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Intraverbal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766646/establishing-derived-categorical-responding-in-children-with-disabilities-using-the-peak-e-curriculum
#1
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Caleb R Stanley, Ryan C Speelman, Kyle E Rowsey, Dena Kime, Jacob H Daar
The purpose of the study was to evaluate a procedure to generate derived categorical responding by three children with disabilities and to promote the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responses. In the study, three 4-member equivalence classes including three stimuli (A, B, and C) and a category name (D) for each class were trained using a match-to-sample procedure. Test probes were conducted for categorical responding, including both a trained (D-A) and two derived (D-B, D-C) relational responses, as well as the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responding (D-A/B/C) throughout the study...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606219/emergent-intraverbal-forms-may-occur-as-a-result-of-listener-training-for-children-with-autism
#2
Dean P Smith, Svein Eikeseth, Sarah E Fletcher, Lisa Montebelli, Holly R Smith, Jennifer C Taylor
The purpose of the present study was to assess whether intraverbal behavior, in the form of answers to questions, emerges as a result of listener training for five children diagnosed with autism. Listener responses were targeted and taught using prompting and differential reinforcement. Following successful acquisition of listener responses, the intraverbal form of the response was probed. Data were evaluated via a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design that included a control series. Results showed listener-to-intraverbal transfer for four of the five participants...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606216/a-comparison-of-prompting-tactics-for-teaching-intraverbals-to-young-adults-with-autism
#3
Joseph Vedora, Erin Conant
Several researchers have compared the effectiveness of tact or textual prompts to echoic prompts for teaching intraverbal behavior to young children with autism. We extended this line of research by comparing the effectiveness of visual (textual or tact) prompts to echoic prompts to teach intraverbal responses to three young adults with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used with 2 to 3 comparisons for each participant. The results were mixed and did not reveal a more effective prompting procedure across participants, suggesting that the effectiveness of a prompting tactic may be idiosyncratic...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606215/learning-skinner-s-verbal-operants-comparing-an-online-stimulus-equivalence-procedure-to-an-assigned-reading
#4
John O'Neill, Ruth Anne Rehfeldt, Chris Ninness, Bridget E Muñoz, James Mellor
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of an online stimulus equivalence procedure to that of an assigned reading when learning Skinner's taxonomy of verbal behavior. Twenty-six graduate students participated via an online learning management system. One group was exposed to an online stimulus equivalence procedure (equivalence group) that was designed to teach relations among the names, antecedents, consequences, and examples of each elementary verbal operant. A comparison group (reading group) read a chapter from a popular textbook...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606214/the-effects-of-auditory-tact-and-auditory-imagining-instructions-on-the-emergence-of-novel-intraverbals
#5
James R Mellor, Clarissa S Barnes, Ruth Anne Rehfeldt
The current research investigated whether intraverbals would emerge following auditory tact instruction. Participants were first taught to tact auditory stimuli by providing the name of the item or animal that produces the sound (e.g., saying "eagle" when presented with the recording of an eagle cawing). Following test probes for simple intraverbals as well as intraverbal categorization participants were taught to tact what each auditory stimulus is (e.g., saying "caw" when presented with the recording of an eagle cawing)...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606211/using-instructive-feedback-to-increase-response-variability-during-intraverbal-training-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Regina A Carroll, Tiffany Kodak
We evaluated the effects of instructive feedback on the variability of intraverbal responses for two children with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare participants' novel responses and response combinations during an intraverbal category program across conditions with and without instructive feedback. During instructive feedback, secondary targets were presented during the consequence event of the learning trial and consisted of a therapist's model of response variability...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606210/training-intraverbal-naming-to-establish-matching-to-sample-performances
#7
Patricia M Santos, Monica L Ma, Caio F Miguel
