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Iulia Bădescu, M Anne Katzenberg, David P Watts, Daniel W Sellen
OBJECTIVES: Determining nutritional development in wild primates is difficult through observations because confirming dietary intake is challenging. Physiological measures are needed to determine the relative contributions of maternal milk and other foods at different ages, and time of weaning. We used fecal stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) and fecal nitrogen concentrations (%N) from wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Uganda, to derive physiological dietary indicators during the transition from total reliance on maternal milk to adult foods after weaning...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Dennis Chan, Laura Marie Gallaher, Kuven Moodley, Ludovico Minati, Neil Burgess, Tom Hartley
This protocol describes the administration of the 4 Mountains Test (4MT), a short test of spatial memory, in which memory for the topographical layout of four mountains within a computer-generated landscape is tested using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm. Allocentric spatial memory is assessed by altering the viewpoint, colors and textures between the initially presented and target images. Allocentric spatial memory is a key function of the hippocampus, one of the earliest brain regions to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and impairment of hippocampal function predates the onset of dementia...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Caleb R Stanley, Ryan C Speelman, Kyle E Rowsey, Dena Kime, Jacob H Daar
The purpose of the study was to evaluate a procedure to generate derived categorical responding by three children with disabilities and to promote the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responses. In the study, three 4-member equivalence classes including three stimuli (A, B, and C) and a category name (D) for each class were trained using a match-to-sample procedure. Test probes were conducted for categorical responding, including both a trained (D-A) and two derived (D-B, D-C) relational responses, as well as the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responding (D-A/B/C) throughout the study...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Mark Galizio, Brooke April, Melissa Deal, Andrew Hawkey, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Katherine Bruce
The Odor Span Task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure that permits the study of behavior under the control of multiple stimuli. Rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli and selection of new stimuli is reinforced. Successful performance thus requires remembering which stimuli have previously been presented during a given session. This procedure has been frequently used in neurobiological studies as a rodent model of working memory; however, only a few studies have examined the effects of drugs on performance in this task...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
K G Sorwell, L Renner, A R Weiss, M Neuringer, S G Kohama, H F Urbanski
Estradiol supplementation has been shown to enhance cognitive performance in old ovariectomized rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To determine if similar benefits could be achieved in perimenopausal animals using alternative hormonal supplements we administered dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to old ovary-intact female rhesus macaques for ~2.5 months. Using computerized touchscreen memory tasks, including delayed response (DR) and delayed matching-to-sample (DMS), we observed improved performance with time in all of the animals but failed to detect a significant effect of DHEA...
October 13, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Melissa Johnston, Catrona Anderson, Michael Colombo
We recorded neuronal activity from the nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the entopallium, the avian equivalent of the mammalian visual cortex, in four birds trained on a differential outcomes delayed matching-to-sample procedure in which one sample stimulus was followed by reward and the other was not. Despite similar incidence of reward-specific and reward-unspecific delay cell types across the two areas, overall entopallium delay activity occurred following both rewarded and non-rewarded stimuli, whereas nidopallium caudolaterale delay activity tended to occur following the rewarded stimulus but not the non-rewarded stimulus...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Lysann Wagener, Andreas Nieder
Songbirds possess acute vision. How higher brain centers represent basic and parameterized visual stimuli to process sensory signals according to their behavioral importance has not been studied in a systematic way. We therefore examined how carrion crows (Corvus corone) and their nidopallial visual neurons process global visual motion information in dynamic random-dot displays during a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task. The behavioral data show that moderately fast motion speeds (16 degrees of visual angle/second) result in superior direction discrimination performance...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Andrea S Vincent, Christopher M Bailey, Charles Cowan, Eugenia Cox-Fuenzalida, Jeff Dyche, Kim A Gorgens, Daniel C Krawcyzk, Leanne Young
The BrainScope Ahead 300 is designed for use by health care professionals to aid in the assessment of patients suspected of a mild traumatic brain injury. The purpose of the current study was to establish normative data for the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system and to evaluate the role of demographic factors on test performance. Healthy, community-dwelling adults between the ages of 18 and 80 recruited from five geographically distributed sites were administered Android versions of the ANAM Matching to Sample and Procedural Reaction Time tests that comprise the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system by trained personnel...
August 11, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Irina Falkenberg, Isabel Valli, Marie Raffin, Matthew R Broome, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Pall Matthiasson, Marco Picchioni, Philip McGuire
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes in people identified as at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis are remarkably heterogeneous, and are difficult to predict on the basis of the presenting clinical features. Individuals at UHR are at risk of poor functional outcome regardless of development of psychotic disorder. The aim of the present study was to assess whether there is a relationship between functional neuroimaging measures at presentation and functional outcome as measured by the GAF three years after scanning...
September 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, María Ángeles Rojas-Benjumea, Carlos M Gómez
Correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of behavioral measures from two experimental tasks (Delayed Match-to-Sample and Oddball), and standard scores from a neuropsychological test battery (Working Memory Test Battery for Children) was performed on data from participants between 6-18 years old. The correlation analysis (p 1), the scores of the first extracted component were significantly correlated (p < .05) to most behavioral measures, suggesting some commonalities of the processes of age-related changes in the measured variables...
