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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144224/violence-exposure-and-neural-systems-underlying-working-memory-for-emotional-stimuli-in-youth
#1
Jessica L Jenness, Maya L Rosen, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
Violence exposure during childhood is common and associated with poor cognitive and academic functioning. However, little is known about how violence exposure influences cognitive processes that might contribute to these disparities, such as working memory, or their neural underpinnings, particularly for cognitive processes that occur in emotionally salient contexts. We address this gap in a sample of 54 participants aged 8 to 19 years (50% female), half with exposure to interpersonal violence. Participants completed a delayed match to sample task for emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132016/children-s-representation-of-abstract-relations-in-relational-array-match-to-sample-tasks
#2
Jean-Rémy Hochmann, Arin S Tuerk, Sophia Sanborn, Rebecca Zhu, Robert Long, Meg Dempster, Susan Carey
Five experiments compared preschool children's performance to that of adults and of non-human animals on match to sample tasks involving 2-item or 16-item arrays that varied according to their composition of same or different items (Array Match-to-Sample, AMTS). They establish that, like non-human animals in most studies, 3- and 4-year-olds fail 2-item AMTS (the classic relational match to sample task introduced into the literature by Premack, 1983), and that robust success is not observed until age 6. They also establish that 3-year-olds, like non-human animal species, succeed only when they are able to encode stimuli in terms of entropy, a property of an array (namely its internal variability), rather than relations among the individuals in the array (same vs...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128976/neurons-in-the-crow-nidopallium-caudolaterale-encode-varying-durations-of-visual-working-memory-periods
#3
Konstantin Hartmann, Lena Veit, Andreas Nieder
Adaptive sequential behaviors rely on the bridging and integration of temporally separate information for the realization of prospective goals. Corvids' remarkable behavioral flexibility is thought to depend on the workings of the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), a high-level avian associative forebrain area. We trained carrion crows to remember visual items for three alternating delay durations in a delayed match-to-sample task and recorded single-unit activity from the NCL. Sample-selective delay activity, a correlate of visual working memory, was maintained throughout different working memory durations...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128118/associations-between-inflammatory-markers-and-cognitive-function-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#4
AnnaLynn M Williams, Raven Shah, Michelle Shayne, Alissa J Huston, Marcia Krebs, Nicole Murray, Bryan D Thompson, Kassandra Doyle, Jenna Korotkin, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Sharon Hyland, Jan A Moynihan, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Michelle C Janelsins
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is often related to chemotherapy. Increased chronic inflammation is believed to play a key role in the development of CRCI related to chemotherapy but studies assessing this hypothesis specifically in patients receiving chemotherapy are rare. METHODS: We assessed several cognitive domains using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in twenty-two breast cancer patients currently receiving chemotherapy...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060053/multi-resolution-multi-trial-sparse-classification-model-for-decoding-visual-memories-from-hippocampal-spikes-in-human
#5
Dong Song, Xiwei She, Robert E Hampson, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger
To understand how memories are encoded in the hippocampus, we build memory decoding models to classify visual memories based on hippocampal activities in human. Model inputs are spatio-temporal patterns of spikes recorded in the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions of epilepsy patients performing a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task. Model outputs are binary labels indicating categories and features of sample images. To solve the super high-dimensional estimation problem with short data length, we develop a multi-trial, sparse model estimation method utilizing B-spline basis functions with a large range of temporal resolutions and a regularized logistic classifier...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037507/gamma-oscillations-in-the-superior-colliculus-and-pulvinar-in-response-to-faces-support-discrimination-performance-in-monkeys
#6
Quan Van Le, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Minh Nui Nguyen, Can Van Mao, Etsuro Hori, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The subcortical visual pathway including the superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and amygdala has been implicated in unconscious visual processing of faces, eyes, and gaze direction in blindsight. Our previous studies reported that monkey SC and pulvinar neurons responded preferentially to images of faces while performing a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task to discriminate different visual stimuli (Nguyen et al., 2013, 2014). However, the contribution of SC and pulvinar neurons to the discrimination of the facial images and subsequent behavioral performance remains unknown...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018338/altered-distant-synchronization-of-background-network-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-during-an-executive-function-task
#7
Pengyun Wang, Rui Li, Jing Yu, Zirui Huang, Zhixiong Yan, Ke Zhao, Juan Li
