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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880279/live-cell-confocal-microscopy-and-quantitative-4d-image-analysis-of-anchor-cell-invasion-through-the-basement-membrane-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Laura C Kelley, Zheng Wang, Elliott J Hagedorn, Lin Wang, Wanqing Shen, Shijun Lei, Sam A Johnson, David R Sherwood
Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) barriers is crucial in development, leukocyte trafficking and the spread of cancer. The mechanisms that direct invasion, despite their importance in normal and disease states, are poorly understood, largely because of the inability to visualize dynamic cell-BM interactions in vivo. This protocol describes multichannel time-lapse confocal imaging of anchor-cell invasion in live Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods presented include outline-slide preparation and worm growth synchronization (15 min), mounting (20 min), image acquisition (20-180 min), image processing (20 min) and quantitative analysis (variable timing)...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855895/the-rhizosphere-bacterial-microbiota-of-vitis-vinifera-cv-pinot-noir-in-an-integrated-pest-management-vineyard
#2
Giorgia Novello, Elisa Gamalero, Elisa Bona, Lara Boatti, Flavio Mignone, Nadia Massa, Patrizia Cesaro, Guido Lingua, Graziella Berta
Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852483/immunoglobulin-levels-and-infection-risk-with-rituximab-induction-for-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis
#3
Shivani Shah, Khushleen Jaggi, Keiko Greenberg, Duvuru Geetha
BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX), a B cell-depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, is approved for treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Low immunoglobulin (Ig) levels have been observed surrounding RTX treatment. The association between the degree of Ig deficiency and infection risk is unclear in AAV patients. METHODS: AAV patients treated with RTX for remission induction at a single center (2005-15) with serum Ig measurements were included...
August 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843523/use-of-an-exercise-technology-in-post-acute-care-of-a-skilled-nursing-facility-a-feasibility-study
#4
Verena R Cimarolli, Joann P Reinhardt, Jillian Minahan, Orah Burack, Channing Thomas, Regina Melly
OBJECTIVES: Use of exercise technologies has benefits for community-dwelling older adults in terms of improved gait and balance. But research on the feasibility of use of exercise technologies in various geriatric health care settings is lacking. Hence, the current study examined the feasibility of implementing an exercise technology intended to augment rehabilitation in patients receiving post-acute care (PAC) in a skilled nursing facility (SNF). We focused on 3 indicators of feasibility: extent of usage (including predictors of more intense use), patients' acceptability of the technology, and limited efficacy...
August 23, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838044/natural-history-of-subclinical-leaflet-thrombosis-affecting-motion-in-bioprosthetic-aortic-valves
#5
Lars Sondergaard, Ole De Backer, Klaus F Kofoed, Hasan Jilaihawi, Andreas Fuchs, Tarun Chakravarty, Mohammad Kashif, Yoshio Kazuno, Hiroyuki Kawamori, Yoshio Maeno, Gintautas Bieliauskas, Hongfei Guo, Gregg W Stone, Raj Makkar
Aims: Four-dimensional volume-rendered computed tomography (4DCT) has demonstrated instances of hypo-attenuating leaflet thickening (HALT) with or without hypo-attenuation affecting motion (HAM) after transcatheter and surgical aortic valve implantation (TAVI, SAVR). The temporal pattern of evolution of these phenomena is uncertain. Methods and results: The SAVORY registry enrolled patients treated by TAVI (n = 75) or SAVR (n = 30) with two 4DCT scans fully interpretable for HALT and HAM as well as unchanged anti-thrombotic medication between the scans...
July 21, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833903/nonremission-and-time-to-remission-among-remitters-in-major-depressive-disorder-revisiting-star-d
#6
Ramin Mojtabai
BACKGROUND: Some individuals with major depressive disorder do not experience a remission even after one or more adequate treatment trials. In some others who experience remission, it happens at variable times. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of nonremission in a large sample of patient participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial and to identify correlates of nonremission and time to remission among remitters. METHODS: Using data from 3,606 participants of STAR*D, the study used cure regression modeling to estimate nonremission and jointly model correlates of nonremission and time to remission among the remitters...
