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J Manji, A Thamboo, M Tacey, C Garnis, N K Chadha
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal disease is a common feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) and can cause significant morbidity in these patients. Our objective was to determine if CF individuals with concomitant nasal polyposis (NP) express a unique profile of inflammation and if so, whether these inflammatory cytokine mediators have predictive value in identifying these individuals for prompt management by an Otolaryngologist. METHODOLOGY: Nasal lavage samples and clinical outcomes of disease severity were obtained from thirty-eight pediatric CF individuals...
March 21, 2018: Rhinology
Wan-Lin Zhang, Shuang Ma, Rachel Jug, Fan Li, Endi Wang, Huan-Yu Zhao, Hong-Tao Xu, Lin Cai, Cheng-Qian Yu, Shuai Shen, Lian-He Yang
RATIONALE: Primary testicular natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive lymphoid malignancy. At present, only 20 cases have been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 32-year-old Chinese man complained of discomfort and swelling of his right testicle for 3 months. Physical examination revealed a 10 × 10 × 9.5 cm mass on the right side of the scrotum area. DIAGNOSES: Pathologic evaluation showed effacement of normal testicular parenchymal architecture by small-to-medium-sized lymphoid cells with irregular nuclear profiles, and immunohistochemical studies positively expressed CD2, CD56, cytoplasmic CD3, granzyme B, perforin, and TIA-1...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Roxanne C Oriel, Julie Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe effective management strategies in nursery or school based upon research findings. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of food allergy and number of emergency department visits for food-related anaphylaxis are increasing in children and adolescents. As there is currently no cure, the most effective strategy to decrease allergic reactions is food allergen avoidance. However, allergic reactions are inevitable in both food allergic children as well as in first-time reactors...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Chris Baeken, Romain Duprat, Guo-Rong Wu, Rudi De Raedt, Kees van Heeringen
BACKGROUND: Accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigms have been shown to result in fast decreases in depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Although the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) region has been put forward as a possible biological marker, so far, no studies evaluated the clinical effects of accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation (aiTBS) on sgACC functional connectivity (FC). METHODS: Fifty patients with treatment-resistant depression were enrolled in this registered randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover aiTBS treatment study...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ariel M Brettholz, Sabrina Opiola Mccauley
Mucormycosis is a rare invasive fungal infection that affects immunocompromised patients and is fatal when not identified and treated early. Diagnosis is often delayed as the symptoms are nonspecific and frequently mimic other common diseases. Pediatric patients with cancer are at risk for the infection; however, there is limited research that applies directly to the pediatric population. An understanding of the risk factors and clinical presentation of mucormycosis is crucial for the pediatric oncology provider to initiate the workup and provide prompt treatment...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
Alexander Pastukhov, Johanna Prasch, Claus-Christian Carbon
Our brain constantly tries to anticipate the future by using a variety of memory mechanisms. Interestingly, studies using the intermittent presentation of multistable displays have shown little perceptual persistence for interruptions longer than a few hundred milliseconds. Here we examined whether we can facilitate the perceptual stability of bistable displays following a period of invisibility by employing a physically plausible and ecologically valid occlusion event sequence, as opposed to the typical intermittent presentation, with sudden onsets and offsets...
March 20, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
T Arad, U Voßmerbäumer, N Pfeiffer, A Gericke
The two presented case examples demonstrate that scleral perforation through highly accelerated, seemingly harmless confetti particles is possible. In addition to penetrating injuries that should be treated directly, contusions with serious consequential complications can also occur. A careful assessment and examination are essential to promptly provide the patient with the right treatment and to minimize complications.
March 20, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Heitham Wady, Zain Badar, Zerwa Farooq, Palma Shaw, Katsuhiro Kobayashi
Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), a condition predominantly affecting young individuals, is a rare clinical entity that can result in significant morbidity. The presence of lower limb pain and claudication in young, physically active individuals should prompt consideration for PAES. Early diagnosis and management is crucial to prevent long-term complications; however, diagnosis is fraught with challenges due to the rarity of the disease and its similar clinical presentation with more common conditions...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
D D K Abeyaratne, C Liyanapathirana, C L Fonseka, P W M C S B Wijekoon
Background: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody- (ANCA-) associated small vessel vasculitis with multisystem involvement. It is characterized with asthma, eosinophilia, and renal and peripheral nervous system involvement. However, EGPA presenting with bullous skin eruption is an uncommon dermatological manifestation. We report a rare case of EGPA overlapped with mixed essential cryoglobulinemia presenting with a bullous skin eruption...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Ali Amanati, Nader Shakibazad, Bahman Pourabbas, Mohammad Hossein Nowroozzadeh, Soheila Zareifar, Omid Reza Zekavat
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is one of the rare but debilitating presentations of the CMV infection in children with leukemia. Herein, we report a 12-year-old boy with acute myeloid leukemia complicated by rapid progressive visual loss during relapse of leukemia. The definite diagnosis of CMV retinitis was made after vitreous aspiration. Despite prompt treatment and ophthalmologic intervention, he died because of AML relapse. Viral infections, especially cytomegalovirus infection, may present with vague clinical pictures during any time of chemotherapy, which may not be easily distinguishable from bacterial or fungal retinitis and also chemotherapy-induced retinopathies...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Philip E B Nickerson, Arturo Ortin-Martinez, Valerie A Wallace
