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Rumi Minami, Soichiro Takahama, Yu Kaku, Masahiro Yamamoto
The CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc (MVC), is associated with an enhanced CD4+ T-cell response independent of virological suppression; however, its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. In this study, we confirmed the effect of MVC on CD4+ T-cell count recovery in immunological non-responders, and compared the conventional combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with MVC-intensified cART. We also investigated the effect of MVC on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the relationship between the mRNA level of IFN-γ and the degree of CD4+ T-cell count recovery...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Yoon Yang Jung, Chang Lim Hyun, Min-Sun Jin, In Ae Park, Yul Ri Chung, Bobae Shim, Kyu Ho Lee, Han Suk Ryu
PURPOSE: There is no standard targeted therapy for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Therefore, its management heavily depends on adjuvant chemotherapy. Using core needle biopsy, this study evaluated the histological factors of TNBC predicting the response to chemotherapy. METHODS: One hundred forty-three TNBC patients who received single-regimen neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with the combination of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel were enrolled...
September 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
K Husen, E Rafaeli, J A Rubel, E Bar-Kalifa, W Lutz
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that individual differences in affect dynamics during depressed patients' everyday lives allow the prediction of treatment outcome and of symptom reoccurrence in remitted patients. In this study, we analyze whether understanding patients' affective states and their fluctuation patterns helps predict early treatment response (until session 5). METHODS: Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) strategies allow in-depth analyses of real-time affective states and of their dynamics...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Grigory Vertelov, Edgar Gutierrez, Sin-Ae Lee, Edward Ronan, Alex Groisman, Eugene Tkachenko
The dependences of spreading and differentiation of stem cells plated on hydrogel and silicone gel substrates on the rigidity and porosity of the substrates have recently been a subject of some controversy. In experiments on human mesenchymal stem cells plated on soft, medium rigidity, and hard silicone gels we show that harder gels are more osteogenic, softer gels are more adipogenic, and cell spreading areas increase with the silicone gel substrate rigidity. The results of our study indicate that substrate rigidity induces some universal cellular responses independently of the porosity or topography of the substrate...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lucas A Zena, Glauber S F da Silva, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Kênia C Bícego
Anurans regulate short-term oscillations in blood pressure through changes in heart rate (fH), vascular resistance and lymph hearts frequency. Lung ventilation in anurans is linked to blood volume homeostasis by facilitating lymph return to the cardiovascular system. We hypothesized that the arterial baroreflex modulates pulmonary ventilation in the Cururu toad Rhinella schneideri, and that this relationship is temperature-dependent. Pharmacologically induced hypotension (sodium nitroprusside) and hypertension (phenylephrine) increased ventilation (25°C: 248...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jennifer K Lee, Bing Wang, Michael Reyes, Jillian S Armstrong, Ewa Kulikowicz, Polan T Santos, Jeong-Hoo Lee, Raymond C Koehler, Lee J Martin
Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in neonates. We previously showed that cortical neuron and white matter apoptosis are promoted by hypothermia and early rewarming in a piglet model of HI. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be one of the potential mediators of this cell death. Here, neonatal piglets underwent HI or sham surgery followed by 29 h of normothermia, 2 h of normothermia + 27 h of hypothermia or 18 h of hypothermia + rewarming...
September 14, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Christina R Noel, Yvette Q Getch
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is the response-independent delivery of a reinforcer (Vollmer, Iwata, Zarcone, Smith, and Mazaleski in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 26: 9-21 1993). Two staff members (preservice education majors) implemented NCR procedures for two students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who exhibited problem behavior and attended an after-school program. The amount of training on NCR and procedural fidelity was measured for each staff member, and the effects of the treatment on problem behavior were evaluated...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Sabrina R Cohen-Hatton, R C Honey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Sarita Sehra, Purna Krishnamurthy, Byunghee Koh, Hong-Ming Zhou, Lee Seymour, Nahid Akhtar, Jeffrey B Travers, Matthew J Turner, Mark H Kaplan
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease induced by a complex interaction between susceptibility genes encoding skin barrier components and environmental allergen exposure that results in type 2 cytokine production. Although genetic lesions in either component can be risk factors for disease in patients, whether these pathways interact in the development of AD is not clear. To test this, we mated mice with T-cell specific expression of constitutively active Stat6 (Stat6VT) that spontaneously develop allergic skin inflammation with Flaky tail (Ft) mice that have mutations in Flg and Tmem79 genes that each affect skin barrier function...
