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Kostoula Troulinaki, Sven Büttner, Anaïs Marsal Cots, Simona Maida, Katharina Meyer, Fabio Bertan, Anna Gioran, Antonia Piazzesi, Alessandra Fornarelli, Pierluigi Nicotera, Daniele Bano
Impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism contributes to a wide range of pathologic conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is required for the correct maintenance of mitochondrial electron transport chain. An emerging body of clinical evidence indicates that several mutations in the AIFM1 gene are causally linked to severe forms of mitochondrial disorders. Here we investigate the consequence of WAH-1/AIF deficiency in the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Jeanine Ammann, Christina Hartmann, Michael Siegrist
The present set of studies developed and tested the Food Disgust Picture Scale (FDPS). This is a tool for the assessment of food disgust sensitivity that will measure disgust and predict possible reactions. This eight-picture tool can be used in complement to or as a replacement for currently available text-based measures. In an exploratory Study 1 (N = 57), we constructed a scale consisting of eight pictures. Most of them were taken from validated picture databases. They proved powerful in the assessment of food disgust sensitivity...
February 26, 2018: Appetite
Kewin Desjardins, Michel Bordessoule, Michal Pomorski
The performance of a diamond X-ray beam position monitor is reported. This detector consists of an ionization solid-state chamber based on a thin single-crystal chemical-vapour-deposition diamond with position-sensitive resistive electrodes in a duo-lateral configuration. The detector's linearity, homogeneity and responsivity were studied on beamlines at Synchrotron SOLEIL with various beam sizes, intensities and energies. These measurements demonstrate the large and homogeneous (absorption variation of less than 0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Ashley P Liggett, Regina Nastri, Christopher A Podlesnik
Resurgence and reinstatement are laboratory models of relapse following treatments for problem behavior that arrange alternative sources of reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior and noncontingent reinforcement. Resurgence models the elimination or reduction of reinforcers during treatment and reinstatement models the re-presentation of reinforcers previously maintaining problem behavior. The present study examined individual and combined effects of resurgence and reinstatement in a translational model of treatment relapse with three children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Michael S Kiernan, Susanna R Stevens, W H Wilson Tang, Javed Butler, Kevin J Anstrom, Edo Y Birati, Justin L Grodin, Divya Gupta, Kenneth B Margulies, Shane LaRue, Victor G Dávila-Román, Adrian F Hernandez, Lisa de Las Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Poor response to loop diuretic therapy is a marker of risk during acute heart failure hospitalization. We sought to describe baseline determinants of diuretic response and to further explore the relationship between this response and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patient data from the NHLBI Heart Failure Network ROSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF clinical trials were analyzed to determine baseline determinants of diuretic response. Diuretic efficiency (DE) was defined as total 72h fluid output per total equivalent loop diuretic dose; subjects were stratified to high and low DE groups by the median value...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Akinori Kiba, Masahito Nakano, Kouhei Ohnishi, Yasufumi Hikichi
We previously revealed that the SEC14 phospholipid transfer protein from Nicotiana benthamiana (NbSEC14) has a role in plant immune responses against phytopathogenic bacteria in a hypersensitive response-independent manner. To characterize the role of NbSEC14 on plant immunity, we analyzed the relationship between NbSEC14 and pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). NbSEC14-silenced plants exhibited down-regulated expression of PTI marker genes (NbAcre31 and NbPti5) after being inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv...
February 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Shengdi Li, Ziyi Chang, Tianqing Zhu, Yixue Li, Bruce A Freeman, Y Eugene Chen, Jifeng Zhang
Nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2 -CLA) is formed by metabolic and inflammatory reactions of nitric oxide and nitrite, and represents the most abundant nitro-fatty acid species in humans. These electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives mediate pleiotropic cell signaling responses. Here, we report a systematic approach to investigate the effect of NO2 -CLA on human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMC), based on the RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis. There were extensive differentially expressed genes in NO2 -CLA vs...
