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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224257/models-of-care-for-non-invasive-ventilation-in-the-acute-copd-comparison-of-three-tertiary-hospitals-act3-study
#1
Kerry Parker, Vara Perikala, Ali Aminazad, Zheng Deng, Brigitte Borg, Catherine Buchan, Jo Toghill, Louis B Irving, Jeremy Goldin, David Charlesworth, Ajay Mahal, Suhith Illesinghe, Matthew T Naughton, Alan Young
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves clinical outcomes in hypercapnic acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), but the optimal model of care remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational non-inferiority study comparing three models of NIV care: general ward (Ward) (1:4 nurse to patient ratio, thrice weekly consultant ward round), a high dependency unit (HDU) (1:2 ratio, twice daily ward round) and an intensive care unit (ICU) (1:1 ratio, twice daily ward round) model in three similar teaching tertiary hospitals...
December 10, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224251/efficacy-and-safety-of-fesoterodine-treatment-for-overactive-bladder-symptoms-in-elderly-women-with-and-without-hypertension
#2
Osamu Yokoyama, Hidetomi Yamagami, Shintaro Hiro, Shinichi Hotta, Masaki Yoshida
OBJECTIVE: To assess fesoterodine treatment in elderly women with overactive bladder with and without hypertension. METHODS: Data for 2527 elderly women with overactive bladder symptoms, including urgency urinary incontinence, were pooled from 10 double-blind, placebo-controlled fesoterodine studies. RESULTS: A total of 1523 elderly women (60.3%) had a history of hypertension, and 1004 women (39.7%) had no hypertension history. Overactive bladder symptoms, mean bodyweight and mean body mass index at baseline were significantly higher in women with overactive bladder and hypertension versus those without hypertension (P < 0...
December 10, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224244/a-histopathological-classification-system-of-tyr-nrasq61k-murine-melanocytic-lesions-a-reproducible-simplified-classification
#3
Pierre Sohier, Léa Legrand, Zackie Aktary, Christine Grill, Véronique Delmas, Florence Bernex, Edouard Reyes-Gomez, Lionel Larue, Béatrice Vergier
Genetically engineered mouse models offer essential opportunities to investigate the mechanisms of initiation and progression in melanoma. Here we report a new simplified histopathology classification of mouse melanocytic lesions in Tyr::NRASQ61K derived models, using an interactive decision tree that produces homogeneous categories. Reproducibility for this classification system was evaluated on a panel of representative cases of murine melanocytic lesions by pathologists and basic scientists. Reproducibility, measured as inter-rater agreement between evaluators using a modified Fleiss' kappa statistic revealed a very good agreement between observers...
December 10, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224242/dermoscopic-observations-in-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-cutaneous-involvement
#4
M Sławińska, M Hlebowicz, E Iżycka-Świeszewska, M Sikorska, M Sokołowska-Wojdyło, T Smiatacz, R Nowicki, M Sobjanek
A 26-year-old female patient with a history of intravenous drug abuse, diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 6 months before. AIDS defining disease was Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The patient presented with severely decreased CD4 cell count of 7 cells/mm3 and relatively low HIV viral load of 281 copies/mL. Shortly after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), was diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis with central nervous system and skin involvement. This article is protected by copyright...
December 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224234/an-observational-study-of-benzodiazepine-prescription-during-inpatient-alcohol-detoxification-for-patients-with-versus-without-chronic-pretreatment-with-high-dosage-baclofen
#5
Laura Martinez, Florence Vorspan, Xavier Declèves, Julien Azuar, Maeva Fortias, Franck Questel, Alexandra Dereux, Leslie Grichy, Hélène Barreteau, Frank Bellivier, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Vanessa Bloch
High dose baclofen is prescribed as a maintenance treatment to reduce alcohol use in patients with alcohol use disorder. Nevertheless, some patients still have massive alcohol intakes and require inpatient alcohol withdrawal. AIM: to compare the oral dose of benzodiazepine prescribed to manage alcohol withdrawal symptoms in patients with versus without steady state pre-treatment with high dose baclofen. METHODS: Retrospective chart review study. Prescribed benzodiazepine dose expressed in diazepam-equivalent was compared between groups...
December 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224228/newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-co-expressing-il7-and-il15-modified-tumor-cells-as-a-vaccine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Xiaojing Xu, Qing Sun, Yu Mei, Yonghao Liu, Lixiang Zhao
IL15 and IL7 are two cytokines essential for T cell development and homeostasis. In order to improve the antitumor activity by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)-modified tumor vaccine, we generated a recombinant NDV co-expressing IL15 and IL7 (LX/IL(15+7)) by incorporation of a 2A self-processing peptide into IL15 and IL7 using reverse genetics. B16 cells infected with LX/IL(15+7) expressed both IL15 and IL7 stably. The cytotoxicity assay showed that murine melanoma cells modified with LX/IL(15+7) could significantly enhance the antitumor immune response in vitro...
