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Ivan Koychev, John Francis William Deakin, Wael El-Deredy, Corinna Haenschel
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. Electrophysiological studies suggest that impaired early visual processing may contribute to impaired WM in the visual domain. Abnormal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function has been implicated both in WM and in early visual processing deficits in schizophrenia. We investigated whether ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, would replicate in healthy volunteers the WM performance and early visual processing abnormalities we and others have reported in patients with schizophrenia...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Kathrin C J Eschmann, Regine Bader, Axel Mecklinger
Electrophysiological oscillations are assumed to be the core mechanism for large-scale network communication. The specific role of frontal-midline theta oscillations as cognitive control mechanism is under debate. According to the dual mechanisms of control framework, cognitive control processes can be divided into proactive and reactive control. The present study aimed at investigating the role of frontal-midline theta activity by assessing oscillations in two tasks varying in the type of cognitive control needed...
March 7, 2018: Brain and Cognition
A Özge Sungur, Lea Stemmler, Markus Wöhr, Marco B Rust
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and intellectual disability (ID) show a remarkable overlap in symptoms, including impairments in cognition, social behavior and communication. Human genetic studies revealed an enrichment of mutations in actin-related genes for these disorders, and some of the strongest candidate genes control actin dynamics. These findings led to the hypotheses: (i) that ASD, SCZ and ID share common disease mechanisms; and (ii) that, at least in a subgroup of affected individuals, defects in the actin cytoskeleton cause or contribute to their pathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Nowell Zammit, Owen Falzon, Kenneth Camilleri, Richard Muscat
The timing of neural activity is an intriguing way of exposing behaviourally-relevant neural activity, as neural populations exploit transient windows of synchronized activations to exchange dynamic communications in the service of various cognitive operations. The link between neural synchrony and working memory (WM) has been supported at the theoretical and empirical level. However, findings have also shown that WM encoding is also related to significant alpha-beta desynchronization. These findings have been primarily recorded during subsequent memory effect paradigms that compare correct with incorrect encoding trials...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Claude Alain, Madeline Cusimano, Linda Garami, Kristina C Backer, Bettina Habelt, Vanessa Chan, Lynn Hasher
We examined the effect of age on listeners' ability to orient attention to an item in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) using high-density electroencephalography, while participants completed a delayed match-to-sample task. During the retention interval, an uninformative or an informative visual retro-cue guided attention to an item in ASTM. Informative cues speeded response times, but only for young adults. In young adults, informative retro-cues generated greater event-related potential amplitude between 450 and 650 ms at parietal sites, and an increased sustained potential over the left central scalp region, thought to index the deployment of attention and maintenance of the cued item in ASTM, respectively...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Zhe Han, Xiaoxing Zhang, Jia Zhu, Yulei Chen, Chengyu T Li
Understanding neuronal mechanisms of learned behaviors requires efficient behavioral assays. We designed a high-throughput automatic training system (HATS) for olfactory behaviors in head-fixed mice. The hardware and software were constructed to enable automatic training with minimal human intervention. The integrated system was composed of customized 3D-printing supporting components, an odor-delivery unit with fast response, Arduino based hardware-controlling and data-acquisition unit. Furthermore, the customized software was designed to enable automatic training in all training phases, including lick-teaching, shaping and learning...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Paul T Corbitt, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Invasive electrophysiological and neuroanatomical studies in nonhuman mammalian experimental preparations have helped elucidate the lamina (layer) dependence of neural computations and interregional connections. Noninvasive functional neuroimaging can, in principle, resolve cortical laminae (layers), and thus provide insight into human neural computations and interregional connections. However human neuroimaging data are noisy and difficult to interpret; biologically realistic simulations can aid experimental interpretation by relating the neuroimaging data to simulated neural activity...
February 21, 2018: NeuroImage
Chengtian Zhao, Yuping Wang
Previous studies have reported that the insular cortex is involved in recognition memory, but it remains unclear which subarea of the insular cortex serves this function. To address this question, we examined 14 drug-resistant focal epilepsy patients implanted with stereotactic electrodes in the insular cortex. All participants performed a delayed match-to-sample task. Event-related potentials and spectrograms from each insular subarea were analyzed when the participants were exposed to identical (match condition) and different (mismatch condition) stimuli...
February 20, 2018: Neuroreport
Jennifer R Weyman, Jolene R Sy
Previous research has shown that praise is an effective reinforcer; however, few researchers have evaluated whether qualitative differences in praise affect responding. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of neutral, enthusiastic, and no praise on the rate of matching-to-sample acquisition during discrete-trial training with adults diagnosed with autism and an intellectual disability. In addition, we evaluated preference for neutral, enthusiastic, and no praise. All three participants acquired responses slightly faster during the enthusiastic praise condition...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
David R Coghill, Tobias Banaschewski, Caleb Bliss, Brigitte Robertson, Alessandro Zuddas
BACKGROUND: SPD489-404 was the first 2-year safety study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. In accordance with advice from the European Medicines Agency, assessment of cognitive function was a predefined safety outcome in SPD489-404. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive function over 2 years in study SPD489-404, using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
January 30, 2018: CNS Drugs
Xueyan Feng, Aihong Zhou, Zhixin Liu, Fangyu Li, Cuibai Wei, Guili Zhang, Jianping Jia
BACKGROUND: Delayed Matching-to-Sample Task 48 (DMS48), a brief tool measuring visual recognition memory, is valid to identify the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasians. However, little data is available in Chinese. OBJECTIVE: To develop norms and optimal cutoff points for the DMS48 in Chinese elders. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven memory clinics from five cities across China. DMS48 was applied to 369 Chinese aged 50 or older (138 cognitively normal [CN], 112 mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-A), and 119 mild AD dementia)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Duncan A Wilson, Masaki Tomonaga
Many primate studies have investigated discrimination of individual faces within the same species. However, few studies have looked at discrimination between primate species faces at the categorical level. This study systematically examined the factors important for visual discrimination between primate species faces in chimpanzees, including: colour, orientation, familiarity, and perceptual similarity. Five adult female chimpanzees were tested on their ability to discriminate identical and categorical (non-identical) images of different primate species faces in a series of touchscreen matching-to-sample experiments...
