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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332715/teaching-identity-matching-of-braille-characters-to-beginning-braille-readers
#1
Karen A Toussaint, Mindy C Scheithauer, Jeffrey H Tiger, Kathryn J Saunders
We taught three children with visual impairments to make tactile discriminations of the braille alphabet within a matching-to-sample format. That is, we presented participants with a braille character as a sample stimulus, and they selected the matching stimulus from a three-comparison array. In order to minimize participant errors, we initially arranged braille characters into training sets in which there was a maximum difference in the number of dots comprising the target and nontarget comparison stimuli...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302197/-event-related-potential-of-working-memory-on-emotional-faces-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Cai-Juan Xu, Ling Zhang, Ning Pan, Qiong-Xi Lin, Jun Ye, Jin Jing, Yu Jin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of working memory ability on emotional faces and related event-related potential (ERP) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: The Chinese Facial Affective Picture System was used as test material, and the event-related potential system was used to record the electroencephalographic data when 16 ASD children aged 6-12 years (ASD group) and 14 normal children matched for age (control group) were completing the facial emotion delayed match-to-sample task...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302161/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#3
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Catherine Demuynck, Timothée Albasser, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine Schmidt-Mutter, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date. METHODS: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286477/transfer-effects-to-a-multimodal-dual-task-after-working-memory-training-and-associated-neural-correlates-in-older-adults-a-pilot-study
#4
Stephan Heinzel, Jérôme Rimpel, Christine Stelzel, Michael A Rapp
Working memory (WM) performance declines with age. However, several studies have shown that WM training may lead to performance increases not only in the trained task, but also in untrained cognitive transfer tasks. It has been suggested that transfer effects occur if training task and transfer task share specific processing components that are supposedly processed in the same brain areas. In the current study, we investigated whether single-task WM training and training-related alterations in neural activity might support performance in a dual-task setting, thus assessing transfer effects to higher-order control processes in the context of dual-task coordination...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270589/coding-of-spatial-attention-priorities-and-object-features-in-the-macaque-lateral-intraparietal-cortex
#5
Ekaterina Levichkina, Yuri B Saalmann, Trichur R Vidyasagar
Primate posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is known to be involved in controlling spatial attention. Neurons in one part of the PPC, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), show enhanced responses to objects at attended locations. Although many are selective for object features, such as the orientation of a visual stimulus, it is not clear how LIP circuits integrate feature-selective information when providing attentional feedback about behaviorally relevant locations to the visual cortex. We studied the relationship between object feature and spatial attention properties of LIP cells in two macaques by measuring the cells' orientation selectivity and the degree of attentional enhancement while performing a delayed match-to-sample task...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268639/decoding-memory-features-from-hippocampal-spiking-activities-using-sparse-classification-models
#6
Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Brian S Robinson, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger
To understand how memory information is encoded in the hippocampus, we build classification models to decode memory features from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 spatio-temporal patterns of spikes recorded from epilepsy patients performing a memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample task. The classification model consists of a set of B-spline basis functions for extracting memory features from the spike patterns, and a sparse logistic regression classifier for generating binary categorical output of memory features...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259598/tropisetron-sensitizes-%C3%AE-7-containing-nicotinic-receptors-to-low-levels-of-acetylcholine-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-improves-memory-related-task-performance-in-young-and-aged-animals
#7
Patrick M Callahan, Daniel Bertrand, Sonia Bertrand, Marc R Plagenhoef, Alvin V Terry
Tropisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist commonly prescribed for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting also exhibits high affinity, partial agonist activity at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs). α7 nAChRs are considered viable therapeutic targets for neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we further explored the nAChR pharmacology of tropisetron to include the homomeric α7 nAChR and recently characterized heteromeric α7β2 nAChR (1:10 ratio) and we evaluated its cognitive effects in young and aged animals...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254614/the-impact-of-object-type-on-the-spatial-analogies-in-korean-preschoolers
#8
Youjeong Park, Marianella Casasola
We tested young children's spatial reasoning in a match-to-sample task, manipulating the objects in the task (abstract geometric shapes, line drawings of realistic objects, or both). Korean 4- and 5-year-old children (N=161) generalized the target spatial configuration (i.e., on, in, above) more easily when the sample used geometric shapes and the choices used realistic objects than the reverse (i.e., realistic-object sample to geometric-shape choices). With within-type stimuli (i.e., sample and choices were both geometric shapes or both realistic objects), 5-year-old, but not 4-year-old, children generalized the spatial relations more easily with geometric shapes than realistic objects...
February 27, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226819/decoding-memory-features-from-hippocampal-spiking-activities-using-sparse-classification-models
#9
Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Brian S Robinson, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Brian S Robinson, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Brian S Robinson
To understand how memory information is encoded in the hippocampus, we build classification models to decode memory features from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 spatio-temporal patterns of spikes recorded from epilepsy patients performing a memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample task. The classification model consists of a set of B-spline basis functions for extracting memory features from the spike patterns, and a sparse logistic regression classifier for generating binary categorical output of memory features...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213065/requiring-collaboration-hippocampal-prefrontal-networks-needed-in-spatial-working-memory-and-ageing-a-multivariate-analysis-approach
#10
C Zancada-Menendez, P Alvarez-Suarez, P Sampedro-Piquero, M Cuesta, A Begega
Ageing is characterized by a decline in the processes of retention and storage of spatial information. We have examined the behavioural performance of adult rats (3months old) and aged rats (18months old) in a spatial complex task (delayed match to sample). The spatial task was performed in the Morris water maze and consisted of three sessions per day over a period of three consecutive days. Each session consisted of two trials (one sample and retention) and inter-session intervals of 5min. Behavioural results showed that the spatial task was difficult for middle aged group...
February 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198413/pre-encoding-gamma-band-activity-during-auditory-working-memory
#11
Jochen Kaiser, Maria Rieder, Cornelius Abel, Benjamin Peters, Christoph Bledowski
Previous magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have revealed gamma-band activity at sensors over parietal and fronto-temporal cortex during the delay phase of auditory spatial and non-spatial match-to-sample tasks, respectively. While this activity was interpreted as reflecting the memory maintenance of sound features, we noted that task-related activation differences might have been present already prior to the onset of the sample stimulus. The present study focused on the interval between a visual cue indicating which sound feature was to be memorized (lateralization or pitch) and sample sound presentation to test for task-related activation differences preceding stimulus encoding...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129058/a-tms-investigation-on-the-role-of-lateral-occipital-and-caudal-intraparietal-sulcus-in-the-perception-of-object-form-and-orientation
#12
Philippe A Chouinard, Deiter K Meena, Robert L Whitwell, Matthew D Hilchey, Melvyn A Goodale
We used TMS to assess the causal roles of the lateral occipital (LO) and caudal intraparietal sulcus (cIPS) areas in the perceptual discrimination of object features. All participants underwent fMRI to localize these areas using a protocol in which they passively viewed images of objects that varied in both form and orientation. fMRI identified six significant brain regions: LO, cIPS, and the fusiform gyrus, bilaterally. In a separate experimental session, we applied TMS to LO or cIPS while the same participants performed match-to-sample form or orientation discrimination tasks...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113595/sparse-large-scale-nonlinear-dynamical-modeling-of-human-hippocampus-for-memory-prostheses
#13
Dong Song, Brian Robinson, Robert Hampson, Vasilis Marmarelis, Sam Deadwyler, Theodore Berger
In order to build hippocampal prostheses for restoring memory functions, we build sparse multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear dynamical models of the human hippocampus. Spike trains are recorded from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions of epileptic patients performing a variety of memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Using CA3 and CA1 spike trains as inputs and outputs respectively, sparse generalized Laguerre-Volterra models are estimated with group lasso and local coordinate descent methods to capture the nonlinear dynamics underlying the CA3-CA1 spike train transformations...
August 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100252/a-cognitive-electrophysiological-signature-differentiates-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-normal-aging
#14
Juan Li, Lucas S Broster, Gregory A Jicha, Nancy B Munro, Frederick A Schmitt, Erin Abner, Richard Kryscio, Charles D Smith, Yang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive and effective biomarkers for early detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) before measurable changes in behavioral performance remain scarce. Cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) measure synchronized synaptic neural activity associated with a cognitive event. Loss of synapses is a hallmark of the neuropathology of early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ERP responses during working memory retrieval discriminate aMCI from cognitively normal controls (NC) matched in age and education...
January 19, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093475/hippocampal-contribution-to-context-encoding-across-development-is-disrupted-following-early-life-adversity
#15
Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly A Sambrook, Maya L Rosen, Mary K Askren, Katie A McLaughlin
Context can drastically influence responses to environmental stimuli. For example, a gunshot should provoke a different response at a public park than a shooting range. Little is known about how contextual processing and neural correlates change across human development or about individual differences related to early environmental experiences. Children (N = 60; 8-19 years, 24 exposed to interpersonal violence) completed a context encoding task during fMRI scanning using a delayed match-to-sample design with neutral, happy, and angry facial cues embedded in realistic background scenes...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077711/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#16
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), particularly in temporal brain structures, serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed match-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025015/developmental-trajectories-of-event-related-potentials-related-to-working-memory
#17
Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Antonio Arjona, Manuel Morales, Carlos M Gómez
Working memory is an important cognitive function, and it is crucial to better understand its neurophysiological mechanisms. The developmental trajectories of the Event Related Potentials related to this important function have hardly been studied. However, these ERPs may provide some clues about the individual state of maturation, as has been demonstrated for anatomical brain images. The present study aims to determine the behavioral and neurophysiological development of Working Memory (WM) processes. For this purpose, 170 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 26 years performed a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task (DMTS)...
December 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991807/practice-makes-it-better-a-psychophysical-study-of-visual-perceptual-learning-and-its-transfer-effects-on-aging
#18
Xuan Li, Philip A Allen, Mei-Ching Lien, Naohide Yamamoto
Previous studies on perceptual learning, acquiring a new skill through practice, appear to stimulate brain plasticity and enhance performance (Fiorentini & Berardi, 1981). The present study aimed to determine (a) whether perceptual learning can be used to compensate for age-related declines in perceptual abilities, and (b) whether the effect of perceptual learning can be transferred to untrained stimuli and subsequently improve capacity of visual working memory (VWM). We tested both healthy younger and older adults in a 3-day training session using an orientation discrimination task...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939856/an-assessment-of-domain-general-metacognitive-responding-in-rhesus-monkeys
#19
Emily Kathryn Brown, Victoria L Templer, Robert R Hampton
Metacognition is the ability to monitor and control one's cognition. Monitoring may involve either public cues or introspection of private cognitive states. We tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a series of generalization tests to determine which type of cues control metacognition. In Experiment 1, monkeys learned a perceptual discrimination in which a "decline-test" response allowed them to avoid tests and receive a guaranteed small reward. Monkeys declined more difficult than easy tests. In Experiments 2-4, we evaluated whether monkeys generalized this metacognitive responding to new perceptual tests...
February 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914406/energetic-and-informational-masking-of-complex-sounds-by-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#20
Brian K Branstetter, Kimberly Bakhtiari, Amy Black, Jennifer S Trickey, James J Finneran, Hitomi Aihara
With few exceptions, laboratory studies of auditory masking in marine mammals have been limited to examining detection thresholds for simple tonal signals embedded in broadband noise. However, detection of a sound has little adaptive advantage without the knowledge of what produced the sound (recognition) and where the sound originated (localization). In the current study, a bottlenose dolphin's masked detection thresholds (energetic masking) and masked recognition thresholds (informational masking) were estimated for a variety of complex signals including dolphin vocalizations, frequency modulated signals, and a 10 kHz pure tone...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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