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X J Wang, J H Feng, M H Zhang, X M Li, D D Ma, S S Chang
The intestinal microbiome has been shown to influence animal nutrient metabolism and immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of heat stress on the intestinal microbiome of broilers using pyrosequencing technologies. Ninety-six Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated to thermoneutral control (TC; 21 ± 1°C) and high ambient temperature (HT; 31 ± 1°C) groups (6 cages of 8 birds per group), respectively, and raised in 2 controlled climate chambers from 28 to 42 d old. Genomic DNA was extracted from ileal contents isolated from 6 male broiler chicks of each group at 42 d old, and then amplified based on the V3-4 hyper-variable region of 16S rRNA...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Ted R Mikuls, Clay Walker, Fang Qiu, Fang Yu, Geoffrey M Thiele, Barnett Alfant, Eric C Li, Lisa Y Zhao, Gary P Wang, Susmita Datta, Jeffrey B Payne
Objectives: To profile and compare the subgingival microbiome of RA patients with OA controls. Methods: RA (n = 260) and OA (n = 296) patients underwent full-mouth examination and subgingival samples were collected. Bacterial DNA was profiled using 16 S rRNA Illumina sequencing. Following data filtering and normalization, hierarchical clustering analysis was used to group samples. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations of patient factors with membership in the two largest clusters...
March 19, 2018: Rheumatology
Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Robert Tso, Levinus A Dieleman, Heekuk Park, Karen I Kroeker, Juan Jovel, Patrick M Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Rupasri Mandal, Richard N Fedorak, Karen L Madsen
Background: Crohn's disease (CD) patients who undergo ileocolonic resection frequently have disease recurrence. The aim of this preliminary study was to identify urinary metabolomic profiles associated with disease recurrence in order to identify underlying mechanisms of recurrence and possible disease biomarkers. Methods: Biopsies from the neoterminal ileum were collected from CD patients (n = 38) after ileocolonic resection in order to assess mucosa-associated microbiota using 16S rRNA multitag pyrosequencing...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Frédéric Kosmowski, Tigist Worku
Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Fleur P Paling, Karina Olsen, Kristin Ohneberg, Martin Wolkewitz, Vance G Fowler, Mark J DiNubile, Hasan S Jafri, Frangiscos Sifakis, Marc J M Bonten, Stephan J Harbarth, Jan A J W Kluytmans
BACKGROUND: Identifying patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery at high risk of Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection (SSI) is a prerequisite for implementing effective preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to develop a risk prediction model for S. aureus SSI or bacteremia after cardiothoracic surgery based on pre-operative variables. MATERIALS/METHODS: Data from the Merck Phase IIb/III S. aureus vaccine (V710-P003) clinical trial were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Núria Carranco, Mireia Farrés-Cebrián, Javier Saurina, Oscar Núñez
High performance liquid chromatography method with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprinting was applied for the analysis and characterization of olive oils, and was performed using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 reversed-phase column under gradient elution, employing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile phase. More than 130 edible oils, including monovarietal extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) and other vegetable oils, were analyzed. Principal component analysis results showed a noticeable discrimination between olive oils and other vegetable oils using raw HPLC-UV chromatographic profiles as data descriptors...
March 21, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Masaaki Takeuchi, Yasufumi Nagata, Masaki Izumo, Yoshihiro J Akashi, Fen-Chiung Lin, Yutaka Otsuji
We hypothesized that area of calcified aortic valve (ACAV) measured by 2D echocardiography (2DE) can predict future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS).Multidetector computed tomography determined aortic valve calcification load is strongly associated with AS severity but has risks for radiation exposure. Quantification of ACAV by transthoracic 2DE is simple and convenient but its clinical utility has not been extensively studied.We measured ACAV in 124 asymptomatic severe AS patients (80 ± 9 years, 45 males) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shintaro Akiyama, Masakazu Nagahori, Shinya Oooka, Mariko Negi, Takashi Ito, Kento Takenaka, Kazuo Ohtsuka, Mamoru Watanabe
RATIONALE: The small intestine (SI) does not commonly harbor cancer but is occasionally involved by metastatic cancer from other organs. To manage SI cancer appropriately, surveillance for primary origin outside the SI is essential. PATIENT CONCERNS: This study presents a 54-year-old Thai man diagnosed with SI obstruction which required laparoscopy- assisted partial ileal resection. DIAGNOSES: On the basis of the expression pattern of cytokeratins (CKs) and mucins (MUCs) in the resected SI adenocarcinoma, we suspected this was metastasized from the pancreatobiliary tract...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Luna Jammal, Ben Whalley, Edi Barkai
Training rats in a complex olfactory discrimination task results in acquisition of 'rule learning' (learning how to learn), a term describing the capability to perform the task superbly. Such rule learning results in strengthening of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections between neurons in the piriform cortex. Moreover, intrinsic excitability is also enhanced throughout the pyramidal neuron population. Surprisingly, the cortical network retains its stability under these long-term modifications...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Forough Ghasemi, M Reza Hormozi-Nezhad, Morteza Mahmoudi
Monitoring the ratio of 40- and 42-residue amyloid β peptides (i.e., Aβ40 and Aβ42) in human plasma is considered one of the hallmarks of detection of the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, development of a specific, yet non-antibody-based method for simultaneous detection of Aβ40 and Aβ42 may have considerable clinical applications. Here, we developed a 'nanoparticle-based colorimetric sensor array' utilizing label-free gold and silver nanoparticles for visual detection of Aβ42 and Aβ40...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Yu S Vinnik, R A Pakhomova, L V Kochetova, E A Voronova, V V Kozlov, A K Kirichenko
AIM: To develop predictive model for hepatic insufficiency in obstructive jaundice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Obstructive jaundice was modeled by the author's method on 48 mini pigs, while morpho-functional features of erythrocytes were studied by using of INTEGRA Aura atomic force microscope (NT-MDT, Zelenograd, Russia). Histological specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Discriminant analysis was used to create predictive model for hepatic insufficiency...
