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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744865/a-comparison-of-analysis-methods-to-estimate-contingency-strength
#1
Blair P Lloyd, Johanna L Staubitz, Jon T Tapp
To date, several data analysis methods have been used to estimate contingency strength, yet few studies have compared these methods directly. To compare the relative precision and sensitivity of four analysis methods (i.e., exhaustive event-based, nonexhaustive event-based, concurrent interval, concurrent+lag interval), we applied all methods to a simulated data set in which several response-dependent and response-independent schedules of reinforcement were programmed. We evaluated the degree to which contingency strength estimates produced from each method (a) corresponded with expected values for response-dependent schedules and (b) showed sensitivity to parametric manipulations of response-independent reinforcement...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702161/racial-bias-in-empathy-do-we-process-dark-and-fair-colored-hands-in-pain-differently-an-eeg-study
#2
Sarah Fabi, Hartmut Leuthold
The aim of this study was to identify racial bias influences on empathic processing from early stimulus encoding, over categorization until late motor processing stages by comparing brain responses (electroencephalogram) to pictures of fair- and dark-colored hands in painful or neutral daily-life situations. Participants performed a pain judgment task and a skin color judgment task. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) substantiated former findings of automatic empathic influences on stimulus encoding, reflected by the early posterior negativity (EPN), and late controlled influences on the stimulus categorization, as reflected by the late posterior positivity (P3b)...
April 24, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688269/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-possible-involvement-of-androgen-induced-chemerin-mediated-ovarian-recruitment-of-monocytes-macrophages
#3
Patricia D A Lima, Anne-Laure Nivet, Qi Wang, Yi-An Chen, Arthur Leader, Annie Cheung, Chii-Ruey Tzeng, Benjamin K Tsang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a continuum of endocrine and reproductive disorders characterized by hyperandrogenism, antral follicle growth arrest and chronic inflammation. Macrophages play key role in inflammation and the balance between M1 (inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophages determines physiological/pathological outcomes. Here, we investigated if hyperandrogenism increases ovarian chemerin altering the balance of M1 and M2 macrophages and the granulosa cell death. Ovarian chemerin was up-regulated by 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in lean and overweight rats; while increased serum chemerin levels were only evident in overweight rats, suggesting that the serum chemerin may be reflective of a systemic response and associated with obesity, whereas increased ovarian chemerin expression is a localized response independent of the metabolic status...
April 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683191/delivering-alternative-reinforcement-in-a-distinct-context-reduces-its-counter-therapeutic-effects-on-relapse
#4
Andrew R Craig, Paul J Cunningham, Mary M Sweeney, Timothy A Shahan, John A Nevin
Delivery of alternative reinforcers in the presence of stimuli previously associated with reinforcement for target behavior increases the susceptibility of target behavior to relapse. To explore contingencies that might mitigate this counter-therapeutic effect, we trained pigeons on a procedure that entailed extinction of previously reinforced target-key pecking, access to a distinct stimulus context contingently on refraining from target behavior (differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior; DRO), and reinforcement of alternative-key pecks (differential-reinforcement of alternative behavior; DRA) in that context...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657351/habitat-heterogeneity-induces-rapid-changes-in-the-feeding-behaviour-of-generalist-arthropod-predators
#5
Karin Staudacher, Oskar Rennstam Rubbmark, Klaus Birkhofer, Gerard Malsher, Daniela Sint, Mattias Jonsson, Michael Traugott
The "habitat heterogeneity hypothesis" predicts positive effects of structural complexity on species coexistence. Increasing habitat heterogeneity can change the diversity (number of species, abundances) and the functional roles of communities. The latter, however, is not well understood as species and individuals may respond very differently and dynamically to a changing environment.Here, we experimentally test how habitat heterogeneity affects generalist arthropod predators, including epigaeic spiders, carabid and staphylinid beetles, under natural conditions by assessing their diversity and directly measuring their trophic interactions (which provide a proxy for their functional roles)...
