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E Rombouts, B Maes, I Zink
BACKGROUND: Staff may encourage individuals with intellectual disabilities to use manual signs by modelling its use, but implementing key word signing during daily activities can be demanding. METHOD: Staff's use of manual signs was observed in four special schools and four day centres for adults with intellectual disabilities during communicative group activities, non-communicative group activities and mealtimes. Using in situ partial interval coding, we measured staff's communication rate, semantic diversity of manual signs, sign reinforcement and sign imitation...
January 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Sang-Seok Yun, JongSuk Choi, Sung-Kee Park, Gui-Young Bong, HeeJeong Yoo
We designed a robot system that assisted in behavioral intervention programs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The eight-session intervention program was based on the discrete trial teaching protocol and focused on two basic social skills: eye contact and facial emotion recognition. The robotic interactions occurred in four modules: training element query, recognition of human activity, coping-mode selection, and follow-up action. Children with ASD who were between 4 and 7 years old and who had verbal IQ ≥ 60 were recruited and randomly assigned to the treatment group (TG, n = 8, 5...
May 2, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Austin H Johnson, Sandra M Chafouleas, Amy M Briesch
In this study, generalizability theory was used to examine the extent to which (a) time-sampling methodology, (b) number of simultaneous behavior targets, and (c) individual raters influenced variance in ratings of academic engagement for an elementary-aged student. Ten graduate-student raters, with an average of 7.20 hr of previous training in systematic direct observation and 58.20 hr of previous direct observation experience, scored 6 videos of student behavior using 12 different time-sampling protocols...
March 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
Tiffany L Watson, Christopher H Skinner, Amy L Skinner, Samantha Cazzell, Kathleen B Aspiranti, Tara Moore, MariBeth Coleman
Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms...
July 2016: Behavior Modification
James E Pustejovsky, Daniel M Swan
Partial interval recording (PIR) is a procedure for collecting measurements during direct observation of behavior. It is used in several areas of educational and psychological research, particularly in connection with single-case research. Measurements collected using partial interval recording suffer from construct invalidity because they are not readily interpretable in terms of the underlying characteristics of the behavior. Using an alternating renewal process model for the behavior under observation, we demonstrate that ignoring the construct invalidity of PIR data can produce misleading inferences, such as inferring that an intervention reduces the prevalence of an undesirable behavior when in fact it has the opposite effect...
2015: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Stephen R Schroeder, David M Richman, Layla Abby, Andrea B Courtemanche, Rosa Oyama-Ganiko
Severe problem behaviors, like aggression, self-injury, and repetitive behaviors, in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities often appear during early development and may persist without early intervention. The frequencies of self-injurious behavior, aggression, tantrums, property destruction and stereotyped behavior among 17 infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delays and severe behavior problems were assessed using two methods: 1) direct observation of responses during 10 s partial interval recording during analogue functional analysis and 2) the Behavior Problem Inventory-01 (BPI-01; Rojahn et al, 2001), an informant rating scale...
June 1, 2014: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
Oliver Wirth, James Slaven, Matthew A Taylor
A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability...
2014: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Cristina Campillo, Gerardo Herrera, Conchi Remírez de Ganuza, José L Cuesta, Raquel Abellán, Arturo Campos, Ignacio Navarro, Javier Sevilla, Carlos Pardo, Fabián Amati
Deficits in the perception of time and processing of changes across time are commonly observed in individuals with autism. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of the use of the software tool Tic-Tac, designed to make time visual, in three adults with autism and learning difficulties. This research focused on applying the tool in waiting situations where the participants exhibited anxiety-related behaviour. The intervention followed a baseline and intervention (AB) design, and a partial interval recording procedure was used to code the presence of stereotypes, nervous utterances, wandering or other examples of nervousness during the selected waiting situations...
April 2014: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
H Neerinckx, P Vos, W Van Den Noortgate, B Maes
BACKGROUND: Few studies examined joint attention in interactions with people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), although being an important component of high-quality interaction. The purpose of this study is to describe initiating joint attention behaviour from people with PIMD and their support workers as well as the sequential relationship between initiating joint attention behaviour and attention episodes in spontaneous interactions. METHOD: Video observations of 28 support worker-client dyads were coded using partial interval coding...
August 2014: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Kate Fiske, Lara Delmolino
Over the past three decades, researchers have examined the sensitivity and accuracy of discontinuous data-collection methods. Momentary-time sampling (MTS) and partial-interval recording (PIR) have received particular attention in regards to their ability to estimate the occurrence of behavior and their sensitivity to behavior change compared to continuous data collection. In this article, we summarize these findings and provide recommendations for designing a discontinuous measurement system with consideration of the dimensions of behavior to be measured and the expected direction of behavior change...