January 23, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
K N Power, A Gramstad, N E Gilhus, K O Hufthammer, B A Engelsen
OBJECTIVES: Generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus (GTC-SE) is considered a risk for cognitive impairment. Research with standardized tools is scarce and non-conclusive. We systematically assessed short-term and long-term cognitive function after GTC-SE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were tested after the clinical post-ictal phase of GTC-SE (timepoint 1) and again after 1 year (timepoint 2). Twenty controls were examined with the same tests...
January 14, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Paulo F Carvalho, Catarina Vales, Caitlin M Fausey, Linda B Smith
Known words can guide visual attention, affecting how information is sampled. How do novel words, those that do not provide any top-down information, affect preschoolers' visual sampling in a conceptual task? We proposed that novel names can also change visual sampling by influencing how long children look. We investigated this possibility by analyzing how children sample visual information when they hear a sentence with a novel name versus without a novel name. Children completed a match-to-sample task while their moment-to-moment eye movements were recorded using eye-tracking technology...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Saho Takagi, Kazuo Fujita
Whereas evidence has accumulated that nonhuman animals have access to the strength of their memory trace, it is unclear whether such metamemory contains components, as proposed by Hampton (2005). We assessed whether capuchin monkeys could recognize details of memorized items using a delayed matching-to-sample task. We used compound stimuli separable into 2 dimensions, "what" and "where." Two monkeys were trained to memorize both "what" and "where" a sample was and answer both/either "what" and/or "where" the sample was depending on each task after a delay...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Sumie Iwasaki, Sota Watanabe, Kazuo Fujita
Despite their impressive cognitive abilities, avian species have shown less evidence for metacognition than mammals. We suspect that commonly used tasks such as matching to sample might be too demanding to allow metacognitive processing within birds' working memory. Here, we examined whether pigeons could control their behavior as a function of knowledge levels on a three-item sequence learning task, a reference memory task supposedly requiring fewer working memory resources. The experiment used two types of lists differing in familiarity...
March 2018: Animal Cognition
Kjersti N Power, Arne Gramstad, Nils Erik Gilhus, Karl Ove Hufthammer, Bernt A Engelsen
OBJECTIVES: Status epilepticus (SE) is considered a risk for cognitive impairment. Studies have indicated that SE cause more cognitive decline than multiple lifetime generalized tonic clonic (GTC) seizures. The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients suffering from SE or from multiple lifetime GTC seizures have cognitive dysfunction, and if the disabilities differ between these groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients suffering from SE were evaluated shortly after the clinical post-ictal phase and again after one year...
February 2018: Epilepsy Research
Jessica L Jenness, Maya L Rosen, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
Violence exposure during childhood is common and associated with poor cognitive and academic functioning. However, little is known about how violence exposure influences cognitive processes that might contribute to these disparities, such as working memory, or their neural underpinnings, particularly for cognitive processes that occur in emotionally salient contexts. We address this gap in a sample of 54 participants aged 8 to 19 years (50% female), half with exposure to interpersonal violence. Participants completed a delayed match to sample task for emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
Jean-Rémy Hochmann, Arin S Tuerk, Sophia Sanborn, Rebecca Zhu, Robert Long, Meg Dempster, Susan Carey
Five experiments compared preschool children's performance to that of adults and of non-human animals on match to sample tasks involving 2-item or 16-item arrays that varied according to their composition of same or different items (Array Match-to-Sample, AMTS). They establish that, like non-human animals in most studies, 3- and 4-year-olds fail 2-item AMTS (the classic relational match to sample task introduced into the literature by Premack, 1983), and that robust success is not observed until age 6. They also establish that 3-year-olds, like non-human animal species, succeed only when they are able to encode stimuli in terms of entropy, a property of an array (namely its internal variability), rather than relations among the individuals in the array (same vs...
December 2017: Cognitive Psychology
Konstantin Hartmann, Lena Veit, Andreas Nieder
Adaptive sequential behaviors rely on the bridging and integration of temporally separate information for the realization of prospective goals. Corvids' remarkable behavioral flexibility is thought to depend on the workings of the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), a high-level avian associative forebrain area. We trained carrion crows to remember visual items for three alternating delay durations in a delayed match-to-sample task and recorded single-unit activity from the NCL. Sample-selective delay activity, a correlate of visual working memory, was maintained throughout different working memory durations...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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