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Behavioral-momentum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380437/on-the-predictive-validity-of-behavioral-momentum-theory-for-mitigating-resurgence-of-problem-behavior
#1
Wayne W Fisher, Brian D Greer, Andrew R Craig, Billie J Retzlaff, Ashley M Fuhrman, Katherine R Lichtblau, Valdeep Saini
We summarize the results of four recent translational studies from our lab that used the predictions of behavioral momentum theory to inform the development of more durable treatments for destructive behavior. Treatments informed by behavioral momentum theory generally showed better suppression of target responding during an extinction challenge than did a comparison treatment. We reanalyze data from each of the four studies to show that this general finding is apparent both at the aggregate (i.e., proportion of baseline response rates averaged across participants) and within participant (i...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380436/additional-free-reinforcers-increase-persistence-of-problem-behavior-in-a-clinical-context-a-partial-replication-of-laboratory-findings
#2
Gregory A Lieving, Iser G DeLeon, Abbey B Carreau-Webster, Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mandy M Triggs
Behavioral momentum theory is a quantitative framework used to characterize the persistence of behavior during response disruptors as a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. Results of several investigations have shown that alternative reinforcement can increase the resistance to change of a target response during extinction. In the present study, concomitant variable-interval fixed-time schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior were employed to simulate naturalistic situations involving the superimposition of response-independent reinforcers on a baseline schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior, as in the common use of noncontingent reinforcement treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380433/a-note-on-a-precursor-of-behavioral-momentum
#3
Edward K Morris, Charryse F Luckey
This is a historical note on a precursor of the concept of behavioral momentum in the late 1950s and early 1960s, in particular, Charles B. description of it in terms of behavioral durability. The note is based largely on two email exchanges we had with John A. (Tony) Nevin, who offered insights on behavioral momentum as a term and a concept that are fit to be public on the occasion of this issue of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior in his honor. Nevin addressed graduate work at Columbia University, the Newtonian analogy, the term behavioral momentum, and precursors of his work that are now lost in history...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323735/the-basis-of-behavioral-momentum-in-the-nonlinearity-of-strength
#4
Peter R Killeen, John A Nevin
The persistence of operant responding in the context of distractors and opposing forces is of central importance to the success of behavioral interventions. It has been successfully analyzed with Behavioral Momentum Theory. Key data from the research inspired by that theory are reanalyzed in terms of more molecular behavioral mechanisms: the demotivational effects of disruptors, and their differential impacts on the target response and other responses that interact with them. Behavioral momentum is regrounded as a nonlinear effect of motivation and reinforcement rate on response probability and persistence...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319190/effects-of-response-preference-on-resistance-to-change
#5
Joel E Ringdahl, Wendy K Berg, David P Wacker, Kayla Crook, Maggie A Molony, Kristina K Vargo, Jodi E Neurnberger, Karla Zabala, Christopher J Taylor
Treatments based on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, such as functional communication training, are widely used. Research regarding the maintenance of related treatment effects is limited. Nevin and Wacker (2013) provided a conceptual framework, rooted in behavioral momentum theory, for the study of treatment maintenance that addressed two components: (a) reemergence of problem behavior, and (b) continued expression of appropriate behavior. In the few studies on this topic, focus has been on variables impacting the reemergence of problem behavior, with fewer studies evaluating the persistence of appropriate behavior...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318687/the-role-of-response-force-on-the-persistence-and-structure-of-behavior-during-extinction
#6
Jonathan W Pinkston, Erica K Foss
Behavior Momentum Theory has emerged as a prominent account of resistance to change in both basic and applied research. Although laboratory studies often define precise, repeatable responses, application research often deals with response classes that may vary widely along a number of dimensions. In general, Behavior Momentum Theory has not addressed how response dimensions impact resistance to change, providing an opportunity to expand the model in new directions. Four rats pressed a force transducer under a multiple variable interval (VI) 60-s VI 60-s schedule of reinforcement...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318629/tony-nevin-the-embrace-of-translational-work-by-a-basic-scientist
#7
F Charles Mace
