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Michail Rovatsos, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Marie Altmanová, Lukáš Kratochvíl
Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation...
October 21, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Yan-Ping Liu, Hui-Fang Zhu, Ding-Li Liu, Zhi-Yan Hu, Sheng-Nan Li, He-Ping Kan, Xiao-Yan Wang, Zu-Guo Li
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, was recently reported to be associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the role of DcR3 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that DcR3 expression was significantly higher in human colorectal cancer tissues than in paired normal tissues, and that DcR3 expression was strongly correlated with tumor invasion, lymph node metastases and poor prognoses. Moreover, DcR3 overexpression significantly enhanced CRC cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Jia Nan, Wang Jieyu, Li Qing, Tao Xiang, Chang Kaikai, Hua Keqin, Yu Yinhua, Wong Kwong-Kwok, Feng Weiwei
This work investigated the role of paired box 2 (PAX2) in endometrial cancer and its epigenetic regulation mechanism. Endometrial cancer tissues and cell lines exhibited increased PAX2 expression compared with hyperplasia, normal endometrium and endometrial epithelial cells. Knock-down of PAX2 resulted in reduced cell viability, invasion and migration, and PAX2 overexpression caused the opposite effects. Increased methylation of the PAX2 promoter was observed in both cancer tissues and cell lines and was positively correlated with PAX2 expression...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
J Soler, P Ferentinos, C Prats, S Miret, M Giralt, V Peralta, L Fañanás, M Fatjó-Vilas
INTRODUCTION: This study explored schizotypy as a familial liability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) by examining: 1) the aggregation of schizotypy in families with a SSD patient, 2) whether familial resemblance of schizotypy is associated with ridge dissociations (RD), another SSD liability marker, 3) whether schizotypy aggregation patterns influence patients' psychopathology. METHODS: The sample comprised 30 SSD patients and 82 healthy first-degree relatives...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Nicole K Bolt, Evan M Poncelet, Benjamin G Schultz, Janeen D Loehr
Philosophers have proposed that when people coordinate their actions with others they may experience a sense of joint agency, or shared control over actions and their effects. However, little empirical work has investigated the sense of joint agency. In the current study, pairs coordinated their actions to produce tone sequences and then rated their sense of joint agency on a scale ranging from shared to independent control. People felt more shared than independent control overall, confirming that people experience joint agency during joint action...
October 17, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Thomas J Younts, Hannah R Monday, Barna Dudok, Matthew E Klein, Bryen A Jordan, István Katona, Pablo E Castillo
Long-term changes of neurotransmitter release are critical for proper brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. While protein synthesis is crucial for the consolidation of postsynaptic plasticity, whether and how protein synthesis regulates presynaptic plasticity in the mature mammalian brain remain unclear. Here, using paired whole-cell recordings in rodent hippocampal slices, we report that presynaptic protein synthesis is required for long-term, but not short-term, plasticity of GABA release from type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing axons...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I Bukrinsky, Paul J Brindley
Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Qian Qi, Mary M Cavanagh, Sabine Le Saux, Lisa E Wagar, Sally Mackey, Jinyu Hu, Holden Maecker, Gary E Swan, Mark M Davis, Cornelia L Dekker, Lu Tian, Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
Vaccination with attenuated live varicella zoster virus (VZV) can prevent zoster reactivation, but protection is incomplete especially in an older population. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying variable vaccine responses, T- and B-cell responses to VZV vaccination were examined in individuals of different ages including identical twin pairs. Contrary to the induction of VZV-specific antibodies, antigen-specific T cell responses were significantly influenced by inherited factors. Diminished generation of long-lived memory T cells in older individuals was mainly caused by increased T cell loss after the peak response while the expansion of antigen-specific T cells was not affected by age...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Nicolas Rouleau, Lukasz M Karbowski, Michael A Persinger
Synthetic experimental substrates are indispensable tools which can allow researchers to model biological processes non-invasively in three-dimensional space. In this study, we investigated the capacities of an electroconductive material whose properties converge upon those of the brain. An electrically conductive material composed of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, ions, water, and trace amounts of other organic compounds and minerals was classically conditioned as inferred by electrophysiological measurements...
2016: PloS One
Jangjin Kim, Mary E Goldsberry, Thomas C Harmon, John H Freeman
Hippocampal development is thought to play a crucial role in the emergence of many forms of learning and memory, but ontogenetic changes in hippocampal activity during learning have not been examined thoroughly. We examined the ontogeny of hippocampal function by recording theta and single neuron activity from the dorsal hippocampal CA1 area while rat pups were trained in associative learning. Three different age groups [postnatal days (P)17-19, P21-23, and P24-26] were trained over six sessions using a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) and a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (US)...
