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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932205/cold-induced-sympathetic-tone-modifies-the-impact-of-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-in-the-finger-pulp
#1
Tone Kristin Bergersen, Maria Skytioti, Maja Elstad
OBJECTIVE: In thermoneutral and cold subjects, the sympathetic nervous system regulates skin blood flow by adjusting frequency of the tonic vasoconstrictor impulses. However, the way these thermoregulatory impulses influence the vascular endothelium is not well known. We studied how the sympathetic nervous system influences endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) caused by shear stress in skin containing arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) and arterioles in healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirteen healthy subjects were exposed to thermoneutral (29°C) and cold (22°C) ambient temperatures on separate days...
November 30, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931844/dendritic-cells-in-hematological-malignancies
#2
REVIEW
Domenico Galati, Gaetano Corazzelli, Rosaria De Filippi, Antonio Pinto
Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone-marrow-derived immune cells accounted for a crucial role in initiating and modulating the adaptive immune response and supporting the innate immune response independently from T cells. While functioning as the most effective antigen-presenting cells within the immune system, DCs can otherwise induce tolerance in central and peripheral lymphoid organs acting therefore as suppressors rather than stimulators of the immune response. Within mechanisms regulating antitumor immunity, DCs can capture antigens from viable or damaged tumor cells and present the processed peptides to T-cells to prompt the generation and maintenance of an effective tumor-specific T-cell response...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906453/syk-inhibition-blocks-airway-constriction-and-protects-from-th2-induced-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-mice
#3
Christoph Tabeling, Julia Herbert, Andreas C Hocke, David Lamb, Lutz Wollin, Klaus Erb, Ekaterina Boiarina, Hesam Movassagh, Jörg Scheffel, Jan M Doehn, Stefan Hippenstiel, Marcus Maurer, Abdelilah S Gounni, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath
BACKGROUND: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which has been implicated as central immune modulator promoting allergic airway inflammation. Syk inhibition has been proposed as a new therapeutic approach in asthma. However, the direct effects of Syk inhibition on airway constriction independent of allergen sensitization remain elusive. METHODS: Spectral confocal microscopy of human and murine lung tissue was performed to localize Syk expression...
December 1, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905069/pavlovian-reward-learning-underlies-value-driven-attentional-capture
#4
Berno Bucker, Jan Theeuwes
Recent evidence shows that distractors that signal high compared to low reward availability elicit stronger attentional capture, even when this is detrimental for task-performance. This suggests that simply correlating stimuli with reward administration, rather than their instrumental relationship with obtaining reward, produces value-driven attentional capture. However, in previous studies, reward delivery was never response independent, as only correct responses were rewarded, nor was it completely task-irrelevant, as the distractor signaled the magnitude of reward that could be earned on that trial...
November 30, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870107/stimulus-reinforcer-relations-established-during-training-determine-resistance-to-extinction-and-relapse-via-reinstatement
#5
John Y H Bai, C K Jonas Chan, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
The baseline rate of a reinforced target response decreases with the availability of response-independent sources of alternative reinforcement; however, resistance to disruption and relapse increases. Because many behavioral treatments for problem behavior include response-dependent reinforcement of alternative behavior, the present study assessed whether response-dependent alternative reinforcement also decreases baseline response rates but increases resistance to extinction and relapse. We reinforced target responding at equal rates across two components of a multiple schedule with pigeons...
November 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819680/syndecan-1-increases-b-lymphoid-cell-extravasation-in-response-to-hiv-1-tat-via-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-pp60src-pp125fak-pathway
#6
C Urbinati, E Grillo, P Chiodelli, C Tobia, F Caccuri, S Fiorentini, G David, M Rusnati
Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) commonly upregulated in AIDS-related B lymphoid malignancies. Tat is the main HIV-1 transactivating factor that has a major role in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL) by engaging heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), chemokine receptors and integrins at the lymphoid cell (LC) surface. Here B-lymphoid Namalwa cell clones that do not express or overexpress syndecan-1 (EV-Ncs and SYN-Ncs, respectively) were compared for their responsiveness with Tat: in the absence of syndecan-1, Tat induces a limited EV-Nc migration via C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), G-proteins and Rac...
November 7, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801729/richter-syndrome-with-plasmablastic-lymphoma-at-primary-diagnosis-a-case-report-with-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Andrea Ronchi, Laura Marra, Ferdinando Frigeri, Gerardo Botti, Renato Franco, Annarosaria De Chiara
Richter syndrome (RS) is considered as the rare development of an aggressive lymphoid malignancy in a preexisting small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The most common aggressive lymphoma developing in this setting is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but classical Hodgkin lymphoma and other much rarer entities such as prolymphocytic lymphoma and dendritic cell sarcoma are also described, most frequently in the progression of the disease over time. A clonal relation between the 2 neoplastic proliferations can be frequently found, whereas clonally unrelated cases are commonly considered as independent tumors, probably due to a variable combination of multiple causes, responsible independently for the 2 neoplasms...