February 23, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Natalie J Rothenberger, Ashwin Somasundaram, Laura P Stabile
Estrogen receptors are broadly expressed in many cell types involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses, and differentially regulate the production of cytokines. While both genomic and non-genomic tumor cell promoting mechanisms of estrogen signaling are well characterized in multiple carcinomas including breast, ovarian, and lung, recent investigations have identified a potential immune regulatory role of estrogens in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor immune tolerance is a well-established mediator of oncogenesis, with increasing evidence indicating the importance of the immune response in tumor progression...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Antônio da Silva Novaes, Rosemara Silva Ribeiro, Luciana Guilhermino Pereira, Fernanda Teixeira Borges, Mirian Aparecida Boim
Biological effects of angiotensin II (AngII) such as regulation of AngII target genes may be triggered by interaction of AngII with intracellular AngII receptor types 1 and 2 (AT1 and AT2 ), defined as intracrine response. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of AT1 and AT2 receptors in nuclear membrane of human mesangial cells (HMCs) and evaluate the possible biological effects mediated by intracellular AT1 through an intracrine mechanism. Subcellular distribution of AT1 and AT2 was evaluated by immunofluorescence and by western blot in isolated nuclear extract...
February 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Emilia Łukawska, Magdalena Polcyn-Adamczak, Zofia I Niemir
The complement system (CS) has recently been recognized as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity that constitutes a very complex mechanism controlling the clearance of pathogens, cellular debris, and immune complexes. Out of three known pathways of complement activation, the alternative pathway (AP) plays a critical role in host defense by amplifying the complement response, independently of initiation pathway and continuously maintaining low-level activity in a process called 'thick-over.' A key molecule of the CS is C3, in which the AP is constantly activated...
February 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Federica Frigerio, Corey Flynn, Ye Han, Kyle Lyman, Joaquin N Lugo, Teresa Ravizza, Antoine Ghestem, Julika Pitsch, Albert Becker, Anne E Anderson, Annamaria Vezzani, Dane Chetkovich, Christophe Bernard
Neuroinflammation is consistently found in many neurological disorders, but whether or not the inflammatory response independently affects neuronal network properties is poorly understood. Here, we report that intracerebroventricular injection of the prototypical inflammatory molecule lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats triggered a strong and long-lasting inflammatory response in hippocampal microglia associated with a concomitant upregulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) in pyramidal and hilar neurons. This, in turn, was associated with a significant reduction of the dendritic hyperpolarization-activated cyclic AMP-gated channel type 1 (HCN1) protein level while Kv4...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Gregory A Lieving, Iser G DeLeon, Abbey B Carreau-Webster, Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mandy M Triggs
Behavioral momentum theory is a quantitative framework used to characterize the persistence of behavior during response disruptors as a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. Results of several investigations have shown that alternative reinforcement can increase the resistance to change of a target response during extinction. In the present study, concomitant variable-interval fixed-time schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior were employed to simulate naturalistic situations involving the superimposition of response-independent reinforcers on a baseline schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior, as in the common use of noncontingent reinforcement treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Ann Galizio, Charles C J Frye, Jeremy M Haynes, Jonathan E Friedel, Brooke M Smith, Amy L Odum
The present study examined persistence and relapse of reinforced behavioral variability in pigeons. Pigeons emitted four-response sequences across two keys. Sequences produced food according to a lag schedule, in which a response sequence was followed by food if it differed from a certain number of previous sequences. In Experiment 1, food was delivered for sequences that satisfied a lag schedule in both components of a multiple schedule. When reinforcement was removed for one component (i.e., extinction), levels of behavioral variability decreased for only that component...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Cristina Cigana, Irene Bianconi, Rossella Baldan, Maura De Simone, Camilla Riva, Barbara Sipione, Giacomo Rossi, Daniela M Cirillo, Alessandra Bragonzi
Background: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are key bacterial pathogens of the respiratory tract in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although P. aeruginosa chronic bronchial infection is associated with a poorer prognosis, the consequences of S. aureus colonization on CF outcomes are controversial. Methods: In this paper, murine models of infection resembling traits of the CF human airways disease have been revisited using an infection schedule that mimics the sequence of events of pulmonary disease in CF patients...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yoichi Kurosawa, Madoka Ozawa, Yasuhiro Kanda, Arata Takeuchi, Toshihiko Kawamura, Ichiei Narita, Tomoya Katakai
Lymphadenopathy is a frequently observed symptom in systemic lupus erythematosus, although the immunological role of lymph nodes (LNs) in systemic autoimmunity remains largely unknown. Here, we performed comprehensive and systematic analyses of LNs in lupus-prone NZB × NZW F1 (BWF1) mice, demonstrating extensive tissue re-organization of the systemic LNs with follicular expansion, hyper germinal center (GC) formation, atrophy of the paracortical T-cell area and expansion of the medulla in aged BWF1 mice bearing glomerulonephritis...