2012: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Brent L Hawkins, Joanna B Stegall, Madalyn F Weber, Joseph B Ryan
BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have an increased risk of obesity and are significantly less likely to engage in physical activity compared to their nondisabled peers. A growing body of research supports the physical and mental health benefits of yoga. While the benefits of yoga have been studied across a host of populations with varying ages and physical disabilities, no studies could be identified investigating the benefits of yoga for young adults with ID...
July 2012: International Journal of Yoga
John T Rapp, Regina A Carroll, Lindsay Stangeland, Greg Swanson, William J Higgins
The authors evaluated the extent to which interobserver agreement (IOA) scores, using the block-by-block method for events scored with continuous duration recording (CDR), were higher when the data from the same sessions were converted to discontinuous methods. Sessions with IOA scores of 89% or less with CDR were rescored using 10-s partial interval recording (PIR) and 10-s momentary time sampling (MTS). Results indicated that IOA scores for 10-s PIR and 10-s MTS were consistently higher than IOA scores based on CDR for the same sessions...
July 2011: Behavior Modification
Ine Hostyn, Hostyn Ine, Heleen Neerinckx, Neerinckx Heleen, Bea Maes, Maes Bea
Few studies have examined joint attention in interactions with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), despite its important role in high-quality interaction. The purpose of this study is to describe the attention-directing behaviours of persons with PIMD and their direct support staff and the attention episodes resulting from their interactions, and to understand how these variables relate to each other. Video observations of 17 staff-client dyads were coded using partial interval recording...
March 2011: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Lisa L Knoche, Susan M Sheridan, Carolyn P Edwards, Allison Q Osborn
The implementation efforts of 65 early childhood professionals involved in the Getting Ready project, an integrated, multi-systemic intervention that promotes school readiness through parent engagement for children from birth to age five, were investigated. Digital videotaped records of professionals engaged in home visits with families across both treatment and comparison conditions were coded objectively using a partial-interval recording system to identify and record early childhood professionals' implementation of intervention strategies and their effectiveness in promoting parent engagement and interest in their child...
July 1, 2010: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Anneke P H M Maas, Robert Didden, Lex Bouts, Marcel G Smits, Leopold M G Curfs
Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at risk for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and disruptive behavior. This pilot study explores temporal characteristics of EDS and severe disruptive behavior across time of day and day of week in seven individuals with PWS (aged between 33 and 49 years) of whom five were matched to controls. Direct care staff and/or parents used a scatter plot (i.e., 2-h partial interval recording) to collect data during 28 successive days. Overall frequency of EDS and severe disruptive behavior was low in both groups...
May 2009: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Cindee Quake-Rapp, Berit Miller, Gomathy Ananthan, En-Chi Chiu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to identify the incidence of maladaptive behavior in youths enrolled in community living and support training programs. Direct observation and partial-interval time sampling was used to determine occurrence of behaviors to develop effective strategies for group participation. METHOD: Participants were 30 youths ages 10 to 17 and diagnosed with behavioral disorders. Four observers recorded incidence of eight maladaptive behaviors during three group occupations using direct observation across time and setting, twice per week for 8 weeks...
March 2008: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Maeve G Meany-Daboul, Eileen M Roscoe, Jason C Bourret, William H Ahearn
In the current study, momentary time sampling (MTS) and partial-interval recording (PIR) were compared to continuous-duration recording of stereotypy and to the frequency of self-injury during a treatment analysis to determine whether the recording method affected data interpretation. Five previously conducted treatment analysis data sets were analyzed by creating separate graphic displays for each measurement method (duration or frequency, MTS, and PIR). An expert panel interview and structured criterion visual inspection were used to evaluate treatment effects across measurement methods...
2007: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Michael B Himle, Susanna Chang, Douglas W Woods, Amanda Pearlman, Brian Buzzella, Liviu Bunaciu, John C Piacentini
Behavior analysis has been at the forefront in establishing effective treatments for children and adults with chronic tic disorders. As is customary in behavior analysis, the efficacy of these treatments has been established using direct-observation assessment methods. Although behavior-analytic treatments have enjoyed acceptance and integration into mainstream health care practices for tic disorders (e.g., psychiatry and neurology), the use of direct observation as a primary assessment tool has been neglected in favor of less objective methods...
2006: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
A Harrop, M Daniels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1993: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
H K Suen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1991: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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