October 3, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Elizabeth A Ware
This study bridges prior research on young children's use of taxonomic versus thematic relations to categorize objects with prior research on their use of shared shape versus shared function to categorize artifacts. Specifically, this research examined associations in children's categorization tendencies across these two dichotomies, including assessments of individual differences, developmental trends, and vocabulary level. Preschoolers (3- to 5-year-olds) completed a receptive vocabulary assessment and two match-to-sample tasks: one pitting (superordinate) taxonomic and thematic relations against each other and one pitting shape and function similarity against each other...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Katharina Dobs, Isabelle Bülthoff, Johannes Schultz
Facial movements convey information about many social cues, including identity. However, how much information about a person's identity is conveyed by different kinds of facial movements is unknown. We addressed this question using a recent motion capture and animation system, with which we animated one avatar head with facial movements of three types: (1) emotional, (2) emotional in social interaction and (3) conversational, all recorded from several actors. In a delayed match-to-sample task, observers were best at matching actor identity across conversational movements, worse with emotional movements in social interactions, and at chance level with emotional facial expressions...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Valerie Goffaux, John A Greenwood
Recent work demonstrates that human face identification is most efficient when based on horizontal, rather than vertical, image structure. Because it is unclear how this specialization for upright (compared to inverted) face processing emerges in the visual system, the present study aimed to systematically characterize the orientation sensitivity profile for face identification. With upright faces, identification performance in a delayed match-to-sample task was highest for horizontally filtered images and declined sharply with oblique and vertically filtered images...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dong Liu, Li Wang, Ying Wang, Yi Jiang
Previous research has demonstrated that emotional information processing can be modulated by what is being held in working memory (WM). Here, we showed that such content-based WM effects can occur even when the emotional information is suppressed from conscious awareness. Using the delayed-match-to-sample paradigm in conjunction with continuous flash suppression, we found that suppressed threatening (fearful and angry) faces emerged from suppression faster when they matched the emotional valence of WM contents than when they did not...
September 15, 2016: Psychological Science
Paul J Boon, Artem V Belopolsky, Jan Theeuwes
Visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) helps us to maintain and manipulate visual information in the absence of sensory input. It has been proposed that VSWM is an emergent property of the oculomotor system. In the present study we investigated the role of the oculomotor system in updating of spatial working memory representations across saccades. Participants had to maintain a location in memory while making a saccade to a different location. During the saccade the target was displaced, which went unnoticed by the participants...
2016: PloS One
Marino Pagan, Eero P Simoncelli, Nicole C Rust
Linear-nonlinear (LN) models and their extensions have proven successful in describing transformations from stimuli to spiking responses of neurons in early stages of sensory hierarchies. Neural responses at later stages are highly nonlinear and have generally been better characterized in terms of their decoding performance on prespecified tasks. Here we develop a biologically plausible decoding model for classification tasks, that we refer to as neural quadratic discriminant analysis (nQDA). Specifically, we reformulate an optimal quadratic classifier as an LN-LN computation, analogous to "subunit" encoding models that have been used to describe responses in retina and primary visual cortex...
September 14, 2016: Neural Computation
Thom Ratkos, Jessica E Frieder, Alan Poling
Research on joint control has focused on mediational responses, in which simultaneous stimulus control from two sources leads to the emission of a single response, such as choosing a comparison stimulus in delayed matching-to-sample. Most recent studies of joint control examined the role of verbal mediators (i.e., rehearsal) in evoking accurate performance. They suggest that mediation is a necessity for accurate delayed matching-to-sample responding. We designed an experiment to establish covert rehearsal responses in young children...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Patricia M Santos, Monica L Ma, Caio F Miguel
The current study evaluated whether training intraverbal naming would be sufficient to establish visual-visual matching-to-sample (MTS) performances in college students. In the first experiment, we used a multiple-probe design across stimulus sets to assess whether six participants could match arbitrary visual stimuli (AB) after learning to tact their two experimentally defined classes (A' and B') and then intraverbally relate their names (i.e., "A' goes with B'"). All participants matched the stimuli accurately after training, as well as emitted the trained intraverbals...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Erin K Kirschmann, Michael W Pollock, Vidhya Nagarajan, Mary M Torregrossa
Use of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) often begins in adolescence, and heavy adolescent marijuana use is often associated with impaired cognitive function in adulthood. However, clinical reports of long-lasting cognitive deficits, particularly in subjects who discontinue use in adulthood, are mixed. Moreover, dissociating innate differences in cognitive function from cannabis-induced deficits is challenging. Therefore, the current study sought to develop a rodent model of adolescent cannabinoid self-administration (SA), using the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN), in order to assess measures of relapse/reinstatement of drug seeking and long-term effects on cognitive function assessed in a delay-match-to-sample working memory task and a spatial recognition task...
October 5, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
A number of recent efforts have used large-scale, biologically realistic, neural models to help understand the neural basis for the patterns of activity observed in both resting state and task-related functional neural imaging data. An example of the former is The Virtual Brain (TVB) software platform, which allows one to apply large-scale neural modeling in a whole brain framework. TVB provides a set of structural connectomes of the human cerebral cortex, a collection of neural processing units for each connectome node, and various forward models that can convert simulated neural activity into a variety of functional brain imaging signals...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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