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Sarah E Frampton, M Alice Shillingsburg
Few studies have applied Skinner's (1953) conceptualization of problem solving to teach socially significant behaviors to individuals with developmental disabilities. The current study used a multiple probe design across behavior (sets) to evaluate the effects of problem-solving strategy training (PSST) on the target behavior of explaining how to complete familiar activities. During baseline, none of the three participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could respond to the problems presented to them (i...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
M Fillon, S Si-Mohamed, P Coulon, A Vuillod, P Klahr, L Boussel
PURPOSE: To evaluate the radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic confidence with thoraco-abdominopelvic computed tomography (TACT) using a new organ based dose modulation system (liver dose right index [Liver DRI]), compared to TACT using a standard automatic exposure control adjusting mA according to attenuation. METHODS: A total of 37 patients who had two TACT examinations on 2 different CT scanners, one using standard automatic exposure control (combination of a DoseRight automatic current selection and Z modulation) and one using Liver DRI were included...
February 13, 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Marina Plesons, Sheena Hadi, Qadeer Baig, Iliana Lang
BACKGROUND: Despite international recommendations and supportive evidence, there are few examples of scaled-up and sustained programs to provide adolescents with sexuality education. Moreover, despite acknowledgment that building community support and responding to resistance are key challenges, there is a lack of detailed discussion on specific programmatic strategies to address these issues. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the work of 2 organizations-Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan-that are successfully implementing large-scale sexuality education programs in Pakistan, collectively reaching more than 500,000 students...
February 13, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Rabeb Ghali, Maryam A Al-Mutawa, Abrar K Al-Ansari, Sonia Zaied, Hanen Bhiri, Touhami Mahjoub, Wassim Y Almawi
BACKGROUND: Estrogen is key to breast cancer pathogenesis, and acts by binding its receptor (ER), which exists as ERα and ERβ, encoded by ESR1 and ESR2 genes, respectively. Studies that investigated the association of ESR1 and ESR2 variants with breast cancer yielded mixed outcome, and ethnic contribution was proposed. We evaluated the association between ESR1 and ESR2 variants and breast cancer and associated features in Tunisian women. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study involving 207 female breast cancer patients, and 284 control women...
February 4, 2018: Gene
Ann E Caldwell, Kevin S Masters, John C Peters, Angela D Bryan, Jim Grigsby, Stephanie A Hooker, Holly R Wyatt, James O Hill
The inability to produce sustainable lifestyle modifications (e.g., physical activity, healthy diet) remains a major barrier to reducing morbidity and mortality from prevalent, preventable conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a model that builds on and extends foundational theory and research to suggest novel approaches that may help to produce lasting behavior change. The model aims to integrate factors not typically examined together in order to elucidate potential processes underlying a shift from behavior initiation to long-term maintenance...
February 5, 2018: Health Psychology Review
Kazuhisa Kondo, Kenji Yanishi, Ryo Hayashida, Satoshi Shintani, Rei Shibata, Kenta Murotani, Masahiko Ando, Masaaki Mizuno, Tadami Fujiwara, Toyoaki Murohara, Satoaki Matoba
BACKGROUND: The Therapeutic Angiogenesis by Cell Transplantation (TACT) trial demonstrated the efficacy and safety of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). The present study aimed to assess the long-term clinical outcomes of therapeutic angiogenesis using autologous BM-MNC implantation under advanced medical treatment in Japan.Methods and Results:The study was retrospective, observational, and non-controlled. We assessed no-option CLI patients who had BM-MNC implantation performed in 10 institutes...
January 30, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Yoshiya Kobayashi, Yoshinori Komazawa, Mika Yuki, Hitomi Ishitobi, Makoto Nagaoka, Yoshiko Takahashi, Sayaka Nakashima, Toshihiro Shizuku, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Background and study aims : Unsedated transnasal endoscopy (uTNE) has become accepted as a safe and tolerable method for upper gastrointestinal tact examinations. Epistaxis is 1 of the major complications of TNE, though its risk factors have not been elucidated. Generally, patients administered an anticoagulant or antiplatelet drug are considered to have an increased risk of epistaxis during TNE. Here, we investigated risk factors of epistaxis in patients undergoing uTNE, with focus on those who received antithrombotic agents...