December 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224196/diagnostic-accuracy-of-posterior-cervical-angle-and-cervical-length-in-the-prediction-of-successful-induction-of-labor
#7
Akram M Al-Adwy, Sherin M Sobh, Doaa S Belal, Eman F Omran, Amr Hassan, Ahmed H Saad, Mai M Afifi, Adel M Nada
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of the posterior cervical angle (PCA) compared with the cervical length and the Bishop score in predicting the outcome of induction of labor (IOL). METHODS: The present prospective observational study included IOL candidates who had their PCA and cervical length assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography and the Bishop score at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Kasr El-Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, between April 1 and July 31, 2017...
December 10, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224190/metabolic-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#8
REVIEW
David E Cummings, Francesco Rubino
Several bariatric operations originally designed to promote weight loss have been found to powerfully treat type 2 diabetes, causing remission in most cases, through diverse mechanisms additional to the secondary consequences of weight loss. These observations have prompted consideration of such operations as 'metabolic surgery', used expressly to treat diabetes, including among patients who are only mildly obese or merely overweight. Large, long-term observational studies consistently demonstrate that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reductions in all cardiovascular risk factors, actual cardiovascular events, microvascular diabetes complications, cancer and death...
December 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224183/effects-of-acute-alcohol-exposure-on-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-of-juvenile-mice
#9
Francesco Ferrini, Benjamin Dering, Andrea De Giorgio, Laura Lossi, Alberto Granato
Early-onset drinking during childhood or preadolescence is a serious social problem. Yet, most of the basic neurobiological research on the acute effects of ethanol has been carried out on adult or early postnatal animals. We studied the effect of alcohol exposure on the basic electrophysiological properties and cell viability of layer 5 pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile (P21-P23) C57BL/6N mice. After bath application of 50 mM ethanol to acute slices of the somatosensory cortex, no adverse effects were detected on cells survival, whereas the input resistance and firing rate of layer 5 neurons were significantly reduced...
December 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224181/social-cognition-and-aggression-in-methamphetamine-dependence-with-and-without-a-history-of-psychosis
#10
Anne Uhlmann, Jonathan C Ipser, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein
In substance use and psychotic disorders, socially problematic behaviours, such as high aggression may, in part, be explained by deficits in social cognition skills, like the detection of emotions or intentions in others. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of social cognition impairment and its association with aggression in individuals with methamphetamine (MA) dependence, methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP), and healthy controls (CTRL). A total of 20 MAP participants, 21 MA-dependent participants without psychosis, and 21 CTRL participants performed a facial morphing emotion recognition task (ERT) across four basic emotions (anger, fear, happiness and sadness) and the reading the mind in the eyes task (RMET), and completed the aggression questionnaire...
December 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224179/antidiabetic-polypill-improves-central-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mixed-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-type-2-diabetes
#11
Carmen Infante-Garcia, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Carmen Hierro-Bujalance, Esperanza Ortegon, Eleanor Pickett, Rosemary Jackson, Fernando Hernandez-Pacho, Tara Spires-Jones, Monica Garcia-Alloza
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an important risk factor to suffer dementia, being Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common form. Both AD and T2D are closely related to aging and with a growing elderly population it might be of relevance to explore new therapeutic approaches that may slow or prevent central complications associated with metabolic disorders. Therefore, we propose the use of the antidiabetic polypill (PP), a pharmacological cocktail, commonly used by T2D patients that include metformin, aspirin, simvastatin, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224132/treatment-of-mild-to-moderate-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-treated-with-insulin-pump-therapy-are-current-recommendations-effective
#12
Véronique Gingras, Katherine Desjardins, Mohamed Raef Smaoui, Valérie Savard, Virginie Messier, Ahmad Haidar, Laurent Legault, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
AIMS: Mild-to-moderate hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 4.0 mmol/L) is recommended to be treated with 15 g of carbohydrates and to repeat the treatment if hypoglycemia persists after 15 min. This recommendation was established before intensive insulin therapy and based on studies using insulin with different pharmacokinetic profiles from actual insulin analogs showing that 15 g of glucose increases blood glucose by ~ 1.5 mmol/L in 15 min. We aimed to explore the effect of current recommended treatment of mild-to-moderate hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D) participants and factors associated with treatment effectiveness...
December 9, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224131/characterization-of-tomato-leaf-curl-purple-vein-virus-a-new-monopartite-new-world-begomovirus-infecting-tomato-in-northeast-brazil
#13
M A Macedo, L C Albuquerque, M R Maliano, J O Souza, M R Rojas, A K Inoue-Nagata, R L Gilbertson
A new begomovirus species was identified from tomato plants with upward leaf curling and purple vein symptoms, which was first identified in the Piaui state of Northeast (NE) Brazil in 2014. Tomato leaf samples were collected in 2014 and 2016, and PCR with degenerate primers revealed begomovirus infection. Rolling circle amplification and restriction enzyme digestion indicated a single genomic DNA of ~ 2.6 kb. Cloning and sequencing revealed a genome organization similar to DNA-A components of New World (NW) bipartite begomoviruses, with no DNA-B...
