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Wen-Chih Huang, Chien-Chen Tsai, Chih-Chieh Chan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a fatal malignancy originating from biliary tracts and constitutes approximately 10-20% of hepatobiliary cancers. CC is characterized by a very poor prognosis. The definite molecular mechanisms leading to oncogenesis remain unclear. This study aimed to perform mutation analysis and copy number changes of KRAS and BRAF genes of CC in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 182 cases of biliary tact CC were studied for point mutation and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of KRAS and BRAF genes...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Christine Gonzales, Hikari A I Yoshihara, Nahzli Dilek, Julie Leignadier, Melita Irving, Pascal Mieville, Lothar Helm, Olivier Michielin, Juerg Schwitter
BACKGROUND: 19F-MRI and 19F-MRS can identify specific cell types after in-vitro or in-vivo 19F-labeling. Knowledge on the potential to track in-vitro 19F-labeled immune cells in tumor models by 19F-MRI/MRS is scarce. AIM: To study 19F-based MR techniques for in-vivo tracking of adoptively transferred immune cells after in-vitro 19F-labeling, i.e. to detect and monitor their migration non-invasively in melanoma-bearing mice. METHODS: Splenocytes (SP) were labeled in-vitro with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) and IV-injected into non-tumor bearing mice...
2016: PloS One
K Conallen, P Reed
BACKGROUND: Two procedures were developed to teach individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders labels (tacts) for various private events (emotions): Study 1 attempted to distinguish them from pure tacts and mands (requests); and Study 2 attempted to train initiating a conversation with grammatically correct subject-verb-comment construction. METHODS: A multiple treatment reversal design was used in both studies, followed by a probe to see if the tacts were used across novel settings...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Marni S Crow, Krystal K Lum, Xinlei Sheng, Bokai Song, Ileana M Cristea
In mammalian cells, early defenses against infection by pathogens are mounted through a complex network of signaling pathways shepherded by immune-modulatory pattern-recognition receptors. As obligate parasites, the survival of viruses is dependent on the evolutionary acquisition of mechanisms that tactfully dismantle and subvert the cellular intrinsic and innate immune responses. Here, we review the diverse mechanisms by which viruses that accommodate DNA genomes are able to circumvent activation of cellular immunity...
September 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Dean P Smith, Svein Eikeseth, Sarah E Fletcher, Lisa Montebelli, Holly R Smith, Jennifer C Taylor
The purpose of the present study was to assess whether intraverbal behavior, in the form of answers to questions, emerges as a result of listener training for five children diagnosed with autism. Listener responses were targeted and taught using prompting and differential reinforcement. Following successful acquisition of listener responses, the intraverbal form of the response was probed. Data were evaluated via a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design that included a control series. Results showed listener-to-intraverbal transfer for four of the five participants...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Joseph Vedora, Erin Conant
Several researchers have compared the effectiveness of tact or textual prompts to echoic prompts for teaching intraverbal behavior to young children with autism. We extended this line of research by comparing the effectiveness of visual (textual or tact) prompts to echoic prompts to teach intraverbal responses to three young adults with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used with 2 to 3 comparisons for each participant. The results were mixed and did not reveal a more effective prompting procedure across participants, suggesting that the effectiveness of a prompting tactic may be idiosyncratic...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
James R Mellor, Clarissa S Barnes, Ruth Anne Rehfeldt
The current research investigated whether intraverbals would emerge following auditory tact instruction. Participants were first taught to tact auditory stimuli by providing the name of the item or animal that produces the sound (e.g., saying "eagle" when presented with the recording of an eagle cawing). Following test probes for simple intraverbals as well as intraverbal categorization participants were taught to tact what each auditory stimulus is (e.g., saying "caw" when presented with the recording of an eagle cawing)...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Audrey A Pauwels, William H Ahearn, Stacy J Cohen
Foss (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 450-459, 1968a; Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 341-344, 1968b) compared overlap and non-overlap instruction to promote recombinative response generalization using a matrix training procedure. In the present study, we used a similar set of procedures to teach tacting of kitchen items and prepositions (i.e., relational autoclitics) to three females ages 13-20, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. We taught some kitchen items/prepositions as tacts (e.g...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Patricia M Santos, Monica L Ma, Caio F Miguel
The current study evaluated whether training intraverbal naming would be sufficient to establish visual-visual matching-to-sample (MTS) performances in college students. In the first experiment, we used a multiple-probe design across stimulus sets to assess whether six participants could match arbitrary visual stimuli (AB) after learning to tact their two experimentally defined classes (A' and B') and then intraverbally relate their names (i.e., "A' goes with B'"). All participants matched the stimuli accurately after training, as well as emitted the trained intraverbals...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Nathaniel T Kim, Haixing Li, Latha Venkataraman, James L Leighton
A highly conducting electronic contact between a strained disilane and Au is demonstrated through scanning tunneling microscope-based single-molecule measurements. Conformationally locked cis diastereomers of bis(sulfide)-anchor-equipped 1,2-disilaacenaphthenes readily form high-conducting junctions in which the two sulfide anchors bind in a bipodal fashion to one gold electrode, providing enough stability for a stable electrical contact between the Si-Si σ bond and the other electrode.