Here I summarize John A. "Tony" Nevin's evolution as a translational author. All of his publications were classified by title and content as being primarily experimental analysis of behavior or translational. Translational works were subtyped as interpretative, descriptive research, or experimental research. During the first 20 years of his publication career, Tony published exclusively experimental analysis of behavior work. In 1982, he began a series of interpretative translational analyses on topics of significant social importance...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314021/greater-reinforcement-rate-during-training-increases-spontaneous-recovery
#8
Eric A Thrailkill, Ryan T Kimball, Michael E Kelley, Andrew R Craig, Christopher A Podlesnik
Spontaneous recovery occurs when a previously reinforced and recently extinguished response reemerges over the course of time, often at the beginning of a new session of extinction. Spontaneous recovery could underlie instances of treatment relapse that threaten otherwise effective behavioral interventions for problem behavior. In two experiments, we arranged multiple schedules with pigeons and a human child to assess the effects of different training reinforcer rates on spontaneous recovery. In both experiments, responding was both more resistant to extinction and more likely to relapse following training with greater reinforcement rates upon returning to extinction after time off from extinction testing...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314020/preference-resistance-to-change-and-the-cumulative-decision-model
#9
Randolph C Grace
According to behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000a), preference in concurrent chains and resistance to change in multiple schedules are independent measures of a common construct representing reinforcement history. Here I review the original studies on preference and resistance to change in which reinforcement variables were manipulated parametrically, conducted by Nevin, Grace and colleagues between 1997 and 2002, as well as more recent research. The cumulative decision model proposed by Grace and colleagues for concurrent chains is shown to provide a good account of both preference and resistance to change, and is able to predict the increased sensitivity to reinforcer rate and magnitude observed with constant-duration components...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104321/the-role-of-contingencies-and-stimuli-in-a-human-laboratory-model-of-treatment-of-problem-behavior
#10
William V Dube, Brooks Thompson, Marcelo V Silveira, John A Nevin
Behavioral momentum theory posits a paradoxical implication for behavioral interventions in clinical situations using Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA): When alternative reinforcers are presented within the same context as the problem behavior, the added reinforcers may decrease the frequency of the behavior but also increase its persistence when the intervention ends. Providing alternative reinforcers in a setting that is distinctively different from that in which the target behavior occurs may avoid or reduce this increase in persistence...
December 2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776679/generalization-of-the-disruptive-effects-of-alternative-stimuli-when-combined-with-target-stimuli-in-extinction
#11
Christopher A Podlesnik, Ludmila Miranda-Dukoski, C K Jonas Chan, Vikki J Bland, John Y H Bai
Differential-reinforcement treatments reduce target problem behavior in the short term but at the expense of making it more persistent long term. Basic and translational research based on behavioral momentum theory suggests that combining features of stimuli governing an alternative response with the stimuli governing target responding could make target responding less persistent. However, changes to the alternative stimulus context when combining alternative and target stimuli could diminish the effectiveness of the alternative stimulus in reducing target responding...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465027/quantitative-models-of-persistence-and-relapse-from-the-perspective-of-behavioral-momentum-theory-fits-and-misfits
#12
REVIEW
John A Nevin, Andrew R Craig, Paul J Cunningham, Christopher A Podlesnik, Timothy A Shahan, Mary M Sweeney
We review quantitative accounts of behavioral momentum theory (BMT), its application to clinical treatment, and its extension to post-intervention relapse of target behavior. We suggest that its extension can account for relapse using reinstatement and renewal models, but that its application to resurgence is flawed both conceptually and in its failure to account for recent data. We propose that the enhanced persistence of target behavior engendered by alternative reinforcers is limited to their concurrent availability within a distinctive stimulus context...
August 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392243/persistence-and-resistance-to-extinction-in-the-domestic-dog-basic-research-and-applications-to-canine-training
#13
REVIEW
Nathaniel J Hall
This review summarizes the research investigating behavioral persistence and resistance to extinction in the dog. The first part of this paper reviews Behavioral Momentum Theory and its applications to Applied Behavior Analysis and training of pet dogs with persistent behavioral problems. I also highlight how research on Behavioral Momentum Theory can be applied to the training of detection dogs in an attempt to enhance detection performance in the presence of behavioral disruptors common in operational settings...