March 2018: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618514/activation-of-stimulator-of-interferon-genes-sting-induces-adam17-mediated-shedding-of-the-immune-semaphorin-sema4d
#6
Kou Motani, Hidetaka Kosako
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident membrane protein that mediates cytosolic pathogen DNA-induced innate immunity and inflammatory responses in host defenses. STING is activated by cyclic di-nucleotides and is then translocated to the Golgi apparatus, an event that triggers STING assembly with the downstream enzyme TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). This assembly leads to the phosphorylation of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), which, in turn, induces expression of type-I interferon (IFN) and chemokine genes...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616022/temporal-regulation-of-natural-killer-t-cell-interferon-gamma-responses-by-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-and-independent-wnt-signaling
#7
Jessica C Kling, Margaret A Jordan, Lauren A Pitt, Jana Meiners, Thao Thanh-Tran, Le Son Tran, Tam T K Nguyen, Deepak Mittal, Rehan Villani, Raymond J Steptoe, Kiarash Khosrotehrani, Stuart P Berzins, Alan G Baxter, Dale I Godfrey, Antje Blumenthal
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are prominent innate-like lymphocytes in the liver with critical roles in immune responses during infection, cancer, and autoimmunity. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and IL-4 are key cytokines rapidly produced by NKT cells upon recognition of glycolipid antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). It has previously been reported that the transcriptional coactivator β-catenin regulates NKT cell differentiation and functionally biases NKT cell responses toward IL-4, at the expense of IFN-γ production...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552786/meta-analysis-of-the-effect-of-preoperative-chemotherapy-on-wilms-tumor
#8
Gang Liu, Yiou Zhang, Kai Fu, Jinhua Hu, Zhang Zhao, Wen Fu, Guochang Liu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of Wilms' tumor in children, and to provide a basis for further improvement of clinical therapeutic effect and research level. METHODS: Relevant studies before July 2017 were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and other databases, and two evaluators were responsible independently for the studies' selection, data extraction and cross-checking according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531799/wah-1-aif-regulates-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Kostoula Troulinaki, Sven Büttner, Anaïs Marsal Cots, Simona Maida, Katharina Meyer, Fabio Bertan, Anna Gioran, Antonia Piazzesi, Alessandra Fornarelli, Pierluigi Nicotera, Daniele Bano
Impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism contributes to a wide range of pathologic conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is required for the correct maintenance of mitochondrial electron transport chain. An emerging body of clinical evidence indicates that several mutations in the AIFM1 gene are causally linked to severe forms of mitochondrial disorders. Here we investigate the consequence of WAH-1/AIF deficiency in the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496601/development-and-validation-of-the-food-disgust-picture-scale
#10
Jeanine Ammann, Christina Hartmann, Michael Siegrist
The present set of studies developed and tested the Food Disgust Picture Scale (FDPS). This is a tool for the assessment of food disgust sensitivity that will measure disgust and predict possible reactions. This eight-picture tool can be used in complement to or as a replacement for currently available text-based measures. In an exploratory Study 1 (N = 57), we constructed a scale consisting of eight pictures. Most of them were taken from validated picture databases. They proved powerful in the assessment of food disgust sensitivity...
June 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488918/x-ray-position-sensitive-duo-lateral-diamond-detectors-at-soleil
#11
Kewin Desjardins, Michel Bordessoule, Michal Pomorski
The performance of a diamond X-ray beam position monitor is reported. This detector consists of an ionization solid-state chamber based on a thin single-crystal chemical-vapour-deposition diamond with position-sensitive resistive electrodes in a duo-lateral configuration. The detector's linearity, homogeneity and responsivity were studied on beamlines at Synchrotron SOLEIL with various beam sizes, intensities and energies. These measurements demonstrate the large and homogeneous (absorption variation of less than 0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485763/assessing-the-combined-effects-of-resurgence-and-reinstatement-in-children-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Ashley P Liggett, Regina Nastri, Christopher A Podlesnik
Resurgence and reinstatement are laboratory models of relapse following treatments for problem behavior that arrange alternative sources of reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior and noncontingent reinforcement. Resurgence models the elimination or reduction of reinforcers during treatment and reinstatement models the re-presentation of reinforcers previously maintaining problem behavior. The present study examined individual and combined effects of resurgence and reinstatement in a translational model of treatment relapse with three children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder...
March 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482026/determinants-of-diuretic-responsiveness-and-associated-outcomes-during-acute-heart-failure-hospitalization-an-analysis-from-the-nhlbi-heart-failure-network-clinical-trials
#13
Michael S Kiernan, Susanna R Stevens, W H Wilson Tang, Javed Butler, Kevin J Anstrom, Edo Y Birati, Justin L Grodin, Divya Gupta, Kenneth B Margulies, Shane LaRue, Victor G Dávila-Román, Adrian F Hernandez, Lisa de Las Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Poor response to loop diuretic therapy is a marker of risk during heart failure hospitalization. We sought to describe baseline determinants of diuretic response and to further explore the relationship between this response and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patient data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Heart Failure Network ROSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF clinical trials were analyzed to determine baseline determinants of diuretic response...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475087/the-sec14-phospholipid-transfer-protein-regulates-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-triggered-immunity-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#14
Akinori Kiba, Masahito Nakano, Kouhei Ohnishi, Yasufumi Hikichi
We previously revealed that the SEC14 phospholipid transfer protein from Nicotiana benthamiana (NbSEC14) has a role in plant immune responses against phytopathogenic bacteria in a hypersensitive response-independent manner. To characterize the role of NbSEC14 on plant immunity, we analyzed the relationship between NbSEC14 and pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). NbSEC14-silenced plants exhibited down-regulated expression of PTI marker genes (NbAcre31 and NbPti5) after being inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv...
