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Karin Nurme, Enno Merivee, Anne Must, Andrea Di Giulio, Maurizio Muzzi, Ingrid Williams, Marika Mänd
The main purpose of this study was to explain the internal fine structure of potential antennal thermo- and hygroreceptive sensilla, their innervation specifics, and responses of the sensory neurons to thermal and humidity stimuli in an elaterid beetle using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy and electrophysiology, respectively. Several essential, high temperature induced turning points in the locomotion were determined using automated video tracking. Our results showed that the sensilla under study, morphologically, are identical to the dome-shaped sensilla (DSS) of carabids...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Chandrani Das, Chaitanya Mokashi, Sharmila S Mande, Supreet Saini
The food-borne pathogen Salmonella typhimurium is a common cause of infections and diseases in a wide range of hosts. One of the major virulence factors associated to the infection process is flagella, which helps the bacterium swim to its preferred site of infection inside the host, the M-cells (Microfold cells) lining the lumen of the small intestine. The expression of flagellar genes is controlled by an intricate regulatory network. In this work, we investigate two aspects of flagella regulation and assembly: (a) distribution of the number of flagella in an isogenic population of bacteria and (b) dynamics of gene expression post cell division...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Christian Waydhas, Markus Baake, Lars Becker, Boris Buck, Helena Düsing, Björn Heindl, Kai Oliver Jensen, Rolf Lefering, Carsten Mand, T Paffrath, Uwe Schweigkofler, Kai Sprengel, Heiko Trentzsch, Bernd Wohlrath, Dan Bieler
BACKGROUND: Trauma team activation (TTA) represents a considerable expenditure of trauma centre resources. It is mainly triggered by field triage criteria. The overall quality of the criteria may be evaluated based on the rate of over- and undertriage. However, there is no gold standard that defines which adult patients truly require a trauma team. The objective of this study was to develop consensus-based criteria defining the necessity for a trauma team. METHODS: A consensus group was formed by trauma specialists experienced in emergency and trauma care with a specific interest in field triage and having previously participated in guideline development...
February 21, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Colin S Muething, Terry S Falcomata, Raechal Ferguson, Samantha Swinnea, Cayenne Shpall
Children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities often exhibit invariant responding (i.e., restricted behavioral repertoires), deficits in communication, and challenging behavior. Approaches demonstrated in the basic and applied literature to increase response variability include extinction, lag schedules of reinforcement, and percentile schedules of reinforcement. Results of basic studies have also indicated that delays to reinforcement often produce increases in response variability...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Krishanu D Baksi, Bhusan K Kuntal, Sharmila S Mande
Realization of the importance of microbiome studies, coupled with the decreasing sequencing cost, has led to the exponential growth of microbiome data. A number of these microbiome studies have focused on understanding changes in the microbial community over time. Such longitudinal microbiome studies have the potential to offer unique insights pertaining to the microbial social networks as well as their responses to perturbations. In this communication, we introduce a web based framework called 'TIME' (Temporal Insights into Microbial Ecology'), developed specifically to obtain meaningful insights from microbiome time series data...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
S Shanun Kunnavatana, Katie Wolfe, Alexandra N Aguilar
Functional communication training (FCT) is a common function-based behavioral intervention used to decrease problem behavior by teaching an alternative communication response. Therapists often arbitrarily select the topography of the alternative response, which may influence long-term effectiveness of the intervention. Assessing individual mand topography preference may increase treatment effectiveness and promote self-determination in the development of interventions. This study sought to reduce arbitrary selection of FCT mand topography by determining preference during response training and acquisition for two adults with autism who had no functional communication skills...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Joel E Ringdahl, Wendy K Berg, David P Wacker, Kayla Crook, Maggie A Molony, Kristina K Vargo, Jodi E Neurnberger, Karla Zabala, Christopher J Taylor
Treatments based on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, such as functional communication training, are widely used. Research regarding the maintenance of related treatment effects is limited. Nevin and Wacker (2013) provided a conceptual framework, rooted in behavioral momentum theory, for the study of treatment maintenance that addressed two components: (a) reemergence of problem behavior, and (b) continued expression of appropriate behavior. In the few studies on this topic, focus has been on variables impacting the reemergence of problem behavior, with fewer studies evaluating the persistence of appropriate behavior...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Mariana Torres-Viso, Craig W Strohmeier, Jennifer R Zarcone
This study is a systematic replication of a functional analysis (FA) of the relation between mands and problem behavior. We extended treatment approaches for this problem behavior function, and describe the treatment of problem behavior related to mands for rearrangement demonstrated by a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and Smith-Magenis syndrome. The mands consisted of requests for others to change their body positioning or proximity, or rearrange items back to their original position. An FA confirmed the relation between problem behavior and mand compliance, and functional communication training with extinction decreased problem behavior and increased functional communication responses...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Ji-Hoon Lee, Michael R Mand, Chung-Hsuan Kao, Yi Zhou, Seung W Ryu, Alicia L Richards, Joshua J Coon, Tanya T Paull
The protein kinase ATM is a master regulator of the DNA damage response but also responds directly to oxidative stress. Loss of ATM causes ataxia telangiectasia, a neurodegenerative disorder with pleiotropic symptoms that include cerebellar dysfunction, cancer, diabetes, and premature aging. We genetically separated the activation of ATM by DNA damage from that by oxidative stress using separation-of-function mutations. We found that deficient activation of ATM by the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex and DNA double-strand breaks resulted in loss of cell viability, checkpoint activation, and DNA end resection in response to DNA damage...
January 9, 2018: Science Signaling
Andreas Mandelis
In order to supplement manufacturers' information, this Department will welcome the submission by our readers of brief communications reporting measurements on the physical properties of materials which supersede earlier data or suggest new research applications.
