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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610902/post-stimulus-fmri-and-eeg-responses-evidence-for-a-neuronal-origin-hypothesised-to-be-inhibitory
#1
K J Mullinger, M T Cherukara, R B Buxton, S T Francis, S D Mayhew
Post-stimulus undershoots, negative responses following cessation of stimulation, are widely observed in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) data. However, the debate surrounding whether the origin of this response phase is neuronal or vascular, and whether it provides functionally relevant information, that is additional to what is contained in the primary response, means that undershoots are widely overlooked. We simultaneously recorded electroencephalography (EEG), BOLD and cerebral blood-flow (CBF) [obtained from arterial spin labelled (ASL) fMRI] fMRI responses to hemifield checkerboard stimulation to test the potential neural origin of the fMRI post-stimulus undershoot...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584876/on-the-nature-of-directed-behavior-to-drug-associated-light-cues-in-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#2
Mark P Reilly, Sonja I Berndt, James H Woods
The present study investigated the role of drug-paired stimuli in controlling the behavior of rhesus monkeys. Systematic observations were made with nine monkeys who had a history of drug self-administration; they had been lever pressing to produce intravenous infusions of various drugs. These observations revealed that the stimulus light co-occurring with drug infusion produced robust and cue-directed behavior such as orienting, touching and biting. Experiment 1 showed that this light-directed behavior would occur in naïve monkeys exposed to a Pavlovian pairing procedure...
November 2016: Behavior Analysis (Washington, D.C.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559819/two-year-complete-remission-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-an-immunological-nonresponder-hiv-infected-patient-case-report
#3
Miodrag Vrbic, Ivan Petkovic, Svetislav Vrbic, Maja Jovanovic, Aleksandar Rankovic, Lidija Popovic-Dragonjic, Marina Djordjevic-Spasic
INTRODUCTION: HIV-infected patients are affected significantly more frequently by all types of lymphoma, with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as the most prevalent histological type. Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) morbidity and mortality of DLBCL has been markedly reduced, which is primarily interpreted as a result of the drug-mediated immune reconstitution. CASE REPORT: We present a previously healthy, 44-year-old HIV-infected man with DLBCL of the oral cavity, treated with immunochemotherapy and cART...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487202/thalamic-mast-cell-activity-is-associated-with-sign-tracking-behavior-in-rats
#4
Christopher J Fitzpatrick, Jonathan D Morrow
Mast cells are resident immune cells in the thalamus that can degranulate and release hundreds of signaling molecules (i.e., monoamines, growth factors, and cytokines) both basally and in response to environmental stimuli. Interestingly, mast cell numbers in the brain show immense individual variation in both rodents and humans. We used a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure to examine whether mast cells are associated with individual variation in the attribution of incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues...
May 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446868/triggering-avoidance-dissociable-influences-of-aversive-pavlovian-conditioned-stimuli-on-human-instrumental-behavior
#5
Sara Garofalo, Trevor W Robbins
The present study investigates human aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) and possible influences of outcome devaluation and instrumental overtraining on this effect. PIT measures the extent to which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can increase instrumental responses independently paired with the same (outcome-specific transfer) or a different (general transfer) reinforcer. Two measures of PIT were obtained: the percentage of instrumental responses and the vigor of such responses. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a standard PIT task sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418904/a-consensus-hemagglutinin-based-vaccine-delivered-by-an-attenuated-salmonella-mutant-protects-chickens-against-heterologous-h7n1-influenza-virus
#6
Kim Je Hyoung, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
H7N3 and H7N7 are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and have posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but for the human health as well. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is also highly pathogenic to humans, and there is a great concern that these H7 subtypes would acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, thereby becoming a pandemic threat. A vaccine candidate covering all the three subtypes must, therefore, be an integral part of any pandemic preparedness plan...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385494/schistosome-induced-pulmonary-b-cells-inhibit-allergic-airway-inflammation-and-display-a-reduced-th2-driving-function
#7
L E P M van der Vlugt, K Obieglo, A Ozir-Fazalalikhan, T Sparwasser, S Haeberlein, H H Smits
Chronic schistosome infections protect against allergic airway inflammation (AAI) via the induction of IL-10-producing splenic regulatory B (Breg) cells. Previous experiments have demonstrated that schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells can also reduce AAI, but act independently of IL-10. We have now further characterized the phenotype and inhibitory activity of these protective pulmonary B cells. We excluded a role for regulatory T (Treg) cell induction as putative AAI-protective mechanisms. Schistosome-induced B cells showed increased CD86 expression and reduced cytokine expression in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands compared with control B cells...
April 4, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319463/solid-cancer-incidence-among-the-life-span-study-of-atomic-bomb-survivors-1958-2009
#8
Eric J Grant, Alina Brenner, Hiromi Sugiyama, Ritsu Sakata, Atsuko Sadakane, Mai Utada, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Caitlin M Milder, Midori Soda, Harry M Cullings, Dale L Preston, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Kotaro Ozasa
This is the third analysis of solid cancer incidence among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, adding eleven years of follow-up data since the previously reported analysis. For this analysis, several changes and improvements were implemented, including updated dose estimates (DS02R1) and adjustment for smoking. Here, we focus on all solid cancers in aggregate. The eligible cohort included 105,444 subjects who were alive and had no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up...