Considerable research effort has been invested into the transplantation of mammalian photoreceptors into healthy and degenerating mouse eyes. Several platforms of rod and cone fluorescent reporting have been central to refining the isolation, purification and transplantation of photoreceptors. The tracking of engrafted cells, including identifying the position, morphology and degree of donor cell integration post-transplant is highly dependent on the use of fluorescent protein reporters. Improvements in imaging and analysis of transplant recipients have revealed that donor cell fluorescent reporters can transfer into host tissue though a process termed material exchange (ME)...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Laura Damian, Cristina Pamfil, Marius Fodor, Liliana Rogojan, Natalia Hagau, Simona Rednic
Background: Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare disease that occurs predominantly in middle-aged males; its onset during pregnancy is exceptional. Case Report: We present a case of PAN with peripartum onset in a patient with a twin pregnancy after ovarian stimulation for primary infertility. The pregnancy outcome was good in terms of the children's health. In the case of the mother, however, the presence of nonspecific signs and symptoms, a noncontributory ovarian biopsy, and mimics of a puerperal infection delayed the diagnosis of PAN...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Petrus Linge, Paul R Fortin, Christian Lood, Anders A Bengtsson, Eric Boilard
Dysregulation of lymphocyte function, accumulation of autoantibodies and defective clearance of circulating immune complexes and apoptotic cells are hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, it is now evident that an intricate interplay between the adaptive and innate immune systems contributes to the pathogenesis of SLE, ultimately resulting in chronic inflammation and organ damage. Platelets circulate in the blood and are chiefly recognized for their role in the prevention of bleeding and promotion of haemostasis; however, accumulating evidence points to a role for platelets in both adaptive and innate immunity...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Manuel Oliva, Andrey Anikin
The processing of emotional signals usually causes an increase in pupil size, and this effect has been largely attributed to autonomic arousal prompted by the stimuli. Additionally, changes in pupil size were associated with decision making during non-emotional perceptual tasks. Therefore, in this study we investigated the relationship between pupil size fluctuations and the process of emotion recognition. Participants heard human nonverbal vocalizations (e.g., laughing, crying) and indicated the emotional state of the speakers as soon as they had identified it...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kerrie L May, Thomas J Silhavy
The outer membrane (OM) bilayer of Gram-negative bacteria is biologically unique in its asymmetrical organization of lipids, with an inner leaflet composed of glycerophospholipids (PLs) and a surface-exposed outer leaflet composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This lipid organization is integral to the OM's barrier properties. Perturbations of the outer leaflet by antimicrobial peptides or defects in LPS biosynthesis or transport to the OM cause a compensatory flipping of PLs to the outer leaflet. As a result, lipid asymmetry is disrupted and OM integrity is compromised...
March 20, 2018: MBio
William J Jeffcoate, Loretta Vileikyte, Edward J Boyko, David G Armstrong, Andrew J M Boulton
Diabetic foot ulcers remain a major health care problem. They are common, result in considerable suffering, frequently recur, and are associated with high mortality, as well as considerable health care costs. While national and international guidance exists, the evidence base for much of routine clinical care is thin. It follows that many aspects of the structure and delivery of care are susceptible to the beliefs and opinion of individuals. It is probable that this contributes to the geographic variation in outcome that has been documented in a number of countries...
April 2018: Diabetes Care
David L Joyce, Brian D Lahr, Simon Maltais, Sameh M Said, John M Stulak, Gregory A Nuttall, Lyle D Joyce
OBJECTIVES: Simulation in resident medical education has traditionally focused on isolated components of a surgical procedure. We hypothesized that incorporating an interdisciplinary team into a high-fidelity simulation laboratory would enhance the modeling of real-world challenges during cardiac surgery. METHODS: Simulation exercises were performed with staffing by surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, surgical assistants, and operating room technicians. Twelve accredited cardiothoracic surgical residents were divided into 3 teams...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Gabrielle C Musk, Matthew W Kemp
Short-term anaesthesia of the pregnant ewe may be required for caesarean delivery of a preterm foetus within a research protocol. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the acid-base and haematological status of the ewe and foetus at the time of surgical delivery by collecting maternal and foetal arterial blood samples. Fifteen date-mated singleton-pregnant merino cross ewes at 122.0 (±0.5) days of gestation were anaesthetised with a combination of midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg) by intravenous injection...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Amish Chinoy, Indraneel Banerjee, Sarah E Flanagan, Sian Ellard, Bing Han, Zainab Mohamed, Mark J Dunne, Stefania Bitetti
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the commonest cause of persistent and severe hypoglycemia in infancy due to unregulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Prompt early diagnosis is important, as insulin reduces glucose supply to the brain, resulting in significant brain injury and risk of death. Histologically, CHI has focal and diffuse forms; in focal CHI, an inappropriate level of insulin is secreted from localized β-cell hyperplasia. We report a 4-month-old male infant, who presented with sudden illness and collapse without a recognized cause and died...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Mosab Al Shakaki, Angelo M Dell'Aquila, Andreas Rukosujew
Typical symptoms of cardiac tamponade are jugular venous distension, pulsus paradoxus, hypotension, and rest dyspnea. However, these clinical symptoms can be masked in patients with ventricular assist device and even more in patients supported with a biventricular-HeartWare ventricular assist device. Hereby, we report the case of a 30-year-old man supported with a biventricular-HeartWare ventricular assist device, who underwent a computed tomography scan due to suspect of ventricular assist device thrombosis...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
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