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Edem Dovlo, Bahman Lashkari, Sung Soo Sean Choi, Andreas Mandelis, Wei Shi, Fei-Fei Liu
Overcoming the limitations of conventional linear spectroscopy used in multispectral photoacoustic imaging, wherein a linear relationship is assumed between the absorbed optical energy and the absorption spectra of the chromophore at a specific location, is crucial for obtaining accurate spatially-resolved quantitative functional information by exploiting known chromophore-specific spectral characteristics. This study introduces a non-invasive phase-filtered differential photoacoustic technique, wavelength-modulated differential photoacoustic radar (WM-DPAR) imaging that addresses this issue by eliminating the effect of the unknown wavelength-dependent fluence...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
F McIntyre, H Parker, A Thornton, M Licari, J Piek, D Rigoli, B Hands
Currently, only two motor tests have norms extending into young adulthood - the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND, McCarron 1997) and the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2, Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005). Research into the motor difficulties in early adulthood and health outcomes has been impeded because there is no agreed gold standard motor test for this group. The purposes of this study were to compare the discrimination accuracy, classification agreement, and predictive values, and gender distribution and prevalence of each test in identifying motor impairment (MI) in relation to DSM-V diagnostic criteria for DCD...
October 14, 2016: Human Movement Science
K Conallen, P Reed
BACKGROUND: Two procedures were developed to teach individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders labels (tacts) for various private events (emotions): Study 1 attempted to distinguish them from pure tacts and mands (requests); and Study 2 attempted to train initiating a conversation with grammatically correct subject-verb-comment construction. METHODS: A multiple treatment reversal design was used in both studies, followed by a probe to see if the tacts were used across novel settings...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Anubhav Das, Meenakshi Srinivasan, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Sharmila S Mande
Humans are exposed to numerous xenobiotics, a majority of which are in the form of pharmaceuticals. Apart from human enzymes, recent studies have indicated the role of the gut bacterial community (microbiome) in metabolizing xenobiotics. However, little is known about the contribution of the plethora of gut microbiome in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study reports the results of analyses on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in various human gut microbiomes. A total of 397 available gut metagenomes from individuals of varying age groups from 8 nationalities were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
Claudia Campos, Yanerys Leon, Andressa Sleiman, Beatriz Urcuyo
One potential limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that after the functional communication response (FCR) is taught, the response may be emitted at high rates or inappropriate times. Thus, schedule thinning is often necessary. Previous research has demonstrated that multiple schedules can facilitate schedule thinning by establishing discriminative control of the communication response while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. To date, most applied research evaluating the clinical utility of multiple schedules has done so in the context of behavior maintained by positive reinforcement (e...
September 27, 2016: Behavior Modification
Acheampong Yaw Amoateng, Phidelia Theresa Doegah, Christopher Udomboso
This study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the association between selected socio-demographic factors and dietary behaviour as measured by fruit and vegetable consumption among a sample of 6139 young people aged 15-34 years in Ghana. Overall, fruit and vegetable consumption was low in young people, but females were likely to consume more fruit and vegetables than their male counterparts. Respondents from the Mande ethnic group, those who resided in rural areas and those living in the Brong/Ahafo, Ashanti and the Eastern regions consumed more fruit and vegetables than those from other regions...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Robert C Pennington, Melinda Jones Ault, Dominic G Schmuck, Jonathan L Burt, Laura L Ferguson
The authors reviewed 10 years of research literature on teaching mands to individuals with developmental disabilities. Articles were selected from journals associated with three professional organizations (e.g., Association for Behavior Analysis, Council for Exceptional Children, and American Speech and Hearing Association). Findings were reported as frequencies of publication across journals and sets of journal. Furthermore, we reported on the several contextual variables reported within each study (i.e., age of participants, setting, change agent, response topography, generalization)...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Aare Kuusik, Katrin Jõgar, Luule Metspalu, Angela Ploomi, Enno Merivee, Anne Must, Ingrid H Williams, Külli Hiiesaar, Ivar Sibul, Marika Mänd
The opening-closing rhythms of the subelytral cavity and associated gas exchange patterns were monitored in diapausing Leptinotarsa decemlineata beetles. Measurements were made by means of a flow-through CO2 analyser and a coulometric respirometer. Under the elytra of these beetles there is a more or less tightly enclosed space, the subelytral cavity (SEC). When the cavity was tightly closed, air pressure inside was sub-atmospheric, due to oxygen uptake into the tracheae by the beetle. In about half of the beetles regular opening-closing rhythms of the SEC were observed visually and also recorded; these beetles displayed a discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jessica N Torelli, Joseph M Lambert, M Alexandra Da Fonte, Katherine N Denham, Thomas M Jedrzynski, Nealetta J Houchins-Juarez
We assessed acquisition and preference for various mand topographies in the presence of establishing operations that, historically, evoked the aggression of a child with autism. First, we implemented functional communication training (FCT) and reinforced picture exchange, iPad®, or GoTalk® activations in a multi-element format (noting differences in aggression and/or mand independence across conditions). Then, we conducted a concurrent-operant mand preference assessment. Finally, we presented assessment results to the subject's mother and asked her to indicate her own preference...
