared with measurements recorded from a force plate; and (ii) Evaluate the relationship between the iPhone App measures with age and functional performance. Forty-eight healthy individuals (age range: 26-81 years) were recruited. All participants completed a STS test on a force plate with the movement recorded on an iPhone 6 at 240 frames-per-second...
January 2018: Gait & Posture
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