May 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263416/the-effect-of-reward-expectation-on-the-time-course-of-perceptual-decisions
#9
Annalisa Tosoni, Giorgia Committeri, Cinzia Calluso, Gaspare Galati
Perceptual discriminations can be strongly biased by the expected reward for a correct decision but the neural mechanisms underlying this influence are still partially unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a task requiring to arbitrarily associate a visual stimulus with a specific action, we have recently shown that perceptual decisions are encoded within the same sensory-motor regions responsible for planning and executing specific motor actions. Here we examined whether these regions additionally encode the amount of expected reward for a perceptual decision...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261564/legionella-pneumophila-strain-130b-evades-macrophage-cell-death-independent-of-the-effector-sidf-in-the-absence-of-flagellin
#10
Mary Speir, Adam Vogrin, Azadeh Seidi, Gilu Abraham, Stéphane Hunot, Qingqing Han, Gerald W Dorn, Seth L Masters, Richard A Flavell, James E Vince, Thomas Naderer
The human pathogen Legionella pneumophila must evade host cell death signaling to enable replication in lung macrophages and to cause disease. After bacterial growth, however, L. pneumophila is thought to induce apoptosis during egress from macrophages. The bacterial effector protein, SidF, has been shown to control host cell survival and death by inhibiting pro-apoptotic BNIP3 and BCL-RAMBO signaling. Using live-cell imaging to follow the L. pneumophila-macrophage interaction, we now demonstrate that L. pneumophila evades host cell apoptosis independent of SidF...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242789/tm6sf2-rs58542926-variant-affects-postprandial-lipoprotein-metabolism-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-nafld
#11
Giovanni Musso, Ugo Cipolla, Maurizio Cassader, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Daria Bongiovanni, Luciana Framarin, Nicola Leone, Mara Berrutti, Floriano Rosina, Stefania Corvisieri, Federica Molinaro, Antonio Sircana, Roberto Gambino
Mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) rs58542926 C>T polymorphism on liver injury and cardiometabolic risk in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unclear. We assessed the impact of this polymorphism on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and nutrient oxidation in NAFLD. Sixty nonobese nondiabetic normolipidemic biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 60 matched controls genotyped for TM6SF2 C>T polymorphism underwent: indirect calorimetry; an oral fat tolerance test with measurement of plasma lipoprotein subfractions, adipokines, and incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and an oral glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis of glucose homeostasis...
June 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241570/thickness-independent-dynamics-in-cholesteric-liquid-crystals
#12
Yo Inoue, Mayo Hattori, Hiroshi Moritake
We report fast electro-optic response independent of cell thickness in cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs). Usually, an electric field normal to the helix axis of ChLCs induces two fast and one slow response components: helical elongation (slow one), helical deformation (fast one), and flexoelectric effect (fast one). In this study, we found that a planarly aligned ChLC applied with an in-plane electric field exhibited only fast response components because the glass substrates suppressed the motion of the helical elongation...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221370/blunted-ventral-striatal-responses-to-anticipated-rewards-foreshadow-problematic-drug-use-in-novelty-seeking-adolescents
#13
Christian Büchel, Jan Peters, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Patricia J Conrod, Herta Flor, Dimitri Papadopoulos, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Bernd Ittermann, Karl Mann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère-Martinot, Frauke Nees, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Luise Poustka, Marcella Rietschel, Trevor W Robbins, Michael N Smolka, Juergen Gallinat, Gunter Schumann, Brian Knutson
Novelty-seeking tendencies in adolescents may promote innovation as well as problematic impulsive behaviour, including drug abuse. Previous research has not clarified whether neural hyper- or hypo-responsiveness to anticipated rewards promotes vulnerability in these individuals. Here we use a longitudinal design to track 144 novelty-seeking adolescents at age 14 and 16 to determine whether neural activity in response to anticipated rewards predicts problematic drug use. We find that diminished BOLD activity in mesolimbic (ventral striatal and midbrain) and prefrontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) regions during reward anticipation at age 14 predicts problematic drug use at age 16...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210781/adolescent-cocaine-exposure-enhances-goal-tracking-behavior-and-impairs-hippocampal-cell-genesis-selectively-in-adult-bred-low-responder-rats
#14
M Julia García-Fuster, Aram Parsegian, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: Environmental challenges during adolescence, such as drug exposure, can cause enduring behavioral and molecular changes that contribute to life-long maladaptive behaviors, including addiction. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats represent a unique model for assessing the long-term impact of adolescent environmental manipulations, as they inherently differ on a number of addiction-related traits. bHR rats are considered "addiction-prone," whereas bLR rats are "addiction-resilient," at least under baseline conditions...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195391/rig-i-is-a-key-antiviral-interferon-stimulated-gene-against-hepatitis-e-virus-regardless-of-interferon-production
#15
Lei Xu, Wenshi Wang, Yunlong Li, Xinying Zhou, Yuebang Yin, Yijin Wang, Robert A de Man, Luc J W van der Laan, Fen Huang, Nassim Kamar, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Interferons (IFNs) are broad antiviral cytokines that exert their function by inducing the transcription of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). However, little is known about the antiviral potential of these cellular effectors on hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, the leading cause of acute hepatitis globally. In this study, we profiled the antiviral potential of a panel of important human ISGs on HEV replication in cell culture models by overexpression of an individual ISG. The mechanism of action of the key anti-HEV ISG was further studied...