October 31, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776126/the-skp1-homologs-skr-1-2-are-required-for-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-skn-1-antioxidant-detoxification-response-independently-of-p38-mapk
#8
Cheng-Wei Wu, Andrew Deonarine, Aaron Przybysz, Kevin Strange, Keith P Choe
SKN-1/Nrf are the primary antioxidant/detoxification response transcription factors in animals and they promote health and longevity in many contexts. SKN-1/Nrf are activated by a remarkably broad-range of natural and synthetic compounds and physiological conditions. Defining the signaling mechanisms that regulate SKN-1/Nrf activation provides insights into how cells coordinate responses to stress. Nrf2 in mammals is regulated in part by the redox sensor repressor protein named Keap1. In C. elegans, the p38 MAPK cascade in the intestine activates SKN-1 during oxidative stress by promoting its nuclear accumulation...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729193/addition-of-maraviroc-to-antiretroviral-therapy-decreased-interferon-%C3%AE-mrna-in-the-cd4-t-cells-of-patients-with-suboptimal-cd4-t-cell-recovery
#9
Rumi Minami, Soichiro Takahama, Yu Kaku, Masahiro Yamamoto
The CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc (MVC), is associated with an enhanced CD4+ T-cell response independent of virological suppression; however, its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. In this study, we confirmed the effect of MVC on CD4+ T-cell count recovery in immunological non-responders, and compared the conventional combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with MVC-intensified cART. We also investigated the effect of MVC on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the relationship between the mRNA level of IFN-γ and the degree of CD4+ T-cell count recovery...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721875/histomorphological-factors-predicting-the-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#10
Yoon Yang Jung, Chang Lim Hyun, Min-Sun Jin, In Ae Park, Yul Ri Chung, Bobae Shim, Kyu Ho Lee, Han Suk Ryu
PURPOSE: There is no standard targeted therapy for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Therefore, its management heavily depends on adjuvant chemotherapy. Using core needle biopsy, this study evaluated the histological factors of TNBC predicting the response to chemotherapy. METHODS: One hundred forty-three TNBC patients who received single-regimen neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with the combination of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel were enrolled...
September 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662571/daily-affect-dynamics-predict-early-response-in-cbt-feasibility-and-predictive-validity-of-ema-for-outpatient-psychotherapy
#11
K Husen, E Rafaeli, J A Rubel, E Bar-Kalifa, W Lutz
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that individual differences in affect dynamics during depressed patients' everyday lives allow the prediction of treatment outcome and of symptom reoccurrence in remitted patients. In this study, we analyze whether understanding patients' affective states and their fluctuation patterns helps predict early treatment response (until session 5). METHODS: Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) strategies allow in-depth analyses of real-time affective states and of their dynamics...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651230/rigidity-of-silicone-substrates-controls-cell-spreading-and-stem-cell-differentiation
#12
Grigory Vertelov, Edgar Gutierrez, Sin-Ae Lee, Edward Ronan, Alex Groisman, Eugene Tkachenko
The dependences of spreading and differentiation of stem cells plated on hydrogel and silicone gel substrates on the rigidity and porosity of the substrates have recently been a subject of some controversy. In experiments on human mesenchymal stem cells plated on soft, medium rigidity, and hard silicone gels we show that harder gels are more osteogenic, softer gels are more adipogenic, and cell spreading areas increase with the silicone gel substrate rigidity. The results of our study indicate that substrate rigidity induces some universal cellular responses independently of the porosity or topography of the substrate...