January 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Jonadab E Olguín, Itzel Medina-Andrade, Emmanuel Molina, Armando Vázquez, Thalia Pacheco-Fernández, Rafael Saavedra, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia, Yolanda I Chirino, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Luis E Arias-Romero, Emma B Gutierrez-Cirlos, Sonia A León-Cabrera, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Luis I Terrazas
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the third in men in North America and Europe. CRC is associated with inflammatory responses in which intestinal pathology is caused by different cell populations including a T cell dysregulation that concludes in an imbalance between activated T (Tact) and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells are CD4+Foxp3+ cells that actively suppress pathological and physiological immune responses, contributing to the maintenance of immune homeostasis...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Mehmet Senturk, Ibrahim Guler, Isa Azgin, Engin Umut Sakarya, Ramazan Ocal, Betul Agirgol, Necat Alatas, Ismet Tolu, Mehmet Kilinc
Background: Sphenoethmoid cells may be above the sphenoid sinus with/ or without con-tact to optical nerve. Although sphenoethmoid cells are theoretically considered to possibly influence the sphenoid sinus volume, we could not find any study in the literature on this issue. Aims: The aim of our study was to detect sphenoethmoid cells and measure the sphenoid sinus vol-ume using multiplanar computerized tomography and also investigate the correlation between the presence of sphenoethmoid cells and the sphenoid sinus volume...
November 2017: Current Medical Imaging Reviews
Joseph F Fowler, Matthew J Zirwa J Zirwas, Lisa Napolitano, Meghan Russell, Janet Coope-Epstein
<p>INTRODUCTION: Dermatologists are becoming more aware of the irritant and allergic potential of laundry detergents that incorporate harsh surfactants and potentially sensitizing ingredients. It is difficult however for the physician to distinguish one laundry detergent from another because the only distinguishing feature advertised tends to be the lack of dyes and fragrances.</p> <p>DESIGN: A new objective method was developed for measuring the harshness of laundry detergents using a three-pronged laboratory testing approach consisting of zein, corneosurfametry, and cytokine testing...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Omar M Issa, Rhonda Roberts, Daniel B Mark, Robin Boineau, Christine Goertz, Yves Rosenberg, Eldrin F Lewis, Erminia Guarneri, Jeanne Drisko, Allan Magaziner, Kerry L Lee, Gervasio A Lamas
IMPORTANCE: In a prespecified subgroup analysis of participants not on statin therapy at baseline in the TACT, a high-dose complex oral multivitamins and multimineral regimen was found to have a large unexpected benefit compared with placebo. The regimen tested was substantially different from any vitamin regimen tested in prior clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To explore these results, we performed detailed additional analyses of participants not on statins at enrollment in TACT...
January 2018: American Heart Journal
Marie-Gabrielle Schumacher, Andrea Zürcher, Andreas Filippi
About every fourth individual suffers at leasttemporarily from oral malodor. The most frequentcause of it is the oral cavity, in particular thetongue coating. In professional halitosis clinics,findings and diagnoses are discussed with thepatients, and individual therapy concepts are designed. Currently, there are only few ev alua- tions of such clinics, which moreover are con- fined to a period of a few weeks or months. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the halitosis clinic of the University Center of Dental Medicine Basel o ver a period of eleven years...
2017: Swiss Dental Journal
Lucy Suzanne Kilburn, Maria Aresu, Jane Banerji, Peter Barrett-Lee, Paul Ellis, Judith Margaret Bliss
BACKGROUND: Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for evaluating new cancer treatments. They are, however, expensive to conduct, particularly where long-term follow-up of participants is required. Tracking participants via routine datasets could provide a cost-effective alternative for ascertaining follow-up information required to evaluate disease outcomes. This project explores the potential for routine data to inform cancer trials, using, the historical National Cancer Data Repository (NCDR) for English NHS sites and, for validation, mature data available from the TACT trial...
