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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152417/assessing-mongolian-gerbil-emotional-behavior-effects-of-two-shock-intensities-and-response-independent-shocks-during-an-extended-inhibitory-avoidance-task
#1
Camilo Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo González-León, Mónica A Arias-Higuera, Angelo Cardona, Lucia G Medina, Laura García-Muñoz, Christian Sánchez, Julián Cifuentes, Juan Carlos Forigua, Andrea Ortiz, Cesar A Acevedo-Triana, Javier L Rico
Despite step-down inhibitory avoidance procedures that have been widely implemented in rats and mice to study learning and emotion phenomena, performance of other species in these tasks has received less attention. The case of the Mongolian gerbil is of relevance considering the discrepancies in the parameters of the step-down protocols implemented, especially the wide range of foot-shock intensities (i.e., 0.4-4.0 mA), and the lack of information on long-term performance, extinction effects, and behavioral patterning during these tasks...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142021/inf2-mediated-actin-polymerization-at-the-er-stimulates-mitochondrial-calcium-uptake-inner-membrane-constriction-and-division
#2
Rajarshi Chakrabarti, Wei-Ke Ji, Radu V Stan, Jaime de Juan Sanz, Timothy A Ryan, Henry N Higgs
Mitochondrial division requires division of both the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes (IMM and OMM, respectively). Interaction with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promotes OMM division by recruitment of the dynamin Drp1, but effects on IMM division are not well characterized. We previously showed that actin polymerization through ER-bound inverted formin 2 (INF2) stimulates Drp1 recruitment in mammalian cells. Here, we show that INF2-mediated actin polymerization stimulates a second mitochondrial response independent of Drp1: a rise in mitochondrial matrix calcium through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128930/prognostic-value-of-amyloid-pet-scan-in-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#3
Hyemin Jang, Seong Beom Park, Yeshin Kim, Ko Woon Kim, Jung Il Lee, Sung Tae Kim, Kyung Han Lee, Eun-Suk Kang, Yeong Sim Choe, Sang Won Seo, Hee Jin Kim, Yeo Jin Kim, Cindy W Yoon, Duk L Na
Amyloid positron emission tomography ([18F] florbetaben (FBB) PET) can be used to determine concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD) in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients. FBB PET scans and the tap test were performed in 31 patients with clinically suspected iNPH, and amyloid positive (iNPH/FBB+) and negative (iNPH/FBB-) groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics. We evaluated prognostic value of FBB PET scans by analyzing the response to the tap test using a linear mixed model...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107042/measuring-participation-after-stroke-in-africa-development-of-the-participation-measurement-scale
#4
Oyéné Kossi, Félix Nindorera, Charles Sèbiyo Batcho, Thierry Adoukonou, Massimo Penta, Jean-Louis Thonnard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid stroke-specific tool for the measurement of participation in Africa, named the Participation Measurement Scale (PM-Scale). DESIGN: Observational study and questionnaire development. SETTING: Outpatient Rehabilitation centers. PARTICIPANTS: Stroke patients (N = 276); mean age ± standard deviation of 58.5 ± 11.1 years; 57% male. INTERVENTION: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed a 100-item experimental questionnaire of the PM-Scale...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105098/resurgence-of-time-allocation
#5
Carlos R X Cançado, Kennon A Lattal, H K Carpenter, Elizabeth A Solley
The resurgence of time allocation with pigeons was studied in three experiments. In Phase 1 of each experiment, response-independent food occurred with different probabilities in the presence of two different keylights. Each peck on the key changed its color and the food probability in effect. In Phase 2, the food probabilities associated with each keylight were reversed and, in Phase 3, food was discontinued in the presence of either keylight. The food probabilities were .25 and .75, in Experiment 1, and 0...