December 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224127/defining-and-characterizing-sustained-remission-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Jeffrey R Curtis, Mona Trivedi, Boulos Haraoui, Paul Emery, Grace S Park, David H Collier, Girish A Aras, James Chung
The objective of this study is to characterize stability and clinical features of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in sustained remission. Combination therapy with methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) has increased remission rates in RA but optimal regimens to maintain remission are unknown. We describe Study of Etanercept And Methotrexate in Combination or as Monotherapy in Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis (SEAM-RA) and data from a run-in period of longitudinal observation. Patients in Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) remission (score ≤ 3...
December 9, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224121/high-definition-infrared-thermography-of-ice-nucleation-and-propagation-in-wheat-under-natural-frost-conditions-and-controlled-freezing
#15
David P Livingston, Tan D Tuong, J Paul Murphy, Lawrence V Gusta, Ian Willick, Micheal E Wisniewski
An extremely high resolution infrared camera demonstrated various freezing events in wheat under natural conditions. Many of those events shed light on years of misunderstanding regarding freezing in small grains. Infrared thermography has enhanced our knowledge of ice nucleation and propagation in plants through visualization of the freezing process. The majority of infrared analyses have been conducted under controlled conditions and often on individual organs instead of whole plants. In the present study, high-definition (1280 × 720 pixel resolution) infrared thermography was used under natural conditions to visualize the freezing process of wheat plants during freezing events in 2016 and 2017...
December 9, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224120/spontaneous-cervical-artery-dissection-is-accompanied-by-a-hypercoagulable-state-and-simultaneous-inflammatory-condition
#16
Johann Otto Pelz, Kristian Harms, Michael Metze, Dominik Michalski
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) are often preceded by infections. However, existing data about inflammatory parameters remained inconsistent. Remarkably, concurrent information about the coagulation system, whose affection seems also reasonable to cause ischaemic events, are still lacking in sCAD patients. Thus, this study explores the association between the inflammatory and coagulation system in patients with sCAD. METHODS: The parameters leukocyte and thrombocyte count, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time were extracted from hospital-based medical records of patients (n = 60) with sCAD and compared with those of a control group (n = 97) from a prospective observational stroke study...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224119/effects-of-diurnal-temperature-range-on-mortality-in-hefei-city-china
#17
Jing Tang, Chang-Chun Xiao, Yu-Rong Li, Jun-Qing Zhang, Hao-Yuan Zhai, Xi-Ya Geng, Rui Ding, Jin-Xia Zhai
Although several studies indicated an association between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and mortality, the results about modifiers are inconsistent, and few studies were conducted in developing inland country. This study aims to evaluate the effects of DTR on cause-specific mortality and whether season, gender, or age might modify any association in Hefei city, China, during 2007-2016. Quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression models combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) were applied to evaluate the relationships between DTR and non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224109/testosterone-therapy-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-men-with-testosterone-deficiency-hypogonadism
#18
Farid Saad
Since the early 1990s, it has been recognized that testosterone (T) levels are lower in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with nondiabetic men (controls). Hypogonadism has been reported in approximately 50% of men with T2DM with robust correlations with measures of obesity, such as waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). In longitudinal studies, hypogonadism has been identified as a predictor of incident T2DM. Experimental withdrawal of T led to acute decreased insulin sensitivity, which can be reversed by normalization of T concentrations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224094/sexual-dimorphism-and-estrogen-action-in-mouse-liver
#19
Sara Della Torre, Federica Lolli, Paolo Ciana, Adriana Maggi
Recent studies have demonstrated that in mice, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is expressed in the liver and has a direct effect on the regulation of the hepatic genes relevant for energy metabolism and drug metabolism. The sex-related differential expression of the hepatic ERα raises the questions as to whether this receptor is responsible for the sexual differences observed in the physiopathology of the liver.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224090/men-are-from-mars-women-are-from-venus-sex-differences-in-insulin-action-and-secretion
#20
Ananda Basu, Simmi Dube, Rita Basu
Sex difference plays a substantial role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in healthy glucose-tolerant humans. The factors which may contribute to the sex-related differences in glucose metabolism include differences in lifestyle (diet and exercise), sex hormones, and body composition. Several epidemiological and observational studies have noted that impaired glucose tolerance is more common in women than men. Some of these studies have attributed this to differences in body composition, while others have attributed impaired insulin sensitivity as a cause of impaired glucose tolerance in women...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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