June 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193847/dna-damage-response-independent-role-for-mdc1-in-maintaining-genomic-stability
#16
Zhiguo Li, Chen Shao, Yifan Kong, Colin Carlock, Nihal Ahmad, Xiaoqi Liu
MDC1 is a central player in checkpoint activation and subsequent DNA repair following DNA damage. Although MDC1 has been studied extensively, many of its known functions, to date, pertain to the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. Herein we report a novel function of phosphorylated MDC1 that is independent of ATM and DNA damage and is required for proper mitotic progression and maintenance of genomic stability. We demonstrate that MDC1 is an in vivo target of Plk1 and that phosphorylated MDC1 is dynamically localized to nuclear envelopes, centrosomes, kinetochores, and midbodies...
May 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193764/shoot-removal-induces-chloroplast-development-in-roots-via-cytokinin-signaling
#17
Koichi Kobayashi, Ai Ohnishi, Daichi Sasaki, Sho Fujii, Akira Iwase, Keiko Sugimoto, Tatsuru Masuda, Hajime Wada
The development of plant chloroplasts is regulated by various developmental, environmental, and hormonal cues. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), chloroplast development is repressed in roots via auxin signaling. However, roots develop chloroplasts when they are detached from the shoot. In contrast to auxin, cytokinin positively affects chloroplast development in roots, but the role and signaling pathway of cytokinin in the root greening response remain unclear. To understand the regulatory pathways of chloroplast development in the plant stress response, we examined the mechanisms underlying the conditional greening of detached roots...
April 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177480/circulating-tumour-cells-and-pathological-complete-response-independent-prognostic-factors-in-inflammatory-breast-cancer-in-a-pooled-analysis-of-two-multicentre-phase-ii-trials-beverly-1-and-2-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-combined-with-bevacizumab
#18
J-Y Pierga, F-C Bidard, A Autret, T Petit, F Andre, F Dalenc, C Levy, J-M Ferrero, G Romieu, J Bonneterre, F Lerebours, T Bachelot, P Kerbrat, M Campone, J-C Eymard, M-A Mouret-Reynier, J Gligorov, A-C Hardy-Bessard, A Lortholary, P Soulie, J-M Boher, C Proudhon, E Charafe-Jaufret, J Lemonnier, F Bertucci, P Viens
Background: We present a pooled analysis of predictive and prognostic values of circulating tumour cells (CTC) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in two prospective trials of patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with neoadjuvant and adjuvant bevacizumab. Patients and methods: Nonmetastatic T4d patients were enrolled in two phase II multicentre trials, evaluating bevacizumab in combination with sequential neoadjuvant chemotherapy of four cycles of FEC followed by four cycles of docetaxel in HER2-negative tumour (BEVERLY-1) or docetaxel and trastuzumab in HER2-positive tumour (BEVERLY-2)...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122715/primary-cilia-regulate-the-osmotic-stress-response-of-renal-epithelial-cells-through-trpm3
#19
Brian J Siroky, Nancy K Kleene, Steven J Kleene, Charles D Varnell, Raven G Comer, Jialiu Liu, Lu Lu, Nolan W Pachciarz, John J Bissler, Bradley P Dixon
Primary cilia sense environmental conditions, including osmolality, but whether cilia participate in the osmotic response in renal epithelial cells is not known. The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV4 and TRPM3 are osmoresponsive. TRPV4 localizes to cilia in certain cell types, while renal subcellular localization of TRPM3 is not known. We hypothesized that primary cilia are required for maximal activation of the osmotic response of renal epithelial cells and that ciliary TRPM3 and TRPV4 mediate that response...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117243/patient-perceptions-of-integrated-care-and-their-relationship-to-utilization-of-emergency-inpatient-and-outpatient-services
#20
Ashley-Kay Fryer, Mark W Friedberg, Ryan W Thompson, Sara J Singer
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple chronic conditions have garnered particular attention from policymakers and health service researchers because these patients utilize more services and contribute disproportionally to rising health care expenses. The growing prevalence of patients with multiple chronic conditions has increased the importance of achieving better health care integration for this patient population. Patients may be well positioned to assess integration of their care, but the relationship between patients' perceptions of care integration and use of health services has not been studied...
January 21, 2017: Healthcare
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