November 23, 2017: Trials
Bifan Chen, Kyle A Brown, Ziqing Lin, Ying Ge
In the post-genomics era, the study of proteins is critical for understanding cellular functions at the molecular level.1-5 Beyond the genetic code, the human proteome is greatly diversified by various genetic variations, alternative splicing of RNA transcripts, and post-translational modifi-cations (PTMs).6,7 In 2013, the term "proteoform" was designated to describe "all of the different molecular forms in which the protein product of a single gene can be found",6 clearing up the confusion in nomenclature and joining research efforts to develop methodologies for pro-teoform characterization...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Roy O Mathew, Joshua Schulman-Marcus, Elizabeth L Nichols, Jonathan D Newman, Sripal Bangalore, Michael Farkouh, Mandeep S Sidhu
Chelation therapy, typically used to remove heavy metal toxins, has also been controversially used as a treatment for coronary artery disease. The first Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) aimed to provide evidence on chelation therapy's potential for benefit or harm. Although TACT had some significant results, the trial does not provide enough evidence to recommend routine chelation therapy and has limitations. The second TACT was recently funded reigniting a discussion about the value of chelation therapy, its efficacy, and allocation of research resources...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Stefanie A Baril, Amber L Koenig, Mackenzie W Krone, Katherine I Albanese, Cyndi Qixin He, Ga Young Lee, Kendall N Houk, Marcey L Waters, Eric M Brustad
Trimethyllysine (Kme3) reader proteins are targets for inhibition due to their role in mediating gene expression. Although all such reader proteins bind Kme3 in an aromatic cage, the driving force for binding may differ; some readers exhibit evidence for cation-π interactions whereas others do not. We report a general unnatural amino acid mutagenesis approach to quantify the contribution of individual tyrosines to cation binding using the HP1 chromodomain as a model system. We demonstrate that two tyrosines (Y24 and Y48) bind to a Kme3-histone tail peptide via cation-π interactions, but linear free energy trends suggest they do not contribute equally to binding...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Julie T Watters, Jason H Pitzen, Linda J Sanders, Virginia Nickie M Bruce, Alissa R Cornell, Gary C Cseko, Janice S Grace, Pamela S Kwon, Andrea K Kukla, Michael S Lee, Michelle D Monosmith, John D Myren, Rebecca S Kottschade, Marc N Shaft, Jennifer Jenny A Weis, Jane C Welter, Adil E Bharucha
The Institute of Medicine and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognize that activating clinical trials in the United States is lengthy and inefficient. Downstream consequences include increased expense, suboptimal accrual, move of clinical trials overseas, and delayed availability of treatments for patients. An in-tandem processing initiative is here highlighted that transformed the activation of clinical trials (TACT), reduced the activation time by 70%, and offers a paradigm for enhanced translational readiness...
January 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Dawn M Aycock, Traci T Sims, Terri Florman, Karis T Casseus, Paula M Gordon, Regena G Spratling
Some words and phrases used by health care providers may be perceived as insensitive by patients, which could negatively affect patient outcomes and satisfaction. However, a distinct concept that can be used to describe and synthesize these words and phrases does not exist. The purpose of this article is to propose the concept of language sensitivity, defined as the use of respectful, supportive, and caring words with consideration for a patient's situation and diagnosis. Examples of how language sensitivity may be lacking in nurse-patient interactions are described, and solutions are provided using the RESPECT (Rapport, Environment/Equipment, Safety, Privacy, Encouragement, Caring/Compassion, and Tact) model...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Erina L MacGeorge, Rachel A Smith, Emily P Caldes, Nicole M Hackman
"Watchful waiting" (WW) can reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in the treatment of pediatric otitis media (ear infection), but the utility of the strategy is impaired by underutilization and noncompliance. Guided by advice response theory (ART), the current study examines how parental compliance with WW and trust in the prescribing physician is predicted by evaluative and affective responses to the advice. Parents (N = 134) of at least one child aged 5 years or younger completed questionnaires that assessed responses to WW advice they received for their youngest child...
November 2017: Journal of Health Communication
Laura L Grow, Tiffany Kodak, Andrea Clements
Instructive feedback is used to expose learners to secondary targets during skill acquisition programs (Reichow & Wolery, in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 327-340, 2011; Werts, Wolery, Gast, & Holcombe, in Journal of Behavioral Education, 5, 55-75, 1995). Although unrelated feedback may have clinical utility in practice, very little research has evaluated unrelated instructive feedback, particularly for promoting play behavior (Colozzi, Ward, & Crotty, in Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 226-248, 2008)...
September 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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