August 18, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829796/linear-functional-response-by-two-pupal-drosophila-parasitoids-foraging-within-single-or-multiple-patch-environments
#7
Gülay Kaçar, Xin-Geng Wang, Antonio Biondi, Kent M Daane
Functional response describes the number of prey or hosts attacked by a predator or parasitoid as a function of prey or host density. Using three different experimental designs, we found a linear functional response by two insect parasitoids (the pteromalid Pachycrepoideus vindemiae and the diapriid Trichopria drosophilae) to their hosts (the drosophilids Drosophila suzukii and D. melanogaster). A linear function response is considered unusual for insect parasitoids. The first design was a 'fixed time within patch experiment' where individual parasitoids were exposed to a range of host densities for 24 h; the second two designs were a 'variable time functional response' and a 'selective functional response' experiments where individual parasitoids were presented with a range of host patches and allowed to freely select and explore only one patch (variable time) or forage for 24 h (selective)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817193/response-reinforcer-dependency-and-resistance-to-change
#8
Carlos R X Cançado, Josele Abreu-Rodrigues, Raquel Moreira Aló, Flávia Hauck, Adam H Doughty
The effects of the response-reinforcer dependency on resistance to change were studied in three experiments with rats. In Experiment 1, lever pressing produced reinforcers at similar rates after variable interreinforcer intervals in each component of a two-component multiple schedule. Across conditions, in the fixed component, all reinforcers were response-dependent; in the alternative component, the percentage of response-dependent reinforcers was 100, 50 (i.e., 50% response-dependent and 50% response-independent) or 10% (i...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795396/synaptic-excitation-by-climbing-fibre-collaterals-in-the-cerebellar-nuclei-of-juvenile-and-adult-mice
#9
Marion Najac, Indira M Raman
The inferior olive conveys instructive signals to the cerebellum that drive sensorimotor learning. Inferior olivary neurons transmit their signals via climbing fibres, which powerfully excite Purkinje cells, evoking complex spikes and depressing parallel fibre synapses. Additionally, however, these climbing fibres send collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei (CbN). In vivo and in vitro data suggest that climbing fibre collateral excitation is weak in adult mice, raising the question of whether the primary role of this pathway may be developmental...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791763/aryloxide-facilitated-catalyst-turnover-in-enantioselective-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-unsaturated-acyl-ammonium-catalysis
#10
Anastassia Matviitsuk, Mark D Greenhalgh, Diego-Javier Barrios Antúnez, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Andrew D Smith
A new general concept for α,β-unsaturated acyl ammonium catalysis is reported that uses p-nitrophenoxide release from an α,β-unsaturated p-nitrophenyl ester substrate to facilitate catalyst turnover. This method was used for the enantioselective isothiourea-catalyzed Michael addition of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated p-nitrophenyl esters in generally good yield and with excellent enantioselectivity (27 examples, up to 79 % yield, 99:1 er). Mechanistic studies identified rapid and reversible catalyst acylation by the α,β-unsaturated p-nitrophenyl ester, and a recently reported variable-time normalization kinetic analysis method was used to delineate the complex reaction kinetics...
August 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790898/differences-between-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-in-the-sensitivity-of-tonically-active-neurons-to-rewarding-events
#11
Kevin Marche, Anne-Caroline Martel, Paul Apicella
Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs), represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum), but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756176/infection-mediated-autoimmune-movement-disorders
#12
Alberto Cucca, Hamzeh A Migdadi, Alessandro Di Rocco
Infectious diseases remain the most common cause of neurological disability in the world. A number of movement disorders can develop in adults and children in response to infections. These can occur in isolation or as part of a broader neurological illness, with movement abnormalities consequent to an encephalopathy or a broader brain dysfunction. While most infection-related movement disorders are direct consequences of an active infectious process affecting cerebral structures implied in the motor network, at times a delayed immune-mediated process in response to a previous infectious is responsible for the neurological dysfunction...