August 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276578/persistence-during-and-resurgence-following-noncontingent-reinforcement-implemented-with-and-without-extinction
#14
Valdeep Saini, Wayne W Fisher, Maegan D Pisman
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is typically implemented with extinction (EXT) for destructive behavior reinforced by social consequences and without EXT for destructive behavior reinforced by sensory consequences. Behavioral momentum theory (BMT) predicts that responding will be more persistent, and treatment relapse in the form of response resurgence more likely, when NCR is implemented without EXT due to the greater overall rate of reinforcement associated with this intervention. We used an analogue arrangement to test these predictions of BMT by comparing NCR implemented with and without EXT...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257789/toward-a-general-theory-of-momentum-like-effects
#15
REVIEW
Timothy L Hubbard
The future actions, behaviors, and outcomes of objects, individuals, and processes can often be anticipated, and some of these anticipations have been hypothesized to result from momentum-like effects. Five types of momentum-like effects (representational momentum, operational momentum, attentional momentum, behavioral momentum, psychological momentum) are briefly described. Potential similarities involving properties of momentum-like effects (continuation, coherence, role of chance or guessing, role of sensory processing, imperviousness to practice or error feedback, shifts in memory for position, effects of changes in velocity, rapid occurrence, effects of retention interval, attachment to an object rather than an abstract frame of reference, nonrigid transformation) are described, and potential constraints on a future theory of momentum-like effects (dynamic representation, nature of extrapolation, sensitivity to environmental contingencies, bridging gaps between stimulus and response, increasing adaptiveness to the environment, serving as a heuristic for perception and action, insensitivity to stimulus format, importance of subjective consequences, role of knowledge and belief, automaticity of occurrence, properties of functional architecture) are discussed...
August 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236099/a-meta-analysis-of-single-subject-research-on-behavioral-momentum-to-enhance-success-in-students-with-autism
#16
REVIEW
Richard J Cowan, Leah Abel, Lindsay Candel
We conducted a meta-analysis of single-subject research studies investigating the effectiveness of antecedent strategies grounded in behavioral momentum for improving compliance and on-task performance for students with autism. First, we assessed the research rigor of those studies meeting our inclusionary criteria. Next, in order to apply a universal metric to help determine the effectiveness of this category of antecedent strategies investigated via single-subject research methods, we calculated effect sizes via omnibus improvement rate differences (IRDs)...
May 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219729/basing-assessment-and-treatment-of-problem-behavior-on-behavioral-momentum-theory-analyses-of-behavioral-persistence
#17
REVIEW
Kelly M Schieltz, David P Wacker, Joel E Ringdahl, Wendy K Berg
The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory...
August 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216120/no-impact-of-repeated-extinction-exposures-on-operant-responding-maintained-by-different-reinforcer-rates
#18
John Y H Bai, Christopher A Podlesnik
Greater rates of intermittent reinforcement in the presence of discriminative stimuli generally produce greater resistance to extinction, consistent with predictions of behavioral momentum theory. Other studies reveal more rapid extinction with higher rates of reinforcers - the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Further, repeated extinction often produces more rapid decreases in operant responding due to learning a discrimination between training and extinction contingencies. The present study examined extinction repeatedly with training with different rates of intermittent reinforcement in a multiple schedule...
May 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870107/stimulus-reinforcer-relations-established-during-training-determine-resistance-to-extinction-and-relapse-via-reinstatement
#19
John Y H Bai, C K Jonas Chan, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
The baseline rate of a reinforced target response decreases with the availability of response-independent sources of alternative reinforcement; however, resistance to disruption and relapse increases. Because many behavioral treatments for problem behavior include response-dependent reinforcement of alternative behavior, the present study assessed whether response-dependent alternative reinforcement also decreases baseline response rates but increases resistance to extinction and relapse. We reinforced target responding at equal rates across two components of a multiple schedule with pigeons...
November 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870105/evaluating-the-effects-of-discriminability-on-behavioral-persistence-during-and-following-time-based-reinforcement
#20
Valdeep Saini, Wayne W Fisher
With four children with autism we evaluated a refinement to time-based reinforcement designed to reduce response persistence when we simultaneously introduced time-based reinforcement and extinction. We further evaluated whether this refinement mitigated response recurrence when all reinforcer deliveries ceased during an extinction-only disruptor phase. The refinement involved increasing the saliency of the contingency change from contingent reinforcement (during baseline) to time-based reinforcement by delivering different colored reinforcers during time-based reinforcement...
November 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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