Few studies to date have investigated the background network in the cognitive state relying on executive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Using the index of degree of centrality (DC), we explored distant synchronization of background network in MCI during a hybrid delayed-match-to-sample task (DMST), which mainly relies on the working memory component of executive function. We observed significant interactions between group and cognitive state in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventral subregion of precuneus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983924/symmetry-and-stimulus-class-formation-in-humans-control-by-temporal-location-in-a-successive-matching-task
#8
Sarah Beurms, Frits Traets, Jan De Houwer, Tom Beckers
Symmetry refers to the observation that subjects will derive B-A (e.g., in the presence of B, select A) after being trained on A-B (e.g., in the presence of A, select B). Whereas symmetry is readily shown in humans, it has been difficult to demonstrate in nonhuman animals. This difficulty, at least in pigeons, may result from responding to specific stimulus properties that change when sample and comparison stimuli switch roles between training and testing. In three experiments with humans, we investigated to what extent human responding is influenced by the temporal location of stimuli using a successive matching-to-sample procedure...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981609/neural-evidence-for-non-conscious-working-memory
#9
Fredrik Bergström, Johan Eriksson
Recent studies have found that non-consciously perceived information can be retained for several seconds, a feat that has been attributed to non-conscious working memory processes. However, these studies have mainly relied on subjective measures of visual experience, and the neural processes responsible for non-conscious short-term retention remains unclear. Here we used continuous flash suppression to render stimuli non-conscious in a delayed match-to-sample task together with fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of non-conscious short-term (5-15 s) retention...
August 2, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974716/cognitive-control-during-audiovisual-working-memory-engages-frontotemporal-theta-band-interactions
#10
Jonathan Daume, Sebastian Graetz, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
Working memory (WM) maintenance of sensory information has been associated with enhanced cross-frequency coupling between the phase of low frequencies and the amplitude of high frequencies, particularly in medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. It has been suggested that these WM maintenance processes are controlled by areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) via frontotemporal phase synchronisation in low frequency bands. Here, we investigated whether enhanced cognitive control during audiovisual WM as compared to visual WM alone is associated with increased low-frequency phase synchronisation between sensory areas maintaining WM content and areas from PFC...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968894/the-causal-role-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-somatosensory-cortex-in-tactile-working-memory
#11
Di Zhao, Yong-Di Zhou, Mark Bodner, Yixuan Ku
In the present study, we searched for causal evidence linking activity in the bilateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC) with behavioral performance in vibrotactile working memory. Participants performed a vibrotactile delayed matching-to-sample task, while single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sp-TMS) was applied over these cortical areas at 100, 200, 300, 600, 1600, and 1900 ms after the onset of vibrotactile stimulation (200 ms duration)...
August 22, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951450/top-down-modulation-of-auditory-motor-integration-during-speech-production-the-role-of-working-memory
#12
Zhiqiang Guo, Xiuqin Wu, Weifeng Li, Jeffery A Jones, Nan Yan, Stanley Sheft, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Although working memory (WM) is considered as an emergent property of the speech perception and production systems, the role of WM in sensorimotor integration during speech processing is largely unknown. We conducted two event-related potential experiments with female and male young adults to investigate the contribution of WM to the neurobehavioural processing of altered auditory feedback during vocal production. A delayed match-to-sample task that required participants to indicate whether the pitch feedback perturbations they heard during vocalizations in test and sample sequences matched, elicited significantly larger vocal compensations, larger N1 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, and smaller P2 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, somatosensory cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, and insula compared with a control task that did not require memory retention of the sequence of pitch perturbations...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941549/the-corticostriatal-adenosine-a2a-receptor-controls-maintenance-and-retrieval-of-spatial%C3%A2-working-memory
#13
Zhihui Li, Xingjun Chen, Tao Wang, Ying Gao, Fei Li, Long Chen, Jin Xue, Yan He, Yan Li, Wei Guo, Wu Zheng, Liping Zhang, Fenfen Ye, Xiangpeng Ren, Yue Feng, Piu Chan, Jiang-Fan Chen
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) taps into multiple executive processes including encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information, but the molecular and circuit modulation of these WM processes remains undefined due to the lack of methods to control G protein-coupled receptor signaling with temporal resolution of seconds. METHODS: By coupling optogenetic control of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling, the Cre-loxP-mediated focal A2AR knockdown with a delayed non-match-to-place (DNMTP) task, we investigated the effect of optogenetic activation and focal knockdown of A2ARs in the dorsomedial striatum (n = 8 to 14 per group) and medial prefrontal cortex (n = 16 to 22 per group) on distinct executive processes of spatial WM...