The current study evaluated whether training intraverbal naming would be sufficient to establish visual-visual matching-to-sample (MTS) performances in college students. In the first experiment, we used a multiple-probe design across stimulus sets to assess whether six participants could match arbitrary visual stimuli (AB) after learning to tact their two experimentally defined classes (A' and B') and then intraverbally relate their names (i.e., "A' goes with B'"). All participants matched the stimuli accurately after training, as well as emitted the trained intraverbals...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507187/teaching-multiply-controlled-intraverbals-to-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
April N Kisamore, Amanda M Karsten, Charlotte C Mann
Reciprocal conversations, instructional activities, and other social interactions are replete with multiply controlled intraverbals, examples of which have been conceptualized in terms of conditional discriminations. Although the acquisition of conditional discriminations has been examined extensively in the behavior-analytic literature, little research has evaluated procedures to establish multiply controlled intraverbals. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of procedures based on conditional discrimination training on the acquisition of multiply controlled intraverbals with 7 participants who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274976/an-investigation-of-stimulus-pairing-and-listener-training-to-establish-emergent-intraverbals-in-children-with-autism
#9
Mary Vallinger-Brown, Rocío Rosales
We examined two methods to facilitate the emergence of untaught intraverbal responses to children with autism. Listener behavior training (LT) involved reinforcement of a selection-based response following presentation of an array of pictures on an iPad® and an auditory instruction describing a characteristic of the picture. Stimulus pairing (SP) involved presentation of one picture in isolation on the iPad® and an auditory instruction describing a characteristic of the picture. Participants were not required to emit an overt vocal response during SP...
October 2014: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227899/the-effects-of-intertrial-interval-and-instructional-format-on-skill-acquisition-and-maintenance-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Tom Cariveau, Tiffany Kodak, Vincent Campbell
We replicated and extended the study by Koegel, Dunlap, and Dyer (1980) by examining the effects of 3 intertrial-interval (ITI) durations on skill acquisition in 2 children with autism spectrum disorders. Specifically, we compared the effect of short (2 s), progressive (2 s to 20 s), and long (20 s) ITIs on participants' mastery of tacts or intraverbals presented in massed-trial and varied-trial instructional formats. We also measured (a) stereotypic and problem behavior during the ITI, (b) maintenance of skills, and (c) responding to novel adults and settings...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151740/training-intraverbal-naming-to-establish-equivalence-class-performances
#11
Monica L Ma, Caio F Miguel, Adrienne M Jennings
The purpose of this three-experiment study was to evaluate whether performance consistent with the formation of equivalence classes could be established after training adults to tact and intraverbally relate the names of visual stimuli. Fourteen participants were exposed to tact training, listener testing, and intraverbal training (A'B' and B'C') prior to matching-to-sample (MTS) and intraverbal posttests presented in different sequences across experiments. All participants demonstrated emergent MTS and intraverbal relations consistent with equivalence class formation...
May 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990853/emergent-verbal-behavior-in-preschool-children-learning-a-second-language
#12
Richard J May, Rachel Downs, Amanda Marchant, Simon Dymond
We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]). After intervention, increases in untaught second-language tacts (e.g., "What is this in Welsh?" [ceffyl]) and listener responses (e.g., "Point to the ceffyl") were observed for all 3 participants...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676181/intraverbal-naming-and-equivalence-class-formation-in-children
#13
Charlotte L Carp, Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir
Six typically developing children between 5 and 7 years of age underwent match-to-sample training to establish three-member equivalence classes after first acquiring a unique name for each stimulus. Horne and Lowe's (1996) naming hypothesis predicts that under those circumstances, match-to-sample training contingencies may establish intraverbal relations between the unique names, which in turn guide correct responses on a subsequent test for stimulus equivalence. Following training of baseline relations (AB and AC), participants received an equivalence test followed by an intraverbal test...
November 2015: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26659709/using-lag-schedules-to-strengthen-the-intraverbal-repertoires-of-children-with-autism
#14
Bethany P Contreras, Alison M Betz
Previous research has demonstrated the utility of using lag schedules of reinforcement to increase response variability of children with autism. However, little research has evaluated whether the lag schedule promotes variability from within an already-established repertoire or expands the current repertoire by promoting the use of new responses (i.e., those not previously demonstrated). Thus, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the extent to which lag schedules of reinforcement produced already-established intraverbal responses or novel responses for 3 children with autism...
