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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546309/inferential-learning-of-serial-order-of-perceptual-categories-by-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#1
Natalie Tanner, Greg Jensen, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Category learning in animals is typically trained explicitly, in most instances by varying the exemplars of a single category in a matching-to-sample task. Here, we show that male rhesus macaques can learn categories by a transitive inference paradigm in which novel exemplars of five categories were presented throughout training. Instead of requiring decisions about a constant set of repetitively presented stimuli, we studied the macaque's ability to determine the relative order of multiple exemplars of particular stimuli that were rarely repeated...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497655/nicotine-self-administration-reverses-cognitive-deficits-in-a-rat-model-for-schizophrenia
#2
Uta Waterhouse, Katharine A Brennan, Bart A Ellenbroek
High comorbidity between schizophrenia and tobacco addiction has been well established. Explanatory theories include nicotine as a cognitive enhancer ameliorating symptoms of schizophrenia and underlying shared substrates increasing susceptibility to addiction in these individuals. To test these non-mutually exclusive theories, the maternal immune activation (MIA) model was utilized. To this end, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with a bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (0.5 mg/kg), on gestation days 10 and 11...
May 12, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471222/pigeon-ncl-and-nfl-neuronal-activity-represents-neural-correlates-of-the-sample
#3
Melissa Johnston, Catrona Anderson, Michael Colombo
Four birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample task with common outcomes where correct responses during both red and green trials yielded reward. We recorded neuronal activity from the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of the mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the avian nidopallium frontolaterale, a higher-order visual processing region. In both regions we found sustained activity during the delay period of both red and green trials. These findings provide the first evidence that delay activity in the pigeon's nidopallium caudolaterale and nidopallium frontolaterale represent a neural correlate for the to-be-remembered sample stimulus...
May 4, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466195/beneficial-neurocognitive-effects-of-transcranial-laser-in-older-adults
#4
Enrique Vargas, Douglas W Barrett, Celeste L Saucedo, Li-Da Huang, Jacob A Abraham, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley, F Gonzalez-Lima
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury)...
May 2, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458022/impaired-prefrontal-cognitive-control-over-interference-by-food-images-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-bulimia-nervosa
#5
Jung Eun Lee, Kee Namkoong, Young-Chul Jung
Binge-eating disorder (BED)characterized by recurrent episodes of binge-eating without inappropriate compensatory behaviors is classified as an official diagnosis in DSM-5. However, the neural bases that differentiate BED from other eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa (BN), are still under debate. Thirty-nine participants (HC, n=14; BN, n=13; BED, n=12) underwent functional MRI while performing a Stroop-Match-to-Sample task. This pilot study investigated how food images interfered with the behavioral performances and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent neuronal activity...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439047/functional-human-grin2b-promoter-polymorphism-and-variation-of-mental-processing-speed-in-older-adults
#6
Yang Jiang, Ming Kuan Lin, Gregory A Jicha, Xiuhua Ding, Sabrina L McIlwrath, David W Fardo, Lucas S Broster, Frederick A Schmitt, Richard Kryscio, Robert H Lipsky
We investigated the role of a single nucleotide polymorphism rs3764030 (G>A) within the human GRIN2B promoter in mental processing speed in healthy, cognitively intact, older adults. In vitro DNA-binding and reporter gene assays of different allele combinations in transfected cells showed that the A allele was a gain-of-function variant associated with increasing GRIN2B mRNA levels. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with A allele will have better memory performance (i.e. faster reaction times) in older age...
April 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432743/global-and-local-visual-processing-in-autism-an-objective-assessment-approach
#7
Kritika Nayar, Angela C Voyles, Lynne Kiorpes, Adriana Di Martino
We examined global and local visual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via a match-to-sample task using Kanizsa illusory contours (KIC). School-aged children with ASD (n = 28) and age-matched typically developing controls (n = 22; 7-13 years) performed a sequential match-to-sample between a solid shape (sample) and two illusory alternatives. We tracked eye gaze and behavioral performance in two task conditions: one with and one without local interference from background noise elements. While analyses revealed lower accuracy and longer reaction time in ASD in the condition with local interference only, eye tracking robustly captured ASD-related global atypicalities across both conditions...
