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Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Osvaldo Marrero, Eric Y Hung, Manfred Hauben
BACKGROUND: Many illnesses demonstrate seasonal and geographic variations. Pharmacovigilance is unique among public health surveillance systems in terms of the clinical diversity of the events under surveillance. Since many pharmacovigilance signal detection methodologies are geared towards looking for increased frequency of spontaneous adverse drug event (ADE) reporting over variable time frames, seasonality of ADEs may have implications for signal detection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a set of illnesses that might be expected to display seasonality in general, did so when spontaneously reported as ADEs...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Gadavalli Vera Venkata Satyakiran, Radhika Manoj Bavle, Glory Alexander, Saritha Rao, Reshma Venugopal, Sreelatha S Hosthor
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection gradually destroys the body's immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections. HIV infection causes a quantitative and qualitative depletion of CD4 lymphocyte count, which increases the risk of opportunistic infections. Thus, CD4 count is one of the key factors in determining both the urgency of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation and the need of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
C Ganos, M J Edwards, K P Bhatia
Traumatic injury to the nervous system may account for a range of neurologic symptoms. Trauma location and severity are important determinants of the resulting symptoms. In severe head injury with structural brain abnormalities, the occurrence of trauma-induced movement disorders, most commonly hyperkinesias such as tremor and dystonia, is well recognized and its diagnosis straightforward. However, the association of minor traumatic events, which do not lead to significant persistent structural brain damage, with the onset of movement disorders is more contentious...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Maria Kaisar, Leon F A van Dullemen, Marie-Laëtitia Thézénas, M Zeeshan Akhtar, Honglei Huang, Sandrine Rendel, Philip D Charles, Roman Fischer, Rutger J Ploeg, Benedikt M Kessler
BACKGROUND: The successful application of-omics technologies in the discovery of novel biomarkers and targets of therapeutic interventions is facilitated by large collections of well curated clinical samples stored in bio banks. Mining the plasma proteome holds promise to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and may represent a source of biomarkers. However, a major confounding factor for defining disease-specific proteomic signatures in plasma is the variation in handling and processing of clinical samples leading to protein degradation...
2016: Clinical Proteomics
Anna L MacKinnon, Mariam Naguib, Helena J Barr, Anna Levinsson, Stephanie Robins, Nancy Feeley, Barbara Hayton, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Ian Gold
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of mental health problems during the perinatal period, little research has examined psychotic symptoms in a community sample across pregnancy and the postpartum. Exposure to environmental risk factors, and immigration in particular, are associated with increased risk for psychotic disorders. The current investigation examined whether psychosocial risk and immigrant status would predict levels of delusional ideation across the perinatal period when controlling for depression, anxiety, and demographic factors...
September 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Jay Song, Sung Bum Kim, Kook Hyun Kim, Tae Nyeun Kim, Kyung Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder toxicity was reported in most motesanib studies with varying frequency and at variable times after initiation of treatment. METHOD AND RESULTS: A 44-year-old man was admitted due to severe epigastric pain. The patient was diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer 9 months ago and received 6 cycles of chemotherapy with motesanib, paclitaxel, and carboplatin. Ultrasonography showed a large amount of sludge within gallbladder. Computed tomography scan demonstrated diffuse dilatation of biliary tree with distended gallbladder without evidence of stone and mild pancreatic swelling...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chia-Chun Li, Yun-Fang Tsai, Ting-Chang Chang, Lynn Chen
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among menopausal symptoms, sleep quality and fatigue in women with endometrial cancer. Participants were 95 women (mean age = 57.44 ± 10.15 years) diagnosed with endometrial cancer and who had completed their treatment before data collection. Each woman completed three structured questionnaires: the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Endocrine Symptoms (endocrine symptom subscale), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue...
August 21, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Jian-Nan Chen, Zhen Zhang, Rui-Na Xu, Xiao-Long Ouyang, Pei-Xue Jiang
Numerical investigations of the dynamics and evaporative cooling of water droplets impinging onto heated surfaces can be used to identify spray cooling mechanisms. Droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation are simulated using the presented numerical model. Volume-of-fluid method is used in the model to track the free surface. The contact line dynamics was predicted from a dynamic contact angle model with the evaporation rate predicted by a kinetic theory model. A species transport equation was solved in the gas phase to describe the vapor convection and diffusion...
September 13, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
M Viganò, F Invernizzi, G Grossi, P Lampertico
BACKGROUND: A short-term course of pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN), or a long-term treatment with a third generation nucleot(s)ide analogue (NUC), of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection achieves viral suppression and may prevent disease progression. Owing to different mechanisms of action of the two regimens, a Peg-IFN and NUC combination treatment may be an attractive approach to enhance the off-treatment rates of virological and serological response. AIM: To review the literature on combinations of Peg-IFN plus NUC, including the simultaneous initiation of Peg-IFN and NUC in naïve patients; an 'add-on' combination, where Peg-IFN is started at variable times after the beginning of NUC; or a 'switch-to' strategy usually from NUC to Peg-IFN...