August 11, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Sara Sarroca, Patricia Molina-Martínez, Cristina Aresté, Martin Etzrodt, Pablo García de Frutos, Rosa Gasa, Anna Antonell, José Luís Molinuevo, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Carlos A Saura, Albert Lladó, Coral Sanfeliu
Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations are the main cause of monogenic Alzheimer's disease. We studied the functional effects of the mutation K239N, which shows incomplete penetrance at the age of 65 years and compared it with the more aggressive mutation E120G. We engineered stable cell lines expressing human PSEN1 wild type or with K239N or E120G mutations. Both mutations induced dysfunction of γ-secretase in the processing of amyloid-β protein precursor, leading to an increase in the amyloid β42/amyloid β40 ratio...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Svenja Daschkey, Kirsten Bienemann, Volker Schuster, Hans Wolfgang Kreth, René Martin Linka, Andrea Hönscheid, Gerhard Fritz, Christian Johannes, Bernhard Fleckenstein, Bettina Kempkes, Michael Gombert, Sebastian Ginzel, Arndt Borkhardt
Hereditary defects in several genes have been shown to disturb the normal immune response to EBV and to give rise to severe EBV-induced lymphoproliferation in the recent years. Nevertheless, in many patients, the molecular basis of fatal EBV infection still remains unclear. The Fanconi anemia-associated protein 24 (FAAP24) plays a dual role in DNA repair. By association with FANCM as component of the FA core complex, it recruits the FA core complex to damaged DNA. Additionally, FAAP24 has been shown to evoke ATR-mediated checkpoint responses independently of the FA core complex...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Adam J Reiss, Matthew C Bell
The present study was designed to assess the effect of a single, response-independent food presentation on responding during extinction. Using a two-component multiple schedule, we examined differences in pigeons' extinction responding resulting from a single response-independent food presentation occurring at the beginning of the experimental session (30-s prior to the beginning of the first component). One component presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 45-s schedule and the second presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 180-s schedule...
September 2016: Behavioural Processes
Maria Dettoraki, Marilita M Moschos
Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) is an objective, noninvasive examination for the assessment of visual function. It enables the stimulation of multiple retinal areas simultaneously and recording of each response independently, providing a topographic measure of retinal electrophysiological activity in the central 40-50° of the retina. A clinical application of mfERG represents the assessment of retinal toxicity associated with systemic medications. Drug-induced retinopathy represents a disease that, although not common, requires early recognition: if not detected early, it may progress and cause irreversible retinal dysfunction with subsequent visual impairment...
June 29, 2016: Ophthalmic Research
Rüveyda Dok, Layka Abbasi Asbagh, Evert Jan Van Limbergen, Anna Sablina, Sandra Nuyts
Immunohistochemistry analysis of p16INK4a in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) tumor samples revealed that 28% of tumors showed nuclear/cytoplasmic p16INK4a localization, while 37% of tumors had cytoplasmic p16INK4a. Our previous study showed that p16INK4a inhibits the DNA repair response independently of its function in the cell cycle, suggesting that p16INK4a subcellular localization should be considered during stratification of HNSCC patients. Using p16INK4a mutants with different localization signals, we found that expression of nuclear p16INK4a, but not cytoplasmic p16INK4a impaired RAD51 foci formation, indicating that nuclear localization of p16INK4a is crucial for its function in DNA repair...