April 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396214/enhancing-links-between-visual-short-term-memory-visual-attention-and-cognitive-control-processes-through-practice-an-electrophysiological-insight
#8
Giorgio Fuggetta, Philip A Duke
The operation of attention on visible objects involves a sequence of cognitive processes. The current study firstly aimed to elucidate the effects of practice on neural mechanisms underlying attentional processes as measured with both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Secondly, it aimed to identify any pattern in the relationship between Event-Related Potential (ERP) components which play a role in the operation of attention in vision. Twenty-seven participants took part in two recording sessions one week apart, performing an experimental paradigm which combined a match-to-sample task with a memory-guided efficient visual-search task within one trial sequence...
April 8, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390217/painful-engrams-oscillatory-correlates-of-working-memory-for-phasic-nociceptive-laser-stimuli
#9
Elia Valentini, Valentina Nicolardi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Research suggests that working memory (WM) is impaired in chronic pain. Yet, information on how potentially noxious stimuli are maintained in memory is limited in patients as well as in healthy people. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy volunteers during a modified delayed match-to-sample task where maintenance in memory of relevant attributes of nociceptive laser stimuli was essential for subsequent cued-discrimination. Participants performed in high and low load conditions (i.e. three vs...
April 5, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386225/attentional-filter-training-but-not-memory-training-improves-decision-making
#10
Marlen Schmicker, Patrick Müller, Melanie Schwefel, Notger G Müller
Decision-making has a high practical relevance for daily performance. Its relation to other cognitive abilities such as executive control and memory is not fully understood. Here we asked whether training of either attentional filtering or memory storage would influence decision-making as indexed by repetitive assessments of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT was developed to assess and simulate real-life decision-making (Bechara et al., 2005). In this task, participants gain or lose money by developing advantageous or disadvantageous decision strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352511/learner-preference-between-massed-and-alternating-trial-sequencing-when-teaching-stimulus-relations-to-children-with-autism
#11
Paulo Guilhardi, Jennifer Smith, Camille Rivera, Robert K Ross
Two children with autism were assessed for preference between intersession distribution of mastered and unknown instructional trials on a computerized matching-to-sample task consisting of 12 total learning opportunities. Choice responses yielded presentation of either massed-trial sequencing (six unknown/six mastered stimuli relations or vice-versa) or alternating-trial sequencing delivery (alternation of unknown and mastered stimuli relations) followed by reinforcement for correct responses. An extinction condition served as an experimental control...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332715/teaching-identity-matching-of-braille-characters-to-beginning-braille-readers
#12
Karen A Toussaint, Mindy C Scheithauer, Jeffrey H Tiger, Kathryn J Saunders
We taught three children with visual impairments to make tactile discriminations of the braille alphabet within a matching-to-sample format. That is, we presented participants with a braille character as a sample stimulus, and they selected the matching stimulus from a three-comparison array. In order to minimize participant errors, we initially arranged braille characters into training sets in which there was a maximum difference in the number of dots comprising the target and nontarget comparison stimuli...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302197/-event-related-potential-of-working-memory-on-emotional-faces-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Cai-Juan Xu, Ling Zhang, Ning Pan, Qiong-Xi Lin, Jun Ye, Jin Jing, Yu Jin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of working memory ability on emotional faces and related event-related potential (ERP) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: The Chinese Facial Affective Picture System was used as test material, and the event-related potential system was used to record the electroencephalographic data when 16 ASD children aged 6-12 years (ASD group) and 14 normal children matched for age (control group) were completing the facial emotion delayed match-to-sample task...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302161/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#14
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Catherine Demuynck, Timothée Albasser, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine Schmidt-Mutter, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date. METHODS: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286477/transfer-effects-to-a-multimodal-dual-task-after-working-memory-training-and-associated-neural-correlates-in-older-adults-a-pilot-study
#15
Stephan Heinzel, Jérôme Rimpel, Christine Stelzel, Michael A Rapp