2016: PloS One
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
Natasa M Milic, Srdjan Masic, Jelena Milin-Lazovic, Goran Trajkovic, Zoran Bukumiric, Marko Savic, Nikola V Milic, Andja Cirkovic, Milan Gajic, Mirjana Kostic, Aleksandra Ilic, Dejana Stanisavljevic
BACKGROUND: The scientific community increasingly is recognizing the need to bolster standards of data analysis given the widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings. The aim of this study was to investigate students' attitudes towards statistics within a multi-site medical educational context, monitor their changes and impact on student achievement. In addition, we performed a systematic review to better support our future pedagogical decisions in teaching applied statistics to medical students...
2016: PloS One
Nam-Su Chung, Chang-Hoon Jeon, Han-Dong Lee, Suk-Hyeong Won
STUDY DESIGN: This was a radiographic validity and reliability study. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the validity and reliability of measurements made on standing lateral lumbar radiographs, compared with lateral whole-spine radiographs, for evaluating spinopelvic parameters and lumbar lordosis (LL). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A lateral whole-spine radiograph is the gold standard image for measurement of spinopelvic parameters. However, little evidence is available on the reliability of measurements made on such radiograph...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Rebecca C Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Roland von Känel, J Richard Jennings, Nanette Santoro, Doug P Landsittel, Karen A Matthews
OBJECTIVES: A childhood history of abuse or neglect may be associated with elevated adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. No studies have examined associations between child abuse/neglect and subclinical CVD using a validated measure of abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that midlife women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect would have increased subclinical CVD beyond standard CVD risk factors. We tested moderation of associations by sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Laura R Stroud, George D Papandonatos, Stephanie H Parade, Amy L Salisbury, Maureen G Phipps, Barry M Lester, James F Padbury, Carmen J Marsit
OBJECTIVES: Extending prior studies of prenatal adversity and depressive symptoms, we tested associations between maternal prenatal major depressive disorder (MDD) and infant cortisol regulation. Based on prior findings by our group, we also tested placenta glucocorticoid (HSD11B2 methylation) and serotonin (SLC6A4 gene expression) signaling as moderators of links between prenatal MDD and infant cortisol. METHODS: Participants were 153 mother-infant pairs from a low-income, diverse sample (M [SD] age = 26[6] years)...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Luigi Maria Galantucci, Roberto Deli, Alberto Laino, Eliana Di Gioia, Raoul D'Alessio, Fulvio Lavecchia, Gianluca Percoco, Carmela Savastano
The aim of this paper is to develop a database to determine a new biomorphometric standard of attractiveness. Sampling was carried out using noninvasive three-dimensional relief methods to measure the soft tissues of the face. These anthropometric measurements were analyzed to verify the existence of any canons with respect to shape, size, and measurement proportions which proved to be significant with regard to the aesthetics of the face. Finally, the anthropometric parameters obtained were compared with findings described in the international literature...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Stefanie M Chan, Tatyana F Svitova, Meng C Lin
Contact lens discomfort is a common problem that can lead to unsuccessful or limited contact lens wear. Although many factors may contribute to contact lens discomfort, limited research has explored the influence of ethnicity-related differences in the anatomy and physiology of the ocular surface. Therefore, we performed a search of the literature in PubMed using key words related to "ocular surface" paired with the terms "race" and "ethnicity." The goal of this review was to determine potential areas of research regarding ethnicity differences, particularly between Asian and non-Asian eyes, in ocular surface integrity to advance our understanding of contact lens discomfort...
October 19, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Sapna M Amin, Adam Beattie, Xia Ling, Lawrence J Jennings, Joan Guitart
Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumor of the salivary glands named for its morphological and molecular similarity to secretory carcinoma of the breast. Many primary carcinomas arising from the adnexal glands also share similar morphology to those arising from the breast. Brandt et al first described primary cutaneous MASC in 2009 and since then only 2 other cases have been reported. Herein, we describe a long-standing mass on the arm of an otherwise healthy 40-year-old female...
November 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Walter Young, Shelley Karp, Peter Bialick, Cindy Liverance, Ashley Seder, Erica Berg, Liberty Karp
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. METHODS: Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas...
October 20, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Chenting Yan, Zhifang Li, Xu-Qiong Xiao, Ningka Wei, Qiong Lu, Mitsuo Kira
A fluorostannylenoid (Cs(+) [R2 SnF](-) (9), R2 =(TMS)2 CCH2 CH2 C(TMS)2 ) was prepared by reacting a stable dialkylstannylene (R2 Sn (8), R2 =(TMS)2 CCH2 CH2 C(TMS)2 ) with cesium fluoride at room temperature in THF. While 9 is stable in THF and DME, removal of the solvent leads to the regeneration of stannylene 8. No reaction occurred when 8 was treated with CsF in a hydrocarbon solvent. Addition of dibenzo-21-crown-7 ether to the THF solution of stannylenoid 9 followed by usual workup affords the corresponding crystalline stannylenoid crown ether complex, the X-ray structural analysis of which revealed a fluorine-bridged contact ion-pair structure...
October 20, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
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