March 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25962478/comparing-the-effects-of-massed-and-distributed-practice-on-skill-acquisition-for-children-with-autism
#15
Shaji S Haq, Tiffany Kodak, Evangeline Kurtz-Nelson, Marilynn Porritt, Kristin Rush, Tom Cariveau
We replicated and extended the findings of Haq and Kodak (2015) by evaluating the efficiency of massed and distributed practice for teaching tacts and textual and intraverbal behavior to 3 children with autism. Massed practice included all practice opportunities conducted on 1 day during each week, and distributed practice included practice opportunities conducted across several days during the week. The results indicated that distributed practice was more efficient for all participants. Suggested areas for future research and implications for practice are discussed...
2015: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25649198/emergence-of-visual-visual-conditional-discriminations
#16
Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir, Charlotte L Carp, Sean P Peterson, Tracy L Lepper
We assessed the emergence of visual-visual conditional discriminations following training of vocal tact and intraverbal relations. Ten preschool-age children learned to vocally tact six visual stimuli, A1 through B3. Next, they learned to respond intraverbally to the dictated names of A1, A2, and A3 by vocalizing the names of B1, B2, and B3, respectively. Emergent A-B and B-A relations were tested in a visual-visual match-to-sample (MTS) task. Five of ten participants passed the test, with or without a prompt to tact the sample stimulus...
March 2015: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24127334/tact-training-versus-bidirectional-intraverbal-training-in-teaching-a-foreign-language
#17
Katerina Dounavi
The current study involved an evaluation of the emergence of untrained verbal relations as a function of 3 different foreign-language teaching strategies. Two Spanish-speaking adults received foreign-language (English) tact training and native-to-foreign and foreign-to-native intraverbal training. Tact training and native-to-foreign intraverbal training resulted in the emergence of a greater number of untrained responses, and may thus be more efficient than foreign-to-native intraverbal training.
2014: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24114169/an-evaluation-of-repeating-the-discriminative-stimulus-when-using-least-to-most-prompting-to-teach-intraverbal-behavior-to-children-with-autism
#18
Tiffany Humphreys, Amy S Polick, Laura L Howk, Jackie R Thaxton, Alison P Ivancic
A common recommendation with least-to-most prompting is to repeat the discriminative stimulus (S(D) ) with each successive prompt (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). However, few studies have evaluated this recommendation. We compared repeating the S(D) to presenting the S(D) once when teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism. Results showed that both methods produced acquisition, and repeating the S(D) produced no greater efficiency in acquisition.
2013: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23814373/an-analysis-of-verbal-stimulus-control-in-intraverbal-behavior-implications-for-practice-and-applied-research
#19
Svein Eikeseth, Dean P Smith
A common characteristic of the language deficits experienced by children with autism (and other developmental disorders) is their failure to acquire a complex intraverbal repertoire. The difficulties with learning intraverbal behaviors may, in part, be related to the fact that the stimulus control for such behaviors usually involves highly complex verbal stimuli. The antecedent verbal control of intraverbal behavior may involve discriminative stimuli (i.e., discriminated operants), conditional stimulus control, and/or control by compound stimuli...
2013: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23814370/effects-of-a-differential-observing-response-on-intraverbal-performance-of-preschool-children-a-preliminary-investigation
#20
April N Kisamore, Amanda M Karsten, Charlotte C Mann, Kerry Ann Conde
Axe (2008) speculated that some instances of intraverbal responding might be associated with limited or delayed acquisition because they require discrimination of multiple components of verbal stimuli. Past studies suggest that acquisition of responses under control of complex, multicomponent antecedent stimuli (e.g., conditional or compound stimulus control) can be facilitated with the introduction of a differential observing response (DOR; Dube & McIlvane, 1999; Gutowski, Geren, Stromer, & Mackay, 1995). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a DOR (i...
2013: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
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