May 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Julia Steiger, Alexander Stephan, Megan S Inkeles, Susan Realegeno, Heiko Bruns, Philipp Kröll, Juliana de Castro Kroner, Andrea Sommer, Marina Batinica, Lena Pitzler, Rainer Kalscheuer, Pia Hartmann, Georg Plum, Steffen Stenger, Matteo Pellegrini, Bent Brachvogel, Robert L Modlin, Mario Fabri
Glucocorticoids are extensively used to treat inflammatory diseases; however, their chronic intake increases the risk for mycobacterial infections. Meanwhile, the effects of glucocorticoids on innate host responses are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of glucocorticoids on antimycobacterial host defense in primary human macrophages. We found that glucocorticoids triggered the expression of cathelicidin, an antimicrobial critical for antimycobacterial responses, independent of the intracellular vitamin D metabolism...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
K J Pasi, J A Evans, M Forte, D S Kumararatne, F G Hill
Although asymptomatic haemophiliacs have been shown to have abnormalities of their immune response, independent of HIV, clinical evidence of significant immunosuppression is limited. The only clinical report has been an outbreak of M. tuberculosis in which a group of haemophilic boys appeared unduly susceptible to infection. These boys are now all HIV seropositive. Along with a group of HIV seronegative children with coagulation disorders and non-haemophilic HIV seropositive men, these boys have been restudied to examine immune response to PPD...
July 1995: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
James J Yi, Ronnie Weinberger, Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Yael Guri, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H Zackai, Beverly S Emanuel, Raquel E Gur, Doron Gothelf, Ruben C Gur
Increasingly, the effects of copy number variation (CNV) in the genome on brain function and behaviors are recognized as means to elucidate pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Such studies require large samples and we characterized the neurocognitive profile of two cohorts of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most common CNV associated with schizophrenia, in an effort to harmonize phenotyping in multi-site global collaborations. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PCNB) was administered to individuals with 22q11DS in Philadelphia (PHL; n=155, aged 12-40) and Tel Aviv (TLV; n=59, aged 12-36)...
July 2016: Brain and Cognition
Nirmal Verma, Han Ly, Miao Liu, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Martin Chow, Louis B Hersh, Florin Despa
Amylin is a hormone synthesized and co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic β-cells that crosses the blood-brain barrier and regulates satiety. Amylin from humans (but not rodents) has an increased propensity to aggregate into pancreatic islet amyloid deposits that contribute to β-cell mass depletion and development of type-2 diabetes by inducing oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent studies demonstrated that aggregated amylin also accumulates in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, preponderantly those with type-2 diabetes...
May 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
H Hotta
Central neural vasomotor mechanisms act on the parenchymal vasculature of the brain to regulate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Among the diverse components of the local neural circuits of the cerebral cortex, many may contribute to the regulation of rCBF. For example, the cholinergic vasodilative system that originates in the basal forebrain acts on the neocortex and hippocampus. Notably, rCBF is reduced in the elderly and patients with dementia. The vasodilatory response, independent of changes in blood pressure and glucose metabolism in the brain, occurs in the parenchymal arterioles to produce a significant increase in cortical rCBF...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Nathan Ek Procter, Jocasta Ball, Doan Tm Ngo, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Elaine M Hylek, Yuliy Y Chirkov, Simon Stewart, John D Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Female patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) experience increased risk of thromboembolism compared to males, an observation that is reflected by its inclusion in the CHA2DS2VASc score. New onset AF (often associated with tachycardia) also confers upon patients increased thromboembolic risk. The mechanisms underlying this risk are uncertain, but new onset AF is associated with profound impairment of platelet nitric oxide (NO) signalling. Given that cardiovascular responses to catecholamines are gender-dependent, and that the presence of tachycardia in new onset AF may represent a response to catecholaminergic stimulation, we explored the potential impact of gender and tachycardia on platelet aggregation and NO signalling...
March 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
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