October 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Xu Han, Shiteng Suo, Yawen Sun, Jinyan Zu, Jianxun Qu, Yan Zhou, Zengai Chen, Jianrong Xu
PURPOSE: To compare four methods of region-of-interest (ROI) placement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in distinguishing low-grade gliomas (LGGs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two independent readers measured ADC parameters using four ROI methods (single-slice [single-round, five-round and freehand] and whole-volume) on 43 patients (20 LGGs, 23 HGGs) who had undergone 3.0 Tesla diffusion-weighted imaging and time required for each method of ADC measurements was recorded...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Arman Sargolzaei, Mohamed Abdelghani, Kang K Yen, Saman Sargolzaei
BACKGROUND: The predictive nature of the primate sensorimotor systems, for example the smooth pursuit system and their ability to compensate for long delays have been proven by many physiological experiments. However, few theoretical models have tried to explain these facts comprehensively. Here, we propose a sensorimotor learning and control model that can be used to (1) predict the dynamics of variable time delays and current and future sensory states from delayed sensory information; (2) learn new sensorimotor realities; and (3) control a motor system in real time...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Marloes van Lieshout, Marjolein Luman, Jos W R Twisk, Stephen V Faraone, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Nanda N J Rommelse, Jaap Oosterlaan
Although a broad array of neurocognitive dysfunctions are associated with ADHD, it is unknown whether these dysfunctions play a role in the course of ADHD symptoms. The present longitudinal study investigated whether neurocognitive functions assessed at study-entry (mean age = 11.5 years, SD = 2.7) predicted ADHD symptom severity and overall functioning 6 years later (mean age = 17.4 years, 82.6 % = male) in a carefully phenotyped large sample of 226 Caucasian participants from 182 families diagnosed with ADHD-combined type...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Satish Garg, Jean-Louis Selam, Anuj Bhargava, Nanette Schloot, Junxiang Luo, Qianyi Zhang, Jennie G Jacobson, Byron J Hoogwerf
AIMS: To compare 24-hour fixed-time basal insulin peglispro (BIL) dosing with 8 to 40 hour variable-time BIL dosing for glycemic control and safety in patients with type 1 diabetes. Primary outcome was non-inferiority of BIL variable-time dosing compared with fixed-time dosing for HbA1c change after 12-week treatment (margin = 0.4%). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Phase 3, open-label, randomised, cross-over study (N = 212) was conducted at 20 centres in the United States...
July 9, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Michael J Van Stipdonk, Cassandra Hanley, Evan Perez, Jordan Pestok, Patricia Mihm, Theodore A Corcovilos
RATIONALE: The lower levels of adventitious H2 O in a linear ion trap allow the fragmentation reactions of [UO2 OCH3 ](+) and [UO2 OCH2 CH3 ](+) to be examined in detail. METHODS: Methanol- and ethanol-coordinated UO2 (2+) -alkoxide precursors were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI). Multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n) ) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were performed using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. RESULTS: CID of [UO2 OCH3 (CH3 OH)n ](+) and [UO2 OCH2 CH3 (CH3 CH2 OH)n ](+) , n = 3 and 2, causes loss of neutral alcohol ligands, leading ultimately to bare uranyl-alkoxide species...
August 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Karl Ridgeway, Michael C Mozer, Anita R Bowles
We explore the nature of forgetting in a corpus of 125,000 students learning Spanish using the Rosetta Stone(®) foreign-language instruction software across 48 lessons. Students are tested on a lesson after its initial study and are then retested after a variable time lag. We observe forgetting consistent with power function decay at a rate that varies across lessons but not across students. We find that lessons which are better learned initially are forgotten more slowly, a correlation which likely reflects a latent cause such as the quality or difficulty of the lesson...
June 27, 2016: Cognitive Science
Bin Wang, Xianlin Xu, Xiaozhou He, Zhigang Wang, Min Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, acts against oxidative stress (OS) and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), both of which are responsible for Aldosterone (Aldo) -induced podocyte injury. However, the direct effects of berberine on Aldo-induced OS, ERS, and podocyte injury are not well defined. METHODS: Uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1% NaCl (salt) in their water and an Aldo infusion (0.75 µg/h) for 28 days to induce podocyte injury in the Aldo group...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Martin G Scherm, Verena B Ott, Carolin Daniel
The development of multiple disease-relevant autoantibodies is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases. In autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D), a variable time frame of autoimmunity precedes the clinically overt disease. The relevance of T follicular helper (TFH) cells for the immune system is increasingly recognized. Their pivotal contribution to antibody production by providing help to germinal center (GC) B cells facilitates the development of a long-lived humoral immunity. Their complex differentiation process, involving various stages and factors like B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6), is strictly controlled, as anomalous regulation of TFH cells is connected with immunopathologies...
August 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Mohammadreza Mehmandar, Hamid Soori, Yadolah Mehrabi
BACKGROUND: Predicting the trend in traffic accidents deaths and its analysis can be a useful tool for planning and policy-making, conducting interventions appropriate with death trend, and taking the necessary actions required for controlling and preventing future occurrences. OBJECTIVE: Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It was a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the information related to fatal traffic accidents available in the database of Iran Legal Medicine Organization from 2004 to the end of 2013 were used to determine the change points (multi-variable time series analysis)...
April 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Puneeta Marwaha, Ramesh Kumar Sunkaria
The sample entropy (SampEn) has been widely used to quantify the complexity of RR-interval time series. It is a fact that higher complexity, and hence, entropy is associated with the RR-interval time series of healthy subjects. But, SampEn suffers from the disadvantage that it assigns higher entropy to the randomized surrogate time series as well as to certain pathological time series, which is a misleading observation. This wrong estimation of the complexity of a time series may be due to the fact that the existing SampEn technique updates the threshold value as a function of long-term standard deviation (SD) of a time series...
September 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
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