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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213065/requiring-collaboration-hippocampal-prefrontal-networks-needed-in-spatial-working-memory-and-ageing-a-multivariate-analysis-approach
#1
C Zancada-Menendez, P Alvarez-Suarez, P Sampedro-Piquero, M Cuesta, A Begega
Ageing is characterized by a decline in the processes of retention and storage of spatial information. We have examined the behavioural performance of adult rats (3 months old) and aged rats (18 months old) in a spatial complex task (delayed match to sample). The spatial task was performed in the Morris water maze and consisted of three sessions per day over a period of three consecutive days. Each session consisted of two trials (one sample and retention) and inter-session intervals of five minutes. Behavioural results showed that the spatial task was difficult for middle aged group...
February 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198413/pre-encoding-gamma-band-activity-during-auditory-working-memory
#2
Jochen Kaiser, Maria Rieder, Cornelius Abel, Benjamin Peters, Christoph Bledowski
Previous magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have revealed gamma-band activity at sensors over parietal and fronto-temporal cortex during the delay phase of auditory spatial and non-spatial match-to-sample tasks, respectively. While this activity was interpreted as reflecting the memory maintenance of sound features, we noted that task-related activation differences might have been present already prior to the onset of the sample stimulus. The present study focused on the interval between a visual cue indicating which sound feature was to be memorized (lateralization or pitch) and sample sound presentation to test for task-related activation differences preceding stimulus encoding...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129058/a-tms-investigation-on-the-role-of-lateral-occipital-and-caudal-intraparietal-sulcus-in-the-perception-of-object-form-and-orientation
#3
Philippe A Chouinard, Deiter K Meena, Robert L Whitwell, Matthew D Hilchey, Melvyn A Goodale
We used TMS to assess the causal roles of the lateral occipital (LO) and caudal intraparietal sulcus (cIPS) areas in the perceptual discrimination of object features. All participants underwent fMRI to localize these areas using a protocol in which they passively viewed images of objects that varied in both form and orientation. fMRI identified six significant brain regions: LO, cIPS, and the fusiform gyrus, bilaterally. In a separate experimental session, we applied TMS to LO or cIPS while the same participants performed match-to-sample form or orientation discrimination tasks...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113595/sparse-large-scale-nonlinear-dynamical-modeling-of-human-hippocampus-for-memory-prostheses
#4
Dong Song, Brian Robinson, Robert Hampson, Vasilis Marmarelis, Sam Deadwyler, Theodore Berger
In order to build hippocampal prostheses for restoring memory functions, we build sparse multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear dynamical models of the human hippocampus. Spike trains are recorded from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions of epileptic patients performing a variety of memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Using CA3 and CA1 spike trains as inputs and outputs respectively, sparse generalized Laguerre-Volterra models are estimated with group lasso and local coordinate descent methods to capture the nonlinear dynamics underlying the CA3-CA1 spike train transformations...
August 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100252/a-cognitive-electrophysiological-signature-differentiates-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-normal-aging
#5
Juan Li, Lucas S Broster, Gregory A Jicha, Nancy B Munro, Frederick A Schmitt, Erin Abner, Richard Kryscio, Charles D Smith, Yang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive and effective biomarkers for early detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) before measurable changes in behavioral performance remain scarce. Cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) measure synchronized synaptic neural activity associated with a cognitive event. Loss of synapses is a hallmark of the neuropathology of early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ERP responses during working memory retrieval discriminate aMCI from cognitively normal controls (NC) matched in age and education...