Working memory (WM) performance declines with age. However, several studies have shown that WM training may lead to performance increases not only in the trained task, but also in untrained cognitive transfer tasks. It has been suggested that transfer effects occur if training task and transfer task share specific processing components that are supposedly processed in the same brain areas. In the current study, we investigated whether single-task WM training and training-related alterations in neural activity might support performance in a dual-task setting, thus assessing transfer effects to higher-order control processes in the context of dual-task coordination...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270589/coding-of-spatial-attention-priorities-and-object-features-in-the-macaque-lateral-intraparietal-cortex
#16
Ekaterina Levichkina, Yuri B Saalmann, Trichur R Vidyasagar
Primate posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is known to be involved in controlling spatial attention. Neurons in one part of the PPC, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), show enhanced responses to objects at attended locations. Although many are selective for object features, such as the orientation of a visual stimulus, it is not clear how LIP circuits integrate feature-selective information when providing attentional feedback about behaviorally relevant locations to the visual cortex. We studied the relationship between object feature and spatial attention properties of LIP cells in two macaques by measuring the cells' orientation selectivity and the degree of attentional enhancement while performing a delayed match-to-sample task...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268639/decoding-memory-features-from-hippocampal-spiking-activities-using-sparse-classification-models
#17
Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Brian S Robinson, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger
To understand how memory information is encoded in the hippocampus, we build classification models to decode memory features from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 spatio-temporal patterns of spikes recorded from epilepsy patients performing a memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample task. The classification model consists of a set of B-spline basis functions for extracting memory features from the spike patterns, and a sparse logistic regression classifier for generating binary categorical output of memory features...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259598/tropisetron-sensitizes-%C3%AE-7-containing-nicotinic-receptors-to-low-levels-of-acetylcholine-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-improves-memory-related-task-performance-in-young-and-aged-animals
#18
Patrick M Callahan, Daniel Bertrand, Sonia Bertrand, Marc R Plagenhoef, Alvin V Terry
Tropisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist commonly prescribed for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting also exhibits high affinity, partial agonist activity at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs). α7 nAChRs are considered viable therapeutic targets for neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we further explored the nAChR pharmacology of tropisetron to include the homomeric α7 nAChR and recently characterized heteromeric α7β2 nAChR (1:10 ratio) and we evaluated its cognitive effects in young and aged animals...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254614/the-impact-of-object-type-on-the-spatial-analogies-in-korean-preschoolers
#19
Youjeong Park, Marianella Casasola
We tested young children's spatial reasoning in a match-to-sample task, manipulating the objects in the task (abstract geometric shapes, line drawings of realistic objects, or both). Korean 4- and 5-year-old children (N=161) generalized the target spatial configuration (i.e., on, in, above) more easily when the sample used geometric shapes and the choices used realistic objects than the reverse (i.e., realistic-object sample to geometric-shape choices). With within-type stimuli (i.e., sample and choices were both geometric shapes or both realistic objects), 5-year-old, but not 4-year-old, children generalized the spatial relations more easily with geometric shapes than realistic objects...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226819/decoding-memory-features-from-hippocampal-spiking-activities-using-sparse-classification-models
#20
Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Brian S Robinson, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Brian S Robinson, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Brian S Robinson
To understand how memory information is encoded in the hippocampus, we build classification models to decode memory features from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 spatio-temporal patterns of spikes recorded from epilepsy patients performing a memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample task. The classification model consists of a set of B-spline basis functions for extracting memory features from the spike patterns, and a sparse logistic regression classifier for generating binary categorical output of memory features...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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