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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922980/a-genome-wide-association-study-of-early-gamma-band-response-in-a-schizophrenia-case-control-sample
#1
Bettina Konte, Gregor Leicht, Ina Giegling, Oliver Pogarell, Susanne Karch, Annette M Hartmann, Marion Friedl, Ulrich Hegerl, Dan Rujescu, Christoph Mulert
OBJECTIVES: Disturbances in the gamma-frequency band of electroencephalography (EEG) measures are among the most consistently observed intermediate phenotypes in schizophrenia. We assessed whether genetic variations are associated with gamma-band activity. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association analysis of the early auditory evoked gamma-band response in schizophrenia affected subjects and healthy control individuals (in total N = 315). RESULTS: No marker surpassed the threshold for genome-wide significant association...
September 19, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919801/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-smad3-independent-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-type-i-collagen-glomerulopathy
#2
Amanda C Brodeur, Anna M Roberts-Pilgrim, Kimberlee L Thompson, Craig L Franklin, Charlotte L Phillips
The glomerulofibrotic Col1a2-deficient mouse model demonstrates glomerular homotrimeric type I collagen deposition in mesangial and subendothelial spaces. In this report, we investigate the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in myofibroblast activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in this glomerulopathy. Immunohistochemical analyses of glomerular α-sma, desmin, vimentin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen demonstrated parietal epithelial cell proliferation and EMT in late stages of the glomerulopathy in the Col1a2-deficient mice...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919792/clinical-outcomes-and-nephrotoxicity-of-colistin-loading-dose-for-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-cancer-patients
#3
Wasan Katip, Suriyon Uitrakul, Peninnah Oberdorfer
BACKGROUND: Colistin is a last-line defense therapy against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). Despite a loading dose of colistin being applied in many clinical practices, studies evaluating the effect of the loading dose of colistin in cancer patients remain limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of cancer patients who received either a loading or non-loading dose of colistin for treatment of XDR-AB was conducted. For each group, the clinical response, bacteriological eradication and serum creatinine were recorded...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901542/effects-of-response-contingent-stimulus-pairing-on-vocalizations-of-nonverbal-children-with-autism
#4
Tracy L Lepper, Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir
Research on stimulus-stimulus pairing to induce novel vocalizations in nonverbal children has typically employed response-independent pairing (RIP) procedures to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a response-contingent pairing (RCP) procedure on the vocalizations of three nonverbal boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During RCP, adult-delivered sounds that were either paired with a preferred item (target sounds) or not (nontarget sounds) were presented contingent on a button-press response...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840941/acute-fall-and-long-term-rise-in-oxygen-saturation-in-response-to-meditation
#5
Nicolò F Bernardi, Marco Bordino, Lucio Bianchi, Luciano Bernardi
The effects of meditation on arterial and tissue oxygenation are unknown and difficult to assess because respiration is often altered, directly or indirectly, during meditation practice. Thus, changes in respiration may affect cardiovascular responses independently from meditation. In this study, we aim to isolate the specific effect of meditation on arterial and tissue oxygenation and other cardiorespiratory indexes while systematically controlling for the role of respiration. Furthermore, we aim to clarify to what extent prior expertise in meditation practice is needed to observe reliable changes...
August 25, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817193/response-reinforcer-dependency-and-resistance-to-change
#6
Carlos R X Cançado, Josele Abreu-Rodrigues, Raquel Moreira Aló, Flávia Hauck, Adam H Doughty
The effects of the response-reinforcer dependency on resistance to change were studied in three experiments with rats. In Experiment 1, lever pressing produced reinforcers at similar rates after variable interreinforcer intervals in each component of a two-component multiple schedule. Across conditions, in the fixed component, all reinforcers were response-dependent; in the alternative component, the percentage of response-dependent reinforcers was 100, 50 (i.e., 50% response-dependent and 50% response-independent) or 10% (i...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811106/questiomycin-a-stimulates-sorafenib-induced-cell-death-via-suppression-of-glucose-regulated-protein-78
#7
Kayo Machihara, Hidenori Tanaka, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Ichiro Murakami, Takushi Namba
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult cancers to treat owing to the lack of effective chemotherapeutic methods. Sorafenib, the first-line and only available treatment for HCC, extends patient overall survival by several months, with a response rate below 10%. Thus, the identification of an agent that enhances the anticancer effect of sorafenib is critical for the development of therapeutic options for HCC. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is one of the methods of sorafenib-induced cell death...