August 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940554/go-no-go-procedure-with-compound-stimuli-with-children-with-autism
#14
Rafael Augusto Silva, Paula Debert
The go/no-go with compound stimuli is an alternative to matching-to-sample to produce conditional and emergent relations in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure with two children diagnosed with autism. We trained and tested participants to respond to conditional relations among arbitrary stimuli using the go/no-go procedure. Both learned all the trained conditional relations without developing response bias or responding to no-go trials. Participants demonstrated performance consistent with symmetry, but not equivalence...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927963/effects-of-orientation-and-differential-reinforcement-on-transitive-stimulus-control
#15
Micah Amd, João H de Almeida, Júlio C de Rose, Carolina C Silveira, Henrique M Pompermaier
The emergence of transitive relations between stimuli that had never appeared together is a key process underlying concept formation. An unresolved theoretical issue with respect to transitive relations has been to determine whether differential reinforcement of stimulus-stimulus (S-S) relations though matching-to-sample, or contiguous S-S correlations/pairings, is more critical for producing transitivity. The current study inquired whether simple environmental S-S pairings, versus differential reinforcement of S-S relations, versus environmental S-S pairings with an orientation requirement, produced the greatest instances of transitivity...
November 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914387/joint-stimulus-control-in-a-temporal-discrimination-task
#16
Carlos Pinto, Inês Fortes, Armando Machado
The ability to identify stimuli that signal important events is fundamental for an organism to adapt to its environment. In the present paper, we investigated how more than one stimulus could be used jointly to learn a temporal discrimination task. Ten pigeons were exposed to a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure with three durations as samples (2, 6, and 18 s of keylight) and two colors as comparisons (red and green hues). A 30-s intertrial interval (ITI), illuminated with a houselight, separated the trials...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912701/spectral-entropy-can-predict-changes-of-working-memory-performance-reduced-by-short-time-training-in-the-delayed-match-to-sample-task
#17
Yin Tian, Huiling Zhang, Wei Xu, Haiyong Zhang, Li Yang, Shuxing Zheng, Yupan Shi
Spectral entropy, which was generated by applying the Shannon entropy concept to the power distribution of the Fourier-transformed electroencephalograph (EEG), was utilized to measure the uniformity of power spectral density underlying EEG when subjects performed the working memory tasks twice, i.e., before and after training. According to Signed Residual Time (SRT) scores based on response speed and accuracy trade-off, 20 subjects were divided into two groups, namely high-performance and low-performance groups, to undertake working memory (WM) tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905251/comparing-the-face-inversion-effect-in-crows-and-humans
#18
Katharina F Brecht, Lysann Wagener, Ljerka Ostojić, Nicola S Clayton, Andreas Nieder
Humans show impaired recognition of faces that are presented upside down, a phenomenon termed face inversion effect, which is thought to reflect the special relevance of faces for humans. Here, we investigated whether a phylogenetically distantly related avian species, the carrion crow, with similar socio-cognitive abilities to human and non-human primates, exhibits a face inversion effect. In a delayed matching-to-sample task, two crows had to differentiate profiles of crow faces as well as matched controls, presented both upright and inverted...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893928/content-specific-codes-of-parametric-vibrotactile-working-memory-in-humans
#19
Timo Torsten Schmidt, Yuan-Hao Wu, Felix Blankenburg
To understand how the brain handles mentally represented information flexibly in the absence of sensory stimulation, working memory (WM) studies have been essential. A seminal finding in monkey research is that neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) retain stimulus-specific information when vibrotactile frequencies were memorized. A direct mapping between monkey studies and human research is still controversial. Although oscillatory signatures, in terms of frequency-dependent parametric beta-band modulation, have been observed recently in human EEG studies, the content specificity of these representations in terms of multivariate pattern analysis has not yet been shown...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893667/amnestic-drugs-in-the-odor-span-task-effects-of-flunitrazepam-zolpidem-and-scopolamine
#20
Mark Galizio, Michael Mathews, Madeleine Mason, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Paul Soto
The odor span task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure designed to provide an analysis of working memory capacity in rodents. The procedure takes place in an arena apparatus and rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli in the form of scented lids with the selection of new stimuli reinforced. This procedure makes it possible to study drug effects as a function of the number of stimuli to remember. In the present study, the non-selective positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulator flunitrazepam impaired odor span performance at doses that did not affect a control odor discrimination...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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