June 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
M Alice Shillingsburg, Cassondra M Gayman, William Walton
Recent research on teaching mands for information to children with language deficits has focused on manipulating establishing operations (EOs). However, only a few of those studies have programmed both EO conditions (in which information is needed) and abolishing operation (AO) conditions (in which information has already been provided) to ensure functional use of the mand for information. Shillingsburg, Bowen, Valentino, and Pierce (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 136-150, 2014) provided a successful demonstration of differential responding between EO and AO conditions demonstrating control of the response by the relevant EO...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Tyra P Sellers, Kristen Kelley, Thomas S Higbee, Katie Wolfe
Young children with autism may fail to mand using a range of frames (e.g., "I want," "May I have," "Please give me"). We examined the effects of simultaneous script training and script fading on acquisition and maintenance of varied mand frames with six preschool children with autism. For participants who did not demonstrate increased mand variability under fixed-ratio (FR) 1 conditions, we assessed the effects of post script-training extinction on response variability. Following training of up to four different mand frames, three of six participants emitted more varied mands under FR1 conditions relative to baseline...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Andreas Mandelis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Varun Mehra, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Sharmila S Mande
Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) events, initially thought to be rare in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have recently been shown to be involved in the acquisition of virulence operons in M. tuberculosis. We have developed a new partitioning framework based HGT prediction algorithm, called Grid3M, and applied the same for the prediction of HGTs in Mycobacteria. Validation and testing using simulated and real microbial genomes indicated better performance of Grid3M as compared with other widely used HGT prediction methods...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Marie Vaugoyeau, Frank Adriaensen, Alexandr Artemyev, Jerzy Bańbura, Emilio Barba, Clotilde Biard, Jacques Blondel, Zihad Bouslama, Jean-Charles Bouvier, Jordi Camprodon, Francesco Cecere, Anne Charmantier, Motti Charter, Mariusz Cichoń, Camillo Cusimano, Dorota Czeszczewik, Virginie Demeyrier, Blandine Doligez, Claire Doutrelant, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Bruno Faivre, Peter N Ferns, Jukka T Forsman, Eduardo García-Del-Rey, Aya Goldshtein, Anne E Goodenough, Andrew G Gosler, Arnaud Grégoire, Lars Gustafsson, Iga Harnist, Ian R Hartley, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A Hinsley, Paul Isenmann, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Erkki Korpimäki, Indrikis Krams, Toni Laaksonen, Marcel M Lambrechts, Bernard Leclercq, Esa Lehikoinen, Olli Loukola, Arne Lundberg, Mark C Mainwaring, Raivo Mänd, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D Mazgajski, Santiago Merino, Cezary Mitrus, Mikko Mönkkönen, Xavier Morin, Ruedi G Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Sven G Nilsson, Ana C Norte, Markku Orell, Philippe Perret, Christopher M Perrins, Carla S Pimentel, Rianne Pinxten, Heinz Richner, Hugo Robles, Seppo Rytkönen, Juan Carlos Senar, Janne T Seppänen, Luis Pascoal da Silva, Tore Slagsvold, Tapio Solonen, Alberto Sorace, Martyn J Stenning, Piotr Tryjanowski, Mikael von Numers, Wieslaw Walankiewicz, Anders Pape Møller
The increase in size of human populations in urban and agricultural areas has resulted in considerable habitat conversion globally. Such anthropogenic areas have specific environmental characteristics, which influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of plants and animals. For example, the date of bud burst is advanced in urban compared to nearby natural areas. In some birds, breeding success is determined by synchrony between timing of breeding and peak food abundance. Pertinently, caterpillars are an important food source for the nestlings of many bird species, and their abundance is influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and date of bud burst...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Reet Karise, Gerit Dreyersdorff, Mona Jahani, Eve Veromann, Eve Runno-Paurson, Tanel Kaart, Guy Smagghe, Marika Mänd
Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. is a major plant pathogen, and a new approach is needed for its control in strawberry to minimise the increasing use of synthetic fungicides. The biofungicide Prestop-Mix, which contains Gliocladium catenulatum, is effective against Botrytis infections; however, the need for frequent applications increases the costs for farmers. Here, we demonstrate that bumble bees, Bombus terrestris L., effectively disseminate the preparation onto flowers in open field conditions. Over the course of three years, we found a highly significant decrease in the rate of Botrytis infection...
2016: Scientific Reports
Amanda Timler, Fleur McIntyre, Marja Cantell, Susan Crawford, Beth Hands
BACKGROUND: There are no valid and reliable self-report measures designed to identify level of motor competence and suspected motor difficulties among 12-18year old adolescents. AIM: This paper reports the development and evaluation of a self-report questionnaire (Adolescent Motor Competence Questionnaire; AMCQ) to address this need. METHOD: The project proceeded in 3 phases; (A) item development, (B) content evaluation, and (C) examination of reliability and validity of the final questionnaire...
August 12, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Sureni V Mullegama, Sarah H Elsea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Andreas Mandelis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Nathalie Boucher, Kenneth M Noll
The Thermotogae possess a large number of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including two mannan binding proteins, ManD and CelE (previously called ManE). We show that a gene encoding an ancestor of these was acquired by the Thermotogae from the archaea followed by gene duplication. To address the functional evolution of these proteins as a consequence of their evolutionary histories, we measured the binding affinities of ManD and CelE orthologs from representative Thermotogae. Both proteins bind cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, β-1,4-mannotriose, and β-1,4-mannotetraose...
September 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Sung Soo Sean Choi, Bahman Lashkari, Edem Dovlo, Andreas Mandelis
Accurate monitoring of blood oxy-saturation level (SO2 ) in human breast tissues is clinically important for predicting and evaluating possible tumor growth at the site. In this work, four different non-invasive frequency-domain photoacoustic (PA) imaging modalities were compared for their absolute SO2 characterization capability using an in-vitro sheep blood circulation system. Among different PA modes, a new WM-DPAR imaging modality could estimate the SO2 with great accuracy when compared to a commercial blood gas analyzer...
July 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
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