April 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473818/transcriptomic-sequencing-reveals-diverse-adaptive-gene-expression-responses-of-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-to-nitro-conjugated-linoleic-acid
#15
Shengdi Li, Ziyi Chang, Tianqing Zhu, Luis Villacorta, Yixue Li, Bruce A Freeman, Y Eugene Chen, Jifeng Zhang
Nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2 -CLA) is formed by metabolic and inflammatory reactions of nitric oxide and nitrite, and represents the most abundant nitro-fatty acid species in humans. These electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives mediate pleiotropic cell signaling responses. Here, we report a systematic approach to investigate the effect of NO2 -CLA on human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMC), based on the RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis. There were extensive differentially expressed genes in NO2 -CLA vs...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463044/the-role-of-the-estrogen-pathway-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
Natalie J Rothenberger, Ashwin Somasundaram, Laura P Stabile
Estrogen receptors are broadly expressed in many cell types involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses, and differentially regulate the production of cytokines. While both genomic and non-genomic tumor cell promoting mechanisms of estrogen signaling are well characterized in multiple carcinomas including breast, ovarian, and lung, recent investigations have identified a potential immune regulatory role of estrogens in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor immune tolerance is a well-established mediator of oncogenesis, with increasing evidence indicating the importance of the immune response in tumor progression...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455433/intracrine-action-of-angiotensin-ii-in-mesangial-cells-subcellular-distribution-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-subtypes-at-1-and-at-2
#17
Antônio da Silva Novaes, Rosemara Silva Ribeiro, Luciana Guilhermino Pereira, Fernanda Teixeira Borges, Mirian Aparecida Boim
Biological effects of angiotensin II (AngII) such as regulation of AngII target genes may be triggered by interaction of AngII with intracellular AngII receptor types 1 and 2 (AT1 and AT2 ), defined as intracrine response. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of AT1 and AT2 receptors in nuclear membrane of human mesangial cells (HMCs) and evaluate the possible biological effects mediated by intracellular AT1 through an intracrine mechanism. Subcellular distribution of AT1 and AT2 was evaluated by immunofluorescence and by western blot in isolated nuclear extract...
February 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450785/the-role-of-the-alternative-pathway-of-complement-activation-in-glomerular-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Emilia Łukawska, Magdalena Polcyn-Adamczak, Zofia I Niemir
The complement system (CS) has recently been recognized as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity that constitutes a very complex mechanism controlling the clearance of pathogens, cellular debris, and immune complexes. Out of three known pathways of complement activation, the alternative pathway (AP) plays a critical role in host defense by amplifying the complement response, independently of initiation pathway and continuously maintaining low-level activity in a process called 'thick-over.' A key molecule of the CS is C3, in which the AP is constantly activated...
February 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427087/neuroinflammation-alters-integrative-properties-of-rat-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells
#19
Federica Frigerio, Corey Flynn, Ye Han, Kyle Lyman, Joaquin N Lugo, Teresa Ravizza, Antoine Ghestem, Julika Pitsch, Albert Becker, Anne E Anderson, Annamaria Vezzani, Dane Chetkovich, Christophe Bernard
Neuroinflammation is consistently found in many neurological disorders, but whether or not the inflammatory response independently affects neuronal network properties is poorly understood. Here, we report that intracerebroventricular injection of the prototypical inflammatory molecule lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats triggered a strong and long-lasting inflammatory response in hippocampal microglia associated with a concomitant upregulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) in pyramidal and hilar neurons. This, in turn, was associated with a significant reduction of the dendritic hyperpolarization-activated cyclic AMP-gated channel type 1 (HCN1) protein level while Kv4...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380436/additional-free-reinforcers-increase-persistence-of-problem-behavior-in-a-clinical-context-a-partial-replication-of-laboratory-findings
#20
Gregory A Lieving, Iser G DeLeon, Abbey B Carreau-Webster, Michelle A Frank-Crawford, Mandy M Triggs
Behavioral momentum theory is a quantitative framework used to characterize the persistence of behavior during response disruptors as a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. Results of several investigations have shown that alternative reinforcement can increase the resistance to change of a target response during extinction. In the present study, concomitant variable-interval fixed-time schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior were employed to simulate naturalistic situations involving the superimposition of response-independent reinforcers on a baseline schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior, as in the common use of noncontingent reinforcement treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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