September 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Patrick Müller, Vladimir Ivanov, Kaffer Kara, Oliver Klein-Wiele, Mathias Forkmann, Christopher Piorkowski, Christian Blockhaus, Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Shazia Afzal, Dong-In Shin, Malte Kelm, Hisaki Makimoto, Andreas Mügge
BACKGROUND: Insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) increases the detection rate of occult atrial fibrillation (AF) after cryptogenic stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of total atrial conduction time (TACT) assessed by tissue Doppler imaging (PA-TDI interval) to predict AF presence in patients with cryptogenic stroke. METHODS: Ninety patients (57.7 ± 12.3 years, 48 % women) after acute cryptogenic stroke and ICM implantation were prospective recruited at four centers for continuous rhythm monitoring...
August 19, 2016: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
F Ahour, M K Ahsani
In this work, we tactfully constructed a novel label-free electrochemical aptasensor for rapid and facile detection of thrombin using graphene oxide (GO) and thrombin binding aptamer (TBA). The strategy relies on the preferential adsorption of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to GO over aptamer-target complexes. The TBA-thrombin complex formation was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using the guanine oxidation signal. In the absence of thrombin, the aptamers adsorbed onto the surface of GO leading to a strong background guanine oxidation signal...
December 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Véronique De Germond-Burquier, Françoise Narring, Cécile Entremont, Lytta Basset
Spirituality affects adolescents' as well as adults' daily life. It is usually considered to be a protective factor in physical and psychological health outcomes, but might also be a cause of suffering. In the perspective of an holistic approach, health professional should assess this subject with tact and sensitivity. Until there is a suitable instrument adapted to this age group and European culture, the exploration of spirituality and religious practices can be evaluated while taking the clinical history...
June 8, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Mahmoud Sheyab, Josh Pritchard, Mark Malady
In the current study, we reinforced tacts with positive qualifying autoclitics for reading and evaluated the subsequent effect on the allocation of reading behavior. Participants were four typically developing children between 9 and 12 years of age whose primary language was Arabic. We exposed each participant to pre- and posttreatment sessions to assess behavior allocation across activities and materials using a multiple-baseline design. During treatment, the experimenters praised positive statements about reading by each participant...
October 2014: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Kim Lewis, Yue Shan
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Cheverton et al. (2016) report that Samonella toxin TacT contributes to persister formation by acetylating tRNA, a novel mechanism of toxin action. Hydrolyzing corrupted tRNA resuscitates persisters.
July 7, 2016: Molecular Cell
Shu-Wei Sun, Christopher Nishioka, Chen-Fang Chung, JoAnn Park, Hsiao-Fang Liang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the temporospatial profile of axonal degeneration and its relation to blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Longitudinal DTI was performed in Wallerian degeneration slow (WldS) mice following retinal ischemia. In parallel, gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced T1 -weighted imaging (Gd-T1 WI) was performed to evaluate BBB permeability in white matter during axonal degeneration...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Luis Antonio Pérez-González, Noelia Cereijo-Blanco, José Julio Carnerero
Naming consists of tacting an object and selecting it upon hearing its name as a result of emergence. After acquiring naming, children learn object-name relations more quickly and, hence, it is an important achievement in development. We studied the acquisition of the two skills that define naming, using two procedures, in seven typically developing 4-year-old children. The tact-selection procedure consisted of (a) teaching tacts of objects (or pictures) and probing for object selection upon hearing the objects' names, and (b) teaching object selection and probing tacts...
October 2014: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Corey S Stocco, Rachel H Thompson, John M Hart
Our current understanding of the role of private events in the science of behavior is based largely on Skinner's natural science interpretation of private events. Skinner described public accompaniments as one source of control for a verbal community to differentially reinforce verbal behavior regarding private events. In this study, we developed an experimental analogue to study variables influencing tacting of private events. The participant had exclusive access to one set of stimuli (the private stimuli), and the experimenter attempted to teach tacts for private stimuli based on their correspondence with public stimuli accessible to both the experimenter and participant...
June 2014: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Luis Antonio Pérez-González, Ana Pastor, José Julio Carnerero
The effects of observing an adult emitting tacts on children's rate of uninstructed (i.e., "spontaneous") tacts were examined in three children diagnosed with autism. Each participant was exposed to two conditions in four settings each: in condition 1, participants received 20 trials of teacher-initiated interactions in which the child was asked to tact 20 objects during 5 min. Condition 2 was identical to condition 1 except that the teacher also tacted 20 objects interspersed with the 20 tact trials. The number of uninstructed tacts was recorded in both conditions...
June 2014: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Angela M Cheverton, Bridget Gollan, Michal Przydacz, Chi T Wong, Anastasia Mylona, Stephen A Hare, Sophie Helaine
The recalcitrance of many bacterial infections to antibiotic treatment is thought to be due to the presence of persisters that are non-growing, antibiotic-insensitive cells. Eventually, persisters resume growth, accounting for relapses of infection. Salmonella is an important pathogen that causes disease through its ability to survive inside macrophages. After macrophage phagocytosis, a significant proportion of the Salmonella population forms non-growing persisters through the action of toxin-antitoxin modules...
July 7, 2016: Molecular Cell
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