January 19, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093475/hippocampal-contribution-to-context-encoding-across-development-is-disrupted-following-early-life-adversity
#6
Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly A Sambrook, Maya L Rosen, Mary K Askren, Katie A McLaughlin
Context can drastically influence responses to environmental stimuli. For example, a gunshot should provoke a different response at a public park than a shooting range. Little is known about how contextual processing and neural correlates change across human development or about individual differences related to early environmental experiences. Children (N = 60; 8-19 years, 24 exposed to interpersonal violence) completed a context encoding task during fMRI scanning using a delayed match-to-sample design with neutral, happy, and angry facial cues embedded in realistic background scenes...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077711/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#7
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), particularly in temporal brain structures, serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed match-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025015/developmental-trajectories-of-event-related-potentials-related-to-working-memory
#8
Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Antonio Arjona, Manuel Morales, Carlos M Gómez
Working memory is an important cognitive function, and it is crucial to better understand its neurophysiological mechanisms. The developmental trajectories of the Event Related Potentials related to this important function have hardly been studied. However, these ERPs may provide some clues about the individual state of maturation, as has been demonstrated for anatomical brain images. The present study aims to determine the behavioral and neurophysiological development of Working Memory (WM) processes. For this purpose, 170 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 26 years performed a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task (DMTS)...
December 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991807/practice-makes-it-better-a-psychophysical-study-of-visual-perceptual-learning-and-its-transfer-effects-on-aging
#9
Xuan Li, Philip A Allen, Mei-Ching Lien, Naohide Yamamoto
Previous studies on perceptual learning, acquiring a new skill through practice, appear to stimulate brain plasticity and enhance performance (Fiorentini & Berardi, 1981). The present study aimed to determine (a) whether perceptual learning can be used to compensate for age-related declines in perceptual abilities, and (b) whether the effect of perceptual learning can be transferred to untrained stimuli and subsequently improve capacity of visual working memory (VWM). We tested both healthy younger and older adults in a 3-day training session using an orientation discrimination task...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939856/an-assessment-of-domain-general-metacognitive-responding-in-rhesus-monkeys
#10
Emily Kathryn Brown, Victoria L Templer, Robert R Hampton
Metacognition is the ability to monitor and control one's cognition. Monitoring may involve either public cues or introspection of private cognitive states. We tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a series of generalization tests to determine which type of cues control metacognition. In Experiment 1, monkeys learned a perceptual discrimination in which a "decline-test" response allowed them to avoid tests and receive a guaranteed small reward. Monkeys declined more difficult than easy tests. In Experiments 2-4, we evaluated whether monkeys generalized this metacognitive responding to new perceptual tests...
February 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914406/energetic-and-informational-masking-of-complex-sounds-by-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#11
Brian K Branstetter, Kimberly Bakhtiari, Amy Black, Jennifer S Trickey, James J Finneran, Hitomi Aihara
With few exceptions, laboratory studies of auditory masking in marine mammals have been limited to examining detection thresholds for simple tonal signals embedded in broadband noise. However, detection of a sound has little adaptive advantage without the knowledge of what produced the sound (recognition) and where the sound originated (localization). In the current study, a bottlenose dolphin's masked detection thresholds (energetic masking) and masked recognition thresholds (informational masking) were estimated for a variety of complex signals including dolphin vocalizations, frequency modulated signals, and a 10 kHz pure tone...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903706/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#12
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) particularly in temporal brain structures serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed-matching-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902685/getting-to-the-bottom-of-face-processing-species-specific-inversion-effects-for-faces-and-behinds-in-humans-and-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#13
Mariska E Kret, Masaki Tomonaga
For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the 'face inversion effect', humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896309/olfactory-stimulus-control-and-the-behavioral-pharmacology-of-remembering
#14
Mark Galizio
Behavior analytic approaches and techniques have much to offer to the study of remembering. There is currently great interest in the development of animal models of human memory processes in order to enhance understanding of the neurobiology of memory and treatment of dementia and related disorders. Because rodent models are so important in contemporary neuroscience and genetics, development of procedures to study various forms of memory in rodents is a point of emphasis. The sense of smell plays an important role in rodent behavior and use of olfactory stimuli has permitted demonstrations of complex forms of stimulus control that have also served as baselines for studying drug effects on remembering...