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Shaji S Haq, Wendy Machalicek, S Andrew Garbacz, Christine Drew
Despite its utility, there is limited applied research on employing fixed-lean (FL) schedules of reinforcement in treatment packages to address challenging behavior. One potential reason is that abrupt shifts to terminal schedules of reinforcement have been associated with immediate increases in challenging behavior before subsiding to clinically acceptable levels. The purpose of the present study was to (a) provide evidence demonstrating the utility of a FL multiple schedule (MS) in the treatment of challenging behavior in applied settings, (b) examine the potential effects of alternative stimuli on challenging behavior during a FL MS, and (c) assess the social validity of this treatment package with participants and caregivers...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
S S Benson, A F Dimian, M Elmquist, J Simacek, J J McComas, F J Symons
The application of telehealth technology to conduct functional analysis (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) is emerging for children with developmental disabilities and behaviour support needs. The current study was designed to extend FA + FCT for self-injurious behaviour by using telehealth in home with parents as interventionists receiving real-time remote coaching. Two families with school-aged boys with developmental disabilities associated with intellectual disability participated, one with cerebral palsy and the other with autism spectrum disorder...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Mohammed Monzoorul Haque, Mitali Merchant, Pinna Nishal Kumar, Anirban Dutta, Sharmila S Mande
Preterm birth is a leading cause of global neonate mortality. Hospitalization costs associated with preterm deliveries present a huge economic burden. Existing physical/biochemical markers for predicting preterm birth risk are mostly suited for application at mid/late pregnancy stages, thereby leaving very short time (between diagnosis and delivery) for adopting appropriate intervention strategies. Recent studies indicating correlations between pre/full-term delivery and the composition of vaginal microbiota in pregnant women have opened new diagnostic possibilities...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
J Sánchez Arguiano, M A Hernández-Hernández, R A Jáuregui Solórzano, S Maldonado-Vega, A González Mandly, J Burón Mediavilla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
Terry S Falcomata, Colin S Muething, Bryant C Silbaugh, Summer Adami, Katherine Hoffman, Cayenne Shpall, Joel E Ringdahl
We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement and functional communication training (FCT) on mand variability and problem behavior in two children with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we implemented FCT with increasing lag schedules and compared its effects on problem behavior with baseline conditions. The results showed that both participants exhibited low rates of problem behavior during treatment relative to baseline during and following schedule thinning (up to a Lag 5 schedule arrangement)...
November 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Harrisham Kaur, Chandrani Das, Sharmila S Mande
Fermentation of undigested proteins in human gastrointestinal tract (gut) by the resident microbiota, a process called bacterial putrefaction, can sometimes disrupt the gut homeostasis. In this process, essential amino acids (e.g., histidine, tryptophan, etc.) that are required by the host may be utilized by the gut microbes. In addition, some of the products of putrefaction, like ammonia, putrescine, cresol, indole, phenol, etc., have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have investigated bacterial putrefaction pathways that are known to be associated with such metabolites...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anubhav Das, Verima Pereira, Shruti Saxena, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, D Anbumani, Satyabrata Bag, Bhabatosh Das, G Balakrish Nair, Philip Abraham, Sharmila S Mande
The gastric microbiome is suspected to have a role in the causation of diseases by Helicobacter pylori. Reports on their relative abundance vis-à-vis H. pylori are available from various ethnic and geographic groups, but little is known about their interaction patterns. Endoscopic mucosal biopsy samples from the gastric antrum and corpus of 39 patients with suspected H. pylori infection were collected and microbiomes were analyzed by 16S rDNA profiling. Four groups of samples were identified, which harbored Helicobacter as well as a diverse group of bacteria including Lactobacillus, Halomonas and Prevotella...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Judith Didi-Kouko Coulibaly, Mireille Yeboua, Alphonsine Kouassi Mbengue, Emile Allah Kouadio, Henriette Anzouan-Kacou Kissi, Allah Yves-Omer Binan, Marie-Jeanne Lohoues Kouacou, Alain Attia, Dowlo N'dri Athanase Yao, Toussaint Toutou, Innocent Adoubi, Pascal Pineau
INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major concern for Public health in West Africa. In Côte d'Ivoire, the bulk of our knowledge stems from studies conducted decades ago. Our aim was, thus, to assess whether the epidemiological features of this tumor changed recently. METHODS: Records from 863 patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed. RESULTS: We observed major drifts concerning hepatocellular carcinoma with regards to the 1970-1980 period...
November 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
Ulas Höke, Bart Mertens, Mand J H Khidir, Martin J Schalij, Jeroen J Bax, Victoria Delgado, Nina Ajmone Marsan
Individualized estimation of prognosis after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains challenging. Our aim was to develop a multiparametric prognostic risk score (CRT-SCORE) that could be used for patient-specific clinical shared decision making about CRT implantation. The CRT-SCORE was derived from an ongoing CRT registry, including 1,053 consecutive patients (age 67 ± 10 years, 76% male). Using preimplantation variables, 100 multiple imputed datasets were generated for model calibration. Based on multivariate Cox regression models, cross-validated linear prognostic scores were calculated, as well as survival fractions at 1 and 5 years...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
Summer Adami, Terry S Falcomata, Colin S Muething, Katherine Hoffman
We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement during functional communication training (FCT) on the varied use of mands and challenging behavior by two individuals diagnosed with autism. Specifically, we compared the effects of Lag 0 and Lag 1 schedules of reinforcement during FCT. The results showed that each participant exhibited increases in varied mand responding during FCT with the Lag 1 schedule of reinforcement relative to Lag 0; challenging behavior remained low during both FCT lag conditions relative to baseline...
September 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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