September 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634402/baroreflex-regulation-affects-ventilation-in-the-cururu-toad-rhinella-schneideri
#13
Lucas A Zena, Glauber S F da Silva, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Kênia C Bícego
Anurans regulate short-term oscillations in blood pressure through changes in heart rate (fH), vascular resistance and lymphatic fH Lung ventilation in anurans is linked to blood volume homeostasis by facilitating lymph return to the cardiovascular system. We hypothesized that the arterial baroreflex modulates pulmonary ventilation in the cururu toad Rhinella schneideri, and that this relationship is temperature dependent. Pharmacologically induced hypotension (sodium nitroprusside) and hypertension (phenylephrine) increased ventilation (25°C: 248...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622292/hypothermia-and-rewarming-activate-a-macroglial-unfolded-protein-response-independent-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-piglets
#14
Jennifer K Lee, Bing Wang, Michael Reyes, Jillian S Armstrong, Ewa Kulikowicz, Polan T Santos, Jeong-Hoo Lee, Raymond C Koehler, Lee J Martin
Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in neonates. We previously showed that cortical neuron and white matter apoptosis are promoted by hypothermia and early rewarming in a piglet model of HI. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be one of the potential mediators of this cell death. Here, neonatal piglets underwent HI or sham surgery followed by 29 h of normothermia, 2 h of normothermia + 27 h of hypothermia or 18 h of hypothermia + rewarming...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622132/noncontingent-reinforcement-in-after-school-settings-to-decrease-classroom-disruptive-behavior-for-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Christina R Noel, Yvette Q Getch
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is the response-independent delivery of a reinforcer (Vollmer, Iwata, Zarcone, Smith, and Mazaleski in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 26: 9-21 1993). Two staff members (preservice education majors) implemented NCR procedures for two students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who exhibited problem behavior and attended an after-school program. The amount of training on NCR and procedural fidelity was measured for each staff member, and the effects of the treatment on problem behavior were evaluated...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535667/erratum-to-renewal-of-extinguished-instrumental-responses-independence-from-pavlovian-processes-and-dependence-on-outcome-value
#16
Sabrina R Cohen-Hatton, R C Honey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510401/increased-th2-activity-and-diminished-skin-barrier-function-cooperate-in-allergic-skin-inflammation
#17
Sarita Sehra, Purna Krishnamurthy, Byunghee Koh, Hong-Ming Zhou, Lee Seymour, Nahid Akhtar, Jeffrey B Travers, Matthew J Turner, Mark H Kaplan
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease induced by a complex interaction between susceptibility genes encoding skin barrier components and environmental allergen exposure that results in type 2 cytokine production. Although genetic lesions in either component can be risk factors for disease in patients, whether these pathways interact in the development of AD is not clear. To test this, we mated mice with T-cell specific expression of constitutively active Stat6 (Stat6VT) that spontaneously develop allergic skin inflammation with Flaky tail (Ft) mice that have mutations in Flg and Tmem79 genes that each affect skin barrier function...
November 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498054/preservation-of-cell-survival-mechanisms-by-the-presenilin-1-k239n-mutation-may-cause-its-milder-clinical-phenotype
#18
Sara Sarroca, Patricia Molina-Martínez, Cristina Aresté, Martin Etzrodt, Pablo García de Frutos, Rosa Gasa, Anna Antonell, José Luís Molinuevo, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Carlos A Saura, Albert Lladó, Coral Sanfeliu
Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations are the main cause of monogenic Alzheimer's disease. We studied the functional effects of the mutation K239N, which shows incomplete penetrance at the age of 65 years and compared it with the more aggressive mutation E120G. We engineered stable cell lines expressing human PSEN1 wild type or with K239N or E120G mutations. Both mutations induced dysfunction of γ-secretase in the processing of amyloid-β protein precursor, leading to an increase in the amyloid β42/amyloid β40 ratio...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473539/fatal-lymphoproliferative-disease-in-two-siblings-lacking-functional-faap24
#19
Svenja Daschkey, Kirsten Bienemann, Volker Schuster, Hans Wolfgang Kreth, René Martin Linka, Andrea Hönscheid, Gerhard Fritz, Christian Johannes, Bernhard Fleckenstein, Bettina Kempkes, Michael Gombert, Sebastian Ginzel, Arndt Borkhardt
Hereditary defects in several genes have been shown to disturb the normal immune response to EBV and to give rise to severe EBV-induced lymphoproliferation in the recent years. Nevertheless, in many patients, the molecular basis of fatal EBV infection still remains unclear. The Fanconi anemia-associated protein 24 (FAAP24) plays a dual role in DNA repair. By association with FANCM as component of the FA core complex, it recruits the FA core complex to damaged DNA. Additionally, FAAP24 has been shown to evoke ATR-mediated checkpoint responses independently of the FA core complex...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423967/effect-of-a-single-free-food-presentation-on-extinction-responding-in-a-multiple-schedule
#20
Adam J Reiss, Matthew C Bell
The present study was designed to assess the effect of a single, response-independent food presentation on responding during extinction. Using a two-component multiple schedule, we examined differences in pigeons' extinction responding resulting from a single response-independent food presentation occurring at the beginning of the experimental session (30-s prior to the beginning of the first component). One component presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 45-s schedule and the second presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 180-s schedule...
September 2016: Behavioural Processes
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