November 2016: Behav Anal (Wash D C)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890777/psychological-wellbeing-in-survivors-of-cardiac-arrest-and-its-relationship-to-neurocognitive-function
#15
Siân E Davies, Megan Rhys, Sarah Voss, Rosemary Greenwood, Matthew Thomas, Jonathan R Benger
OBJECTIVE: To characterise psychological wellbeing in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), and examine its relationship to cognitive function. PATIENTS: Forty-one highly functioning cardiac arrest survivors were drawn from the follow-up cohort of a randomised controlled trial of initial airway management in OHCA (ISRCTN:18528625). DESIGN: Psychological wellbeing was assessed with a self-report questionnaire (the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale; DASS) and cognitive function was examined using the Delayed Matching to Samples (DMS) test from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
February 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881787/sensory-and-working-memory-representations-of-small-and-large-numerosities-in-the-crow-endbrain
#16
Helen M Ditz, Andreas Nieder
: Neurons in the avian nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), an endbrain structure that originated independently from the mammalian neocortex, process visual numerosities. To clarify the code for number in this anatomically distinct endbrain area in birds, neuronal responses to a broad range of numerosities were analyzed. We recorded single-neuron activity from the NCL of crows performing a delayed match-to-sample task with visual numerosities as discriminanda. The responses of >20% of randomly selected neurons were modulated significantly by numerosities ranging from one to 30 items...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864643/robust-representations-of-individual-faces-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-but-not-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#17
Jessica Taubert, Kimberly B Weldon, Lisa A Parr
Being able to recognize the faces of our friends and family members no matter where we see them represents a substantial challenge for the visual system because the retinal image of a face can be degraded by both changes in the person (age, expression, pose, hairstyle, etc.) and changes in the viewing conditions (direction and degree of illumination). Yet most of us are able to recognize familiar people effortlessly. A popular theory for how face recognition is achieved has argued that the brain stabilizes facial appearance by building average representations that enhance diagnostic features that reliably vary between people while diluting features that vary between instances of the same person...
November 19, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858168/global-local-processing-of-hierarchical-visual-stimuli-in-a-conflict-choice-task-by-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-spp
#18
Valentina Truppa, Paola Carducci, Diego Antonio De Simone, Angelo Bisazza, Carlo De Lillo
In the last two decades, comparative research has addressed the issue of how the global and local levels of structure of visual stimuli are processed by different species, using Navon-type hierarchical figures, i.e. smaller local elements that form larger global configurations. Determining whether or not the variety of procedures adopted to test different species with hierarchical figures are equivalent is of crucial importance to ensure comparability of results. Among non-human species, global/local processing has been extensively studied in tufted capuchin monkeys using matching-to-sample tasks with hierarchical patterns...
November 17, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836108/post-stroke-cognitive-impairment-a-cross-sectional-comparison-study-between-mild-cognitive-impairment-of-vascular-and-non-vascular-etiology
#19
K P Divya, Ramshekhar N Menon, Ravi Prasad Varma, P N Sylaja, Bejoy Thomas, C Kesavadas, J Sunitha, V S Lekha, S Deepak
PURPOSE: To elucidate the cognitive profiles of post-stroke vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) in comparison to MCI of non-vascular etiology and cognitively normal healthy controls at a tertiary-care hospital in southern India. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex comparing VaMCI [N=50] with controls [N=27] revealed significant impairment in visual, verbal learning-recall and executive function scores. As compared to the MCI group [N=36], VaMCI had significantly higher scores on Weschler's Memory Scale (WMS) verbal subset delayed recall scores (p=0...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815773/the-neural-correlates-of-priming-emotion-and-reward-systems-for-conflict-processing-in-alcoholics
#20
T Schulte, Y-C Jung, E V Sullivan, A Pfefferbaum, M Serventi, E M Müller-Oehring
Emotional dysregulation in alcoholism (ALC) may result from disturbed inhibitory mechanisms. We therefore tested emotion and alcohol cue reactivity and inhibitory processes using negative priming. To test the neural correlates of cue reactivity and negative priming, 26 ALC and 26 age-matched controls underwent functional MRI performing a Stroop color match-to-sample task. In cue reactivity trials, task-irrelevant emotion and alcohol-related pictures were interspersed between color samples and color words. In negative priming trials, pictures primed the semantic content of an alcohol or emotion Stroop word...
November 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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