2018: Khirurgiia
Ben Buse, Stuart Kearns
Automated phase maps are an important tool for characterizing samples but the data quality must be evaluated. Common options include the overlay of phases on backscattered electron (BSE) images and phase composition averages and standard deviations. Both these methods have major limitations. We propose two methods of evaluation involving principal component analysis. First, a red-green-blue composite image of the first three principal components, which comprise the majority of the chemical variation, which provides a good reference against which phase maps can be compared...
March 21, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Ya-Ni Tang, Cheng-Fu Tan, Wei-Wei Liu, Jie Yan, Chao Wang, Mi Liu, Dong-Hai Lin, Cai-Hua Huang, Lin Du, Mei-Lin Chen, Jiao-Lan Li, Ding-Ming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: We have repeatedly demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) of "Neiguan"(PC 6) can improve myocardial ischemia in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the metabolomic profile of peripheral blood se-rum and myocardium involving EA-induced improvement of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were equally randomized into blank control, model and EA groups...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Poppy Sharp, David Melcher, Clayton Hickey
Constructing useful representations of our visual environment requires the ability to selectively pay attention to particular locations at specific moments. Whilst there has been much investigation on the influence of selective attention on spatial discrimination, less is known about its influence on temporal discrimination. In particular, little is known about how endogenous attention influences two fundamental and opposing temporal processes: segregation - the parsing of the visual scene over time into separate features, and integration - the binding together of related elements...
March 20, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Samantha G Farris, Angelo M DiBello, Erika Litvin Bloom, Ana M Abrantes
INTRODUCTION: The Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET; Adams et al. 2011) is a self-report measure designed to assess multiple reasons why and when smokers use cigarettes for appetite, weight, and shape management, that was initially developed and validated in young female smokers. PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SWEET measure among both male and female daily cigarette smokers...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Ramadan Abdelaziz, Yasser Abd El-Rahman, Sophie Wilhelm
Chromite is widely distributed in the east and southeast of Afghanistan, especially in Logar Province. Chromite mineralization is podiform-type and is hosted in the stratigraphically lowest ultramafic rocks of the Logar Ophiolite Complex. This ophiolite complex represents a remnant of an early Cretaceous oceanic crust that was thrusted over a late Permian to Mid-Jurassic platform-type sequence of the Kabul Terrane during the Himalayan Orogeny. The ultramafic rocks are composed mainly of dunite and harzburgite, which are variably serpentinized...
February 2018: Heliyon
Roger Mullins, David Reiter, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Objective: Brain glucose hypometabolism is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in this case-control study we used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to assess AD-related differences in the posterior cingulate/precuneal ratio of glucose, lactate, and other metabolites. Methods: J-modulated Point-Resolved Spectroscopy (J-PRESS) and Prior-Knowledge Fitting (ProFit) software was used to measure glucose and other metabolites in the posterior cingulate/precuneus of 25 AD, 27 older controls, and 27 younger control participants...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Massoud Saghafi, Mandana Khodashahi, Nayyereh Saadati, Azita Azarian, Zahra Rezaieyazdi, Maryam Salehi, Maryam Sahebari
Background: Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a non-collagen glycoprotein produced by the cartilage, synovium, tendon, and meniscus. Recent studies showed that COMP is a reliable factor for monitoring cartilage damage. Objective: To determine the relationship between serum COMP concentration and the severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: This cross-sectional study lasted from 2013 to 2015 at the Rheumatology Clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Andrew W Artenstein, Jennifer Friderici, Paul Visintainer
Introduction: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA), a highly morbid and potentially lethal deep tissue infection of the central nervous system has more than tripled in incidence over the past decade. Early recognition at the point of initial clinical presentation may prevent irreversible neurologic injury or other serious, adverse outcomes. To facilitate early recognition of SEA, we developed a predictive scoring model. Methods: Using data from a 10-year, retrospective, case-control study of adults presenting for care at a tertiary-care, regional, academic medical center, we used the Integrated Discrimination Improvement Index (IDI) to identify candidate discriminators and created a multivariable logistic regression model, refined based on p-value significance...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Matteo Chiappedi, Martina Mensi, Eliana Antonaci, Elena Zavani, Livio Tronconi, Cristiano Termine, Umberto Balottin
There are few literature evidences about the intellectual profile of adolescents with headache and no study has used the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) in patients with a diagnosis of headache according to the ICHD-III-beta. We recruited 30 patients (age 11-14 years; male:female = 1:2) seen for headache in a tertiary center in Northern Italy and 30 healthy controls matched for age and sex, recruited in a public school from the same geographic area. The diagnosis of headache was done according to the ICHD-III criteria (beta version): the case group was composed of 16 patients with migraine and 14 with tension-type headache...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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