July 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752857/insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#13
REVIEW
Keyoumars Ashkan, Priya Rogers, Hagai Bergman, Ismail Ughratdar
Despite long-term and widespread use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a variety of neurological conditions, the underlying mechanisms of action have been elusive. Growing evidence suggests that DBS acts through multimodal mechanisms that are not limited to inhibition and excitation of basal ganglia circuits. DBS also seems to act over variable time spans - for example, the effects on tremor are immediate, whereas the effects on dystonia emerge over several weeks - suggesting that large networks are targeted...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749943/integrated-time-lapse-and-single-cell-transcription-studies-highlight-the-variable-and-dynamic-nature-of-human-hematopoietic-cell-fate-commitment
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Alice Moussy, Jérémie Cosette, Romuald Parmentier, Cindy da Silva, Guillaume Corre, Angélique Richard, Olivier Gandrillon, Daniel Stockholm, András Páldi
Individual cells take lineage commitment decisions in a way that is not necessarily uniform. We address this issue by characterising transcriptional changes in cord blood-derived CD34+ cells at the single-cell level and integrating data with cell division history and morphological changes determined by time-lapse microscopy. We show that major transcriptional changes leading to a multilineage-primed gene expression state occur very rapidly during the first cell cycle. One of the 2 stable lineage-primed patterns emerges gradually in each cell with variable timing...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732232/periodicity-and-stability-for-variable-time-impulsive-neural-networks
#15
Hongfei Li, Chuandong Li, Tingwen Huang
The paper considers a general neural networks model with variable-time impulses. It is shown that each solution of the system intersects with every discontinuous surface exactly once via several new well-proposed assumptions. Moreover, based on the comparison principle, this paper shows that neural networks with variable-time impulse can be reduced to the corresponding neural network with fixed-time impulses under well-selected conditions. Meanwhile, the fixed-time impulsive systems can be regarded as the comparison system of the variable-time impulsive neural networks...
June 29, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727541/postdischarge-smoking-cessation-in-subgroups-of-hospitalized-smokers-a-latent-class-analysis
#16
Thomas Ylioja, Gerald Cochran, Yuchiao Chang, Hilary A Tindle, Nancy A Rigotti
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization presents a window of opportunity to treat smoking, and hospital-initiated smoking treatment has demonstrated effectiveness. Despite effective interventions, not all smokers will discontinue use, highlighting the need to better understand which patients achieve cessation. Traditional regression methods may not capture the complexity of inpatient smoker subgroups. METHODS: Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted with data from 397 hospitalized adult cigarette smokers enrolled in a randomized trial...
July 20, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712882/perfusion-of-muscle-flaps-independent-of-the-anatomical-vascular-pedicle-pedicle-autonomy
#17
K Bradshaw, M Wagels
INTRODUCTION: Free muscle flaps are being used more commonly for complex lower limb reconstruction. Up to 33% of flaps used to reconstruct lower limb trauma will require an orthopaedic procedure after reconstruction. To date there have been only case reports detailing the variable survival of muscle flaps after actual or simulated pedicle injury and the process and timeframe of neovascularisation remains undefined. We aim to show that perfusion of a muscle flap is possible after injury to its anatomical vascular pedicle...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712617/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-an-automated-medication-system-implemented-in-a-danish-hospital-setting
#18
Bettina Wulff Risør, Marianne Lisby, Jan Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an automated medication system (AMS) implemented in a Danish hospital setting. METHODS: An economic evaluation was performed alongside a controlled before-and-after effectiveness study with one control ward and one intervention ward. The primary outcome measure was the number of errors in the medication administration process observed prospectively before and after implementation. To determine the difference in proportion of errors after implementation of the AMS, logistic regression was applied with the presence of error(s) as the dependent variable...
July 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700805/efficacy-of-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-moderate-to-severe-binge-eating-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
James I Hudson, Susan L McElroy, M Celeste Ferreira-Cornwell, Jana Radewonuk, Maria Gasior
Importance: The ability of pharmacotherapies to prevent relapse and maintain efficacy with long-term treatment in psychiatric conditions is important. Objective: To assess lisdexamfetamine dimesylate maintenance of efficacy in adults with moderate to severe binge-eating disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multinational, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study including 418 participants was conducted at 49 clinical research study sites from January 27, 2014, to April 8, 2015...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697385/quantitative-contamination-assessment-of-escherichia-coli-in-baby-spinach-primary-production-in-spain-effects-of-weather-conditions-and-agricultural-practices
#20
Ana Allende, Irene Castro-Ibáñez, Roland Lindqvist, María Isabel Gil, Mieke Uyttendaele, Liesbeth Jacxsens
A quantitative microbial contamination model of Escherichia coli during primary production of baby spinach was developed. The model included only systematic contamination routes (e.g. soil and irrigation water) and it was used to evaluate the potential impact of weather conditions, agricultural practices as well as bacterial fitness in soil on the E. coli levels present in the crop at harvest. The model can be used to estimate E. coli contamination of baby spinach via irrigation water, via soil splashing due to irrigation water or rain events, and also including the inactivation of E...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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