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Match-to-sample

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713029/successive-odor-matching-and-non-matching-to-sample-in-rats-a-reversal-design
#1
Katherine Bruce, Katherine Dyer, Michael Mathews, Catharine Nealley, Tiffany Phasukkan, Ashley Prichard, Mark Galizio
There is a growing body of research on matching- and non-matching-to-sample (MTS, NMTS) relations with rats using olfactory stimuli; however, the specific characteristics of this relational control are unclear. In the current study we examine MTS and NMTS in rats with an automated olfactometer using a successive (go, no-go) procedure. Ten rats were trained to either match- or non-match-to-sample with common scents (apple, cinnamon, etc.) as olfactory stimuli. After matching or non-matching training with four odorants, rats were tested for transfer twice with four new odorants on each test...
July 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686137/using-a-large-scale-neural-model-of-cortical-object-processing-to-investigate-the-neural-substrate-for-managing-multiple-items-in-short-term-memory
#2
Qin Liu, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669115/rats-know-when-they-remember-transfer-of-metacognitive-responding-across-odor-based-delayed-match-to-sample-tests
#3
Victoria L Templer, Keith A Lee, Aidan J Preston
Metamemory entails cognitively assessing the strength of one's memories. We tested the ability of nine Long-Evans rats to distinguish between remembering and forgetting by presenting a decline option that allowed a four-choice odor-based delayed match to sample (DMTS) tests to be by-passed. Rats performed significantly better on tests they chose to take than on tests they were forced to take, indicating metacognitive responding. However, rather than control by internal mnemonic cues, one alternative explanation is that decline use is based on external test-specific cues that become associated with increased rewards overtime...
July 1, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657141/neural-correlates-of-atomoxetine-improving-inhibitory-control-and-visual-processing-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Li-Ying Fan, Tai-Li Chou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Atomoxetine improves inhibitory control and visual processing in healthy volunteers and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of these two functions after chronic treatment with atomoxetine. This study aimed to use the counting Stroop task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to investigate the changes related to inhibitory control and visual processing in adults with ADHD...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631988/evidence-of-practice-effect-in-cantab-spatial-working-memory-test-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Federica Cacciamani, Nicola Salvadori, Paolo Eusebi, Viviana Lisetti, Elisa Luchetti, Paolo Calabresi, Lucilla Parnetti
The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a system of neuropsychological tests frequently used to track the progression of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated test-retest reliability in seven CANTAB tests. Twenty-five MCI patients, with either AD-like or conflicting/normal cerebrospinal fluid profiles underwent three testing sessions at 6-month intervals, including the following tests: Reaction Time and Rapid Visual Information Processing (assessing attention and reaction times); Delayed Matching-to-Sample, Paired Associates Learning, Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory (assessing memory); Spatial Working Memory (assessing executive functions)...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630816/the-effects-of-an-auditory-matching-ipad-app-on-three-preschoolers-echoic-and-listener-responses
#6
Lin Du, Jeanne Speckman, Megan Medina, Michelle Cole-Hatchard
We investigated the effects of an auditory match-to-sample protocol on three preschoolers' accurate echoics to 100 English words and advanced listener responses. The protocol was presented by using an iPad app Sounds the same: an app to target listening and speaking clearly. We used a combination of a multiple probe design (for echoic responses) and a delayed multiple probe design (for advanced listener literacy responses) with a time-lagged baseline across participants to test the effectiveness of the protocol...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618296/impaired-body-perception-in-developmental-prosopagnosia
#7
Federica Biotti, Katie L H Gray, Richard Cook
Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder associated with difficulties recognising and discriminating faces. In some cases, the perceptual deficits seen in DP appear to be face-specific. However, DP is known to be a heterogeneous condition, and many cases undoubtedly exhibit impaired perception of other complex objects. There are several well-documented parallels between body and face perception; for example, faces and bodies are both thought to recruit holistic analysis and engage similar regions of visual cortex...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592696/visual-working-memory-enhances-the-neural-response-to-matching-visual-input
#8
Surya Gayet, Matthias Guggenmos, Thomas B Christophel, John-Dylan Haynes, Chris L E Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Philipp Sterzer