October 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749938/the-mecillinam-resistome-reveals-a-role-for-peptidoglycan-endopeptidases-in-stimulating-cell-wall-synthesis-in-escherichia-coli
#8
Ghee Chuan Lai, Hongbaek Cho, Thomas G Bernhardt
Bacterial cells are typically surrounded by an net-like macromolecule called the cell wall constructed from the heteropolymer peptidoglycan (PG). Biogenesis of this matrix is the target of penicillin and related beta-lactams. These drugs inhibit the transpeptidase activity of PG synthases called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), preventing the crosslinking of nascent wall material into the existing network. The beta-lactam mecillinam specifically targets the PBP2 enzyme in the cell elongation machinery of Escherichia coli...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720467/intradermal-immunization-with-raav1-vector-induces-robust-memory-cd8-t-cell-responses-independently-of-transgene-expression-in-dcs
#9
Alexandre Ghenassia, David-Alexandre Gross, Stéphanie Lorain, Fabiola Tros, Dominique Urbain, Sofia Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Alain Charbit, Jean Davoust, Pascal Chappert
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors exhibit interesting properties as vaccine carriers for their ability to induce long-lasting antibody responses. However, rAAV-based vaccines have been suggested to trigger functionally impaired long-term memory CD8(+) T cell responses, in part due to poor dendritic cell (DC) transduction. Such results, albeit limited to intramuscular immunization, undermined the use of rAAV as vaccine vehicles against intracellular pathogens. We report here that intradermal immunization with a model rAAV2/1-based vaccine drives the development of bona fide long-term memory CD8(+) T cell responses...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706238/freezing-response-independent-facilitation-of-fear-extinction-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#10
Jiso Hong, Daesoo Kim
The infralimbic cortex (IL) is known to facilitate the formation of extinction memory through reciprocal interactions with the amygdala, which produces fear responses such as freezing. Thus, whether presynaptic input from the amygdala and post-synaptic output of IL neurons are functionally dissociated in extinction memory formation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that photostimulation of IL inputs from BLA did not change freezing responses to conditioned stimuli (CS) during training, but did facilitate extinction memory, measured as a reduction in freezing responses to the CS 1 day later...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696913/linking-physiological-parameters-to-perturbations-in-the-human-exposome-environmental-exposures-modify-blood-pressure-and-lung-function-via-inflammatory-cytokine-pathway
#11
Matthew A Stiegel, Joachim D Pleil, Jon R Sobus, Tina Stevens, Michael C Madden
Human biomonitoring is an indispensable tool for evaluating the systemic effects derived from external stressors including environmental pollutants, chemicals from consumer products, and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to explore consequences of environmental exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) and ultimately to interpret these parameters from the perspective of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. In particular, the objective was to use cytokine expression at the cellular level as a biomarker for physiological systemic responses such as blood pressure and lung function at the systemic level...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692049/mdm2-selectively-suppresses-dna-damage-arising-from-inhibition-of-topoisomerase-ii-independent-of-p53
#12
J C Senturk, S Bohlman, J J Manfredi
Mdm2 is often overexpressed in tumors that retain wild-type TP53 but may affect therapeutic response independently of p53. Herein is shown that tumor cells with MDM2 amplification are selectively resistant to treatment with topoisomerase II poisons but not other DNA damaging agents. Tumor cells that overexpress Mdm2 have reduced DNA double-strand breaks in response to doxorubicin or etoposide. This latter result is not due to altered drug uptake. The selective attenuation of DNA damage in response to these agents is dependent on both Mdm2 levels and an intact ubiquitin ligase function...
July 10, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652400/activation-of-human-basophils-by-a549-lung-epithelial-cells-reveals-a-novel-ige-dependent-response-independent-of-allergen
#13
John T Schroeder, Anja P Bieneman
Evidence for epithelial cell (EC)-derived cytokines (e.g., thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP]) activating human basophils remains controversial. We therefore hypothesize that ECs can directly activate basophils via cell-to-cell interaction. Basophils in medium alone or with IL-3 ± anti-IgE were coincubated with TSLP, IL-33, or IL-25. Analogous experiments cocultured basophils (1-72 h) directly with EC lines. Supernatants were tested for mediators and cytokines. Abs targeting receptors were tested for neutralizing effects...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610902/post-stimulus-fmri-and-eeg-responses-evidence-for-a-neuronal-origin-hypothesised-to-be-inhibitory
#14
K J Mullinger, M T Cherukara, R B Buxton, S T Francis, S D Mayhew
Post-stimulus undershoots, negative responses following cessation of stimulation, are widely observed in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) data. However, the debate surrounding whether the origin of this response phase is neuronal or vascular, and whether it provides functionally relevant information, that is additional to what is contained in the primary response, means that undershoots are widely overlooked. We simultaneously recorded electroencephalography (EEG), BOLD and cerebral blood-flow (CBF) [obtained from arterial spin labelled (ASL) fMRI] fMRI responses to hemifield checkerboard stimulation to test the potential neural origin of the fMRI post-stimulus undershoot...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584876/on-the-nature-of-directed-behavior-to-drug-associated-light-cues-in-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#15
Mark P Reilly, Sonja I Berndt, James H Woods
The present study investigated the role of drug-paired stimuli in controlling the behavior of rhesus monkeys. Systematic observations were made with nine monkeys who had a history of drug self-administration; they had been lever pressing to produce intravenous infusions of various drugs. These observations revealed that the stimulus light co-occurring with drug infusion produced robust and cue-directed behavior such as orienting, touching and biting. Experiment 1 showed that this light-directed behavior would occur in naïve monkeys exposed to a Pavlovian pairing procedure...
November 2016: Behavior Analysis (Washington, D.C.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559819/two-year-complete-remission-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-an-immunological-nonresponder-hiv-infected-patient-case-report
#16
Miodrag Vrbic, Ivan Petkovic, Svetislav Vrbic, Maja Jovanovic, Aleksandar Rankovic, Lidija Popovic-Dragonjic, Marina Djordjevic-Spasic
INTRODUCTION: HIV-infected patients are affected significantly more frequently by all types of lymphoma, with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as the most prevalent histological type. Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) morbidity and mortality of DLBCL has been markedly reduced, which is primarily interpreted as a result of the drug-mediated immune reconstitution. CASE REPORT: We present a previously healthy, 44-year-old HIV-infected man with DLBCL of the oral cavity, treated with immunochemotherapy and cART...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487202/thalamic-mast-cell-activity-is-associated-with-sign-tracking-behavior-in-rats
#17
Christopher J Fitzpatrick, Jonathan D Morrow
Mast cells are resident immune cells in the thalamus that can degranulate and release hundreds of signaling molecules (i.e., monoamines, growth factors, and cytokines) both basally and in response to environmental stimuli. Interestingly, mast cell numbers in the brain show immense individual variation in both rodents and humans. We used a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure to examine whether mast cells are associated with individual variation in the attribution of incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues...
October 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446868/triggering-avoidance-dissociable-influences-of-aversive-pavlovian-conditioned-stimuli-on-human-instrumental-behavior
#18
Sara Garofalo, Trevor W Robbins
The present study investigates human aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) and possible influences of outcome devaluation and instrumental overtraining on this effect. PIT measures the extent to which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can increase instrumental responses independently paired with the same (outcome-specific transfer) or a different (general transfer) reinforcer. Two measures of PIT were obtained: the percentage of instrumental responses and the vigor of such responses. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a standard PIT task sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418904/a-consensus-hemagglutinin-based-vaccine-delivered-by-an-attenuated-salmonella-mutant-protects-chickens-against-heterologous-h7n1-influenza-virus
#19
Kim Je Hyoung, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
H7N3 and H7N7 are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and have posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but for the human health as well. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is also highly pathogenic to humans, and there is a great concern that these H7 subtypes would acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, thereby becoming a pandemic threat. A vaccine candidate covering all the three subtypes must, therefore, be an integral part of any pandemic preparedness plan...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385494/schistosome-induced-pulmonary-b-cells-inhibit-allergic-airway-inflammation-and-display-a-reduced-th2-driving-function
#20
L E P M van der Vlugt, K Obieglo, A Ozir-Fazalalikhan, T Sparwasser, S Haeberlein, H H Smits
Chronic schistosome infections protect against allergic airway inflammation (AAI) via the induction of IL-10-producing splenic regulatory B (Breg) cells. Previous experiments have demonstrated that schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells can also reduce AAI, but act independently of IL-10. We have now further characterized the phenotype and inhibitory activity of these protective pulmonary B cells. We excluded a role for regulatory T (Treg) cell induction as putative AAI-protective mechanisms. Schistosome-induced B cells showed increased CD86 expression and reduced cytokine expression in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands compared with control B cells...
April 4, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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