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Shiqi Luo, Feng He, Junjie Luo, Shengqian Dou, Yirong Wang, Annan Guo, Jian Lu
Transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) are an emerging class of small RNAs, yet their regulatory roles have not been well understood. Here we studied the molecular mechanisms and consequences of tsRNA-mediated regulation in Drosophila. By analyzing 495 public small RNA libraries, we demonstrate that most tsRNAs are conserved, prevalent and abundant in Drosophila. By carrying out mRNA sequencing and ribosome profiling of S2 cells transfected with single-stranded tsRNA mimics and mocks, we show that tsRNAs recognize target mRNAs through conserved complementary sequence matching and suppress target genes by translational inhibition...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Konstadinos Plestis, Oleg Orlov, Vishal N Shah, Joshua Wong, Matthew Thomas, Alon Aharon, Cinthia Orlov, Georgia Panagopoulos, Scott Goldman
OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) can be technically demanding and may lead to prolonged operative time. We evaluated the intraoperative and postoperative patient outcomes following implementation of 2 facilitating technologies (FT) in MIAVR: the Cor-Knot titanium fastener and Custodiol-histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution. METHODS: A total of 299 patients underwent MIAVR from 2008 to 2016; 172 (57.5%) patients were included in the FT group and 127 (42...
March 14, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis, Christos Varounis, Marialena Trivella
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alexander Arévalo-Sandi, Paulo Estefano D Bobrowiec, Victor Juan Ulises Rodriguez Chuma, Darren Norris
There is increasing interest in the restoration/regeneration of degraded tropical habitats yet the potential role of natural regenerators remains unclear. We test the hypothesis that the richness and functional diversity of terrestrial mammals differs between forest regrowth stages. We quantified the richness and functional diversity of eight terrestrial mammal seed-disperser species across a forest regrowth gradient in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We installed camera-traps in 15 sites within small-holder properties with forest regrowth stage classified into three groups, with five sites each of: late second-regrowth forest, early second-regrowth forest and abandoned pasture...
2018: PloS One
Hannah R Wardill, Ysabella Z A Van Sebille, Matthew A Ciorba, Joanne M Bowen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strong preclinical data support prophylactic probiotics as an effective preventive strategy for diarrhoea secondary to anticancer therapies. To determine the composite evidence that this approach translates to the clinic, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of cancer therapy induced diarrhoea. RECENT FINDINGS: A three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant studies (1 June 2000-1 June 2017) investigating probiotic intervention for diarrhoea secondary to any cancer therapy (cytotoxic, targeted and immunotherapies)...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Siti Azdiah Abdul Aziz, Megan Mcstea, Nor Syuhada Ahmad Bashah, Meng Li Chong, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Helmi Sulaiman, Iskandar Azwa, Maw Pin Tan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman
OBJECTIVES: In a clinic-based, treated HIV-infected cohort, we identified individuals with sarcopenia and compared with age, sex and ethnically matched controls; and investigated associated risk factors and health outcomes. DESIGN: Sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss) causes significant morbidity to the elderly, leading to frequent hospitalizations, disability and death. Few have characterized sarcopenia in the HIV-infected who experience accelerated aging. METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass with weak grip strength and/or slow gait speed using lower 20th percentiles of controls...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Christopher E Patrick, Santosh Kumar, Geetha Balakrishnan, Rachel S Edwards, Martin R Lees, Leon Petit, Julie B Staunton
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the microscopic origin of permanent magnetism, is often explained in terms of ferromagnets. However, the best performing permanent magnets based on rare earths and transition metals (RE-TM) are in fact ferrimagnets, consisting of a number of magnetic sublattices. Here we show how a naive calculation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the classic RE-TM ferrimagnet GdCo_{5} gives numbers that are too large at 0 K and exhibit the wrong temperature dependence. We solve this problem by introducing a first-principles approach to calculate temperature-dependent magnetization versus field (FPMVB) curves, mirroring the experiments actually used to determine the anisotropy...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Chang-Hwan Yi, Julius Kullig, Jan Wiersig
One of the interesting features of open quantum and wave systems is the non-Hermitian degeneracy called an exceptional point, where not only energy levels but also the corresponding eigenstates coalesce. We demonstrate that such a degeneracy can appear in optical microdisk cavities by deforming the boundary extremely weakly. This surprising finding is explained by a semiclassical theory of dynamical tunneling. It