Visual working memory (VWM) is used to maintain visual information available for subsequent goal-directed behavior. The content of VWM has been shown to affect the behavioral response to concurrent visual input, suggesting that visual representations originating from VWM and from sensory input draw upon a shared neural substrate (i.e., a sensory recruitment stance on VWM storage). Here, we hypothesized that visual information maintained in VWM would enhance the neural response to concurrent visual input that matches the content of VWM...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560098/sports-training-enhances-visuo-spatial-cognition-regardless-of-open-closed-typology
#9
Ting-Yu Chueh, Chung-Ju Huang, Shu-Shih Hsieh, Kuan-Fu Chen, Yu-Kai Chang, Tsung-Min Hung
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of open and closed sport participation on visuo-spatial attention and memory performance among young adults. Forty-eight young adults-16 open-skill athletes, 16 closed-skill athletes, and 16 non-athletes controls-were recruited for the study. Both behavioral performance and event-related potential (ERP) measurement were assessed when participants performed non-delayed and delayed match-to-sample task that tested visuo-spatial attention and memory processing...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557315/salience-network-response-to-changes-in-emotional-expressions-of-others-is-heightened-during-early-adolescence-relevance-for-social-functioning
#10
Maya L Rosen, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Jessica L Jenness, Mary K Askren, Andrew N Meltzoff, Katie A McLaughlin
Adolescence is a unique developmental period when the salience of social and emotional information becomes particularly pronounced. Although this increased sensitivity to social and emotional information has frequently been considered with respect to risk behaviors and psychopathology, evidence suggests that increased adolescent sensitivity to social and emotional cues may confer advantages. For example, greater sensitivity to shifts in the emotions of others is likely to promote flexible and adaptive social behavior...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554082/discriminating-relational-and-perceptual-judgments-evidence-from-human-toddlers
#11
Caren M Walker, Alison Gopnik
The ability to represent same-different relations is an important condition for abstract thought. However, there is mixed evidence for when this ability develops, both ontogenetically and phylogenetically. Apparent success in relational reasoning may be evidence for genuine conceptual understanding or may be the result of low-level, perceptual strategies. We introduce a method to discriminate these possibilities by pitting two conditions that are perceptually matched but conceptually different: in a "fused" condition, same and different objects are joined, creating single objects that have the same perceptual features as the two object pairs in the "relational" condition...
September 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546309/inferential-learning-of-serial-order-of-perceptual-categories-by-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#12
Natalie Tanner, Greg Jensen, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Category learning in animals is typically trained explicitly, in most instances by varying the exemplars of a single category in a matching-to-sample task. Here, we show that male rhesus macaques can learn categories by a transitive inference paradigm in which novel exemplars of five categories were presented throughout training. Instead of requiring decisions about a constant set of repetitively presented stimuli, we studied the macaque's ability to determine the relative order of multiple exemplars of particular stimuli that were rarely repeated...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497655/nicotine-self-administration-reverses-cognitive-deficits-in-a-rat-model-for-schizophrenia
#13
Uta Waterhouse, Katharine A Brennan, Bart A Ellenbroek
High comorbidity between schizophrenia and tobacco addiction has been well established. Explanatory theories include nicotine as a cognitive enhancer ameliorating symptoms of schizophrenia and underlying shared substrates increasing susceptibility to addiction in these individuals. To test these non-mutually exclusive theories, the maternal immune activation (MIA) model was utilized. To this end, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with a bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (0.5 mg/kg), on gestation days 10 and 11...
May 12, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471222/pigeon-ncl-and-nfl-neuronal-activity-represents-neural-correlates-of-the-sample
#14
Melissa Johnston, Catrona Anderson, Michael Colombo
Four birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample task with common outcomes where correct responses during both red and green trials yielded reward. We recorded neuronal activity from the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of the mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the avian nidopallium frontolaterale, a higher-order visual processing region. In both regions we found sustained activity during the delay period of both red and green trials. These findings provide the first evidence that delay activity in the pigeon's nidopallium caudolaterale and nidopallium frontolaterale represent a neural correlate for the to-be-remembered sample stimulus...