December 31, 2017: International Immunology
Jean-François Bruxelle, Assaf Mizrahi, Sandra Hoÿs, Anne Collignon, Claire Janoir, Séverine Péchiné
The immunogenicity of bacterial flagellin has been reported in different studies. By its close interaction with the immune system, the flagellin represents an interesting adjuvant and vaccine candidate. Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin has already been tested as adjuvant to stimulate mucosal immunity. Here, we assessed the ability of Clostridium difficile flagellin FliC to act as a mucosal adjuvant, first combined with ovalbumin as antigen and second with a C. difficile surface protein, the precursor of the S-layer proteins SlpA...
2017: PloS One
Camilo Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo González-León, Mónica A Arias-Higuera, Angelo Cardona, Lucia G Medina, Laura García-Muñoz, Christian Sánchez, Julián Cifuentes, Juan Carlos Forigua, Andrea Ortiz, Cesar A Acevedo-Triana, Javier L Rico
Despite step-down inhibitory avoidance procedures that have been widely implemented in rats and mice to study learning and emotion phenomena, performance of other species in these tasks has received less attention. The case of the Mongolian gerbil is of relevance considering the discrepancies in the parameters of the step-down protocols implemented, especially the wide range of foot-shock intensities (i.e., 0.4-4.0 mA), and the lack of information on long-term performance, extinction effects, and behavioral patterning during these tasks...
2017: PeerJ
Rajarshi Chakrabarti, Wei-Ke Ji, Radu V Stan, Jaime de Juan Sanz, Timothy A Ryan, Henry N Higgs
Mitochondrial division requires division of both the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes (IMM and OMM, respectively). Interaction with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promotes OMM division by recruitment of the dynamin Drp1, but effects on IMM division are not well characterized. We previously showed that actin polymerization through ER-bound inverted formin 2 (INF2) stimulates Drp1 recruitment in mammalian cells. Here, we show that INF2-mediated actin polymerization stimulates a second mitochondrial response independent of Drp1: a rise in mitochondrial matrix calcium through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Hyemin Jang, Seong Beom Park, Yeshin Kim, Ko Woon Kim, Jung Il Lee, Sung Tae Kim, Kyung Han Lee, Eun-Suk Kang, Yeong Sim Choe, Sang Won Seo, Hee Jin Kim, Yeo Jin Kim, Cindy W Yoon, Duk L Na
Amyloid positron emission tomography ([18F] florbetaben (FBB) PET) can be used to determine concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD) in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients. FBB PET scans and the tap test were performed in 31 patients with clinically suspected iNPH, and amyloid positive (iNPH/FBB+) and negative (iNPH/FBB-) groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics. We evaluated prognostic value of FBB PET scans by analyzing the response to the tap test using a linear mixed model...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Neurology
Oyéné Kossi, Félix Nindorera, Charles Sèbiyo Batcho, Thierry Adoukonou, Massimo Penta, Jean-Louis Thonnard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid stroke-specific tool for the measurement of participation in Africa, named the Participation Measurement Scale (PM-Scale). DESIGN: Observational study and questionnaire development. SETTING: Outpatient Rehabilitation centers. PARTICIPANTS: Stroke patients (N = 276); mean age ± standard deviation of 58.5 ± 11.1 years; 57% male. INTERVENTION: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed a 100-item experimental questionnaire of the PM-Scale...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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