November 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100888/caspase-1-is-an-apical-caspase-leading-to-caspase-3-cleavage-in-the-aim2-inflammasome-response-independent-of-caspase-8
#6
Vitaliya Sagulenko, Nazarii Vitak, Parimala Vajjhala, James E Vince, Katryn J Stacey
Canonical inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that can activate both caspase-1 and caspase-8. Caspase-1 drives rapid lysis of cells by pyroptosis and maturation of IL-1β and IL-18. In caspase-1-deficient cells, inflammasome formation still leads to caspase-3 activation and slower apoptotic death, dependent on caspase-8 as an apical caspase. A role for caspase-8 directly upstream of caspase-1 has also been suggested, but here we show that caspase-8-deficient macrophages have no defect in AIM2 inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activation, pyroptosis and IL-1β release...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970838/successful-treatment-of-t-cell-mediated-acute-rejection-with-delayed-ctla4-ig-in-mice
#7
James S Young, Stella H-W Khiew, Jinghui Yang, Augustin Vannier, Dengping Yin, Roger Sciammas, Maria-Luisa Alegre, Anita S Chong
Clinical observations that kidney transplant recipients receiving belatacept who experienced T cell-mediated acute rejection can be successfully treated and subsequently maintained on belatacept-based immunosuppression suggest that belatacept is able to control memory T cells. We recently reported that treatment with CTLA4-Ig from day 6 posttransplantation successfully rescues allografts from acute rejection in a BALB/c to C57BL/6 heart transplant model, in part, by abolishing B cell germinal centers and reducing alloantibody titers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922980/a-genome-wide-association-study-of-early-gamma-band-response-in-a-schizophrenia-case-control-sample
#8
Bettina Konte, Gregor Leicht, Ina Giegling, Oliver Pogarell, Susanne Karch, Annette M Hartmann, Marion Friedl, Ulrich Hegerl, Dan Rujescu, Christoph Mulert
OBJECTIVES: Disturbances in the gamma-frequency band of electroencephalography (EEG) measures are among the most consistently observed intermediate phenotypes in schizophrenia. We assessed whether genetic variations are associated with gamma-band activity. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association analysis of the early auditory evoked gamma-band response in schizophrenia affected subjects and healthy control individuals (in total N = 315). RESULTS: No marker surpassed the threshold for genome-wide significant association...
September 19, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919801/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-smad3-independent-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-type-i-collagen-glomerulopathy
#9
Amanda C Brodeur, Anna M Roberts-Pilgrim, Kimberlee L Thompson, Craig L Franklin, Charlotte L Phillips
The glomerulofibrotic Col1a2-deficient mouse model demonstrates glomerular homotrimeric type I collagen deposition in mesangial and subendothelial spaces. In this report, we investigate the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in myofibroblast activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in this glomerulopathy. Immunohistochemical analyses of glomerular α-sma, desmin, vimentin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen demonstrated parietal epithelial cell proliferation and EMT in late stages of the glomerulopathy in the Col1a2-deficient mice...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919792/clinical-outcomes-and-nephrotoxicity-of-colistin-loading-dose-for-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-cancer-patients
#10
Wasan Katip, Suriyon Uitrakul, Peninnah Oberdorfer
BACKGROUND: Colistin is a last-line defense therapy against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). Despite a loading dose of colistin being applied in many clinical practices, studies evaluating the effect of the loading dose of colistin in cancer patients remain limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of cancer patients who received either a loading or non-loading dose of colistin for treatment of XDR-AB was conducted. For each group, the clinical response, bacteriological eradication and serum creatinine were recorded...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901542/effects-of-response-contingent-stimulus-pairing-on-vocalizations-of-nonverbal-children-with-autism
#11
Tracy L Lepper, Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir
Research on stimulus-stimulus pairing to induce novel vocalizations in nonverbal children has typically employed response-independent pairing (RIP) procedures to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a response-contingent pairing (RCP) procedure on the vocalizations of three nonverbal boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During RCP, adult-delivered sounds that were either paired with a preferred item (target sounds) or not (nontarget sounds) were presented contingent on a button-press response...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840941/acute-fall-and-long-term-rise-in-oxygen-saturation-in-response-to-meditation
#12
Nicolò F Bernardi, Marco Bordino, Lucio Bianchi, Luciano Bernardi
The effects of meditation on arterial and tissue oxygenation are unknown and difficult to assess because respiration is often altered, directly or indirectly, during meditation practice. Thus, changes in respiration may affect cardiovascular responses independently from meditation. In this study, we aim to isolate the specific effect of meditation on arterial and tissue oxygenation and other cardiorespiratory indexes while systematically controlling for the role of respiration. Furthermore, we aim to clarify to what extent prior expertise in meditation practice is needed to observe reliable changes...
August 25, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817193/response-reinforcer-dependency-and-resistance-to-change
#13
Carlos R X Cançado, Josele Abreu-Rodrigues, Raquel Moreira Aló, Flávia Hauck, Adam H Doughty
The effects of the response-reinforcer dependency on resistance to change were studied in three experiments with rats. In Experiment 1, lever pressing produced reinforcers at similar rates after variable interreinforcer intervals in each component of a two-component multiple schedule. Across conditions, in the fixed component, all reinforcers were response-dependent; in the alternative component, the percentage of response-dependent reinforcers was 100, 50 (i.e., 50% response-dependent and 50% response-independent) or 10% (i...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811106/questiomycin-a-stimulates-sorafenib-induced-cell-death-via-suppression-of-glucose-regulated-protein-78
#14
Kayo Machihara, Hidenori Tanaka, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Ichiro Murakami, Takushi Namba
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult cancers to treat owing to the lack of effective chemotherapeutic methods. Sorafenib, the first-line and only available treatment for HCC, extends patient overall survival by several months, with a response rate below 10%. Thus, the identification of an agent that enhances the anticancer effect of sorafenib is critical for the development of therapeutic options for HCC. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is one of the methods of sorafenib-induced cell death...
October 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749938/the-mecillinam-resistome-reveals-a-role-for-peptidoglycan-endopeptidases-in-stimulating-cell-wall-synthesis-in-escherichia-coli
#15
Ghee Chuan Lai, Hongbaek Cho, Thomas G Bernhardt
Bacterial cells are typically surrounded by an net-like macromolecule called the cell wall constructed from the heteropolymer peptidoglycan (PG). Biogenesis of this matrix is the target of penicillin and related beta-lactams. These drugs inhibit the transpeptidase activity of PG synthases called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), preventing the crosslinking of nascent wall material into the existing network. The beta-lactam mecillinam specifically targets the PBP2 enzyme in the cell elongation machinery of Escherichia coli...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720467/intradermal-immunization-with-raav1-vector-induces-robust-memory-cd8-t-cell-responses-independently-of-transgene-expression-in-dcs
#16
Alexandre Ghenassia, David-Alexandre Gross, Stéphanie Lorain, Fabiola Tros, Dominique Urbain, Sofia Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Alain Charbit, Jean Davoust, Pascal Chappert
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors exhibit interesting properties as vaccine carriers for their ability to induce long-lasting antibody responses. However, rAAV-based vaccines have been suggested to trigger functionally impaired long-term memory CD8(+) T cell responses, in part due to poor dendritic cell (DC) transduction. Such results, albeit limited to intramuscular immunization, undermined the use of rAAV as vaccine vehicles against intracellular pathogens. We report here that intradermal immunization with a model rAAV2/1-based vaccine drives the development of bona fide long-term memory CD8(+) T cell responses...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706238/freezing-response-independent-facilitation-of-fear-extinction-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Jiso Hong, Daesoo Kim
The infralimbic cortex (IL) is known to facilitate the formation of extinction memory through reciprocal interactions with the amygdala, which produces fear responses such as freezing. Thus, whether presynaptic input from the amygdala and post-synaptic output of IL neurons are functionally dissociated in extinction memory formation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that photostimulation of IL inputs from BLA did not change freezing responses to conditioned stimuli (CS) during training, but did facilitate extinction memory, measured as a reduction in freezing responses to the CS 1 day later...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696913/linking-physiological-parameters-to-perturbations-in-the-human-exposome-environmental-exposures-modify-blood-pressure-and-lung-function-via-inflammatory-cytokine-pathway
#18
Matthew A Stiegel, Joachim D Pleil, Jon R Sobus, Tina Stevens, Michael C Madden
Human biomonitoring is an indispensable tool for evaluating the systemic effects derived from external stressors including environmental pollutants, chemicals from consumer products, and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to explore consequences of environmental exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) and ultimately to interpret these parameters from the perspective of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. In particular, the objective was to use cytokine expression at the cellular level as a biomarker for physiological systemic responses such as blood pressure and lung function at the systemic level...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692049/mdm2-selectively-suppresses-dna-damage-arising-from-inhibition-of-topoisomerase-ii-independent-of-p53
#19
J C Senturk, S Bohlman, J J Manfredi
Mdm2 is often overexpressed in tumors that retain wild-type TP53 but may affect therapeutic response independently of p53. Herein is shown that tumor cells with MDM2 amplification are selectively resistant to treatment with topoisomerase II poisons but not other DNA damaging agents. Tumor cells that overexpress Mdm2 have reduced DNA double-strand breaks in response to doxorubicin or etoposide. This latter result is not due to altered drug uptake. The selective attenuation of DNA damage in response to these agents is dependent on both Mdm2 levels and an intact ubiquitin ligase function...
November 2, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652400/activation-of-human-basophils-by-a549-lung-epithelial-cells-reveals-a-novel-ige-dependent-response-independent-of-allergen
#20
John T Schroeder, Anja P Bieneman
Evidence for epithelial cell (EC)-derived cytokines (e.g., thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP]) activating human basophils remains controversial. We therefore hypothesize that ECs can directly activate basophils via cell-to-cell interaction. Basophils in medium alone or with IL-3 ± anti-IgE were coincubated with TSLP, IL-33, or IL-25. Analogous experiments cocultured basophils (1-72 h) directly with EC lines. Supernatants were tested for mediators and cytokines. Abs targeting receptors were tested for neutralizing effects...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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