May 4, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466195/beneficial-neurocognitive-effects-of-transcranial-laser-in-older-adults
#15
Enrique Vargas, Douglas W Barrett, Celeste L Saucedo, Li-Da Huang, Jacob A Abraham, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley, F Gonzalez-Lima
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury)...
May 2, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458022/impaired-prefrontal-cognitive-control-over-interference-by-food-images-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-bulimia-nervosa
#16
Jung Eun Lee, Kee Namkoong, Young-Chul Jung
Binge-eating disorder (BED)characterized by recurrent episodes of binge-eating without inappropriate compensatory behaviors is classified as an official diagnosis in DSM-5. However, the neural bases that differentiate BED from other eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa (BN), are still under debate. Thirty-nine participants (HC, n=14; BN, n=13; BED, n=12) underwent functional MRI while performing a Stroop-Match-to-Sample task. This pilot study investigated how food images interfered with the behavioral performances and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent neuronal activity...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439047/functional-human-grin2b-promoter-polymorphism-and-variation-of-mental-processing-speed-in-older-adults
#17
Yang Jiang, Ming Kuan Lin, Gregory A Jicha, Xiuhua Ding, Sabrina L McIlwrath, David W Fardo, Lucas S Broster, Frederick A Schmitt, Richard Kryscio, Robert H Lipsky
We investigated the role of a single nucleotide polymorphism rs3764030 (G>A) within the human GRIN2B promoter in mental processing speed in healthy, cognitively intact, older adults. In vitro DNA-binding and reporter gene assays of different allele combinations in transfected cells showed that the A allele was a gain-of-function variant associated with increasing GRIN2B mRNA levels. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with A allele will have better memory performance (i.e. faster reaction times) in older age...
April 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432743/global-and-local-visual-processing-in-autism-an-objective-assessment-approach
#18
Kritika Nayar, Angela C Voyles, Lynne Kiorpes, Adriana Di Martino
We examined global and local visual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via a match-to-sample task using Kanizsa illusory contours (KIC). School-aged children with ASD (n = 28) and age-matched typically developing controls (n = 22; 7-13 years) performed a sequential match-to-sample between a solid shape (sample) and two illusory alternatives. We tracked eye gaze and behavioral performance in two task conditions: one with and one without local interference from background noise elements. While analyses revealed lower accuracy and longer reaction time in ASD in the condition with local interference only, eye tracking robustly captured ASD-related global atypicalities across both conditions...
April 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396214/enhancing-links-between-visual-short-term-memory-visual-attention-and-cognitive-control-processes-through-practice-an-electrophysiological-insight
#19
Giorgio Fuggetta, Philip A Duke
The operation of attention on visible objects involves a sequence of cognitive processes. The current study firstly aimed to elucidate the effects of practice on neural mechanisms underlying attentional processes as measured with both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Secondly, it aimed to identify any pattern in the relationship between Event-Related Potential (ERP) components which play a role in the operation of attention in vision. Twenty-seven participants took part in two recording sessions one week apart, performing an experimental paradigm which combined a match-to-sample task with a memory-guided efficient visual-search task within one trial sequence...
April 8, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390217/painful-engrams-oscillatory-correlates-of-working-memory-for-phasic-nociceptive-laser-stimuli
#20
Elia Valentini, Valentina Nicolardi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Research suggests that working memory (WM) is impaired in chronic pain. Yet, information on how potentially noxious stimuli are maintained in memory is limited in patients as well as in healthy people. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy volunteers during a modified delayed match-to-sample task where maintenance in memory of relevant attributes of nociceptive laser stimuli was essential for subsequent cued-discrimination. Participants performed in high and low load conditions (i.e. three vs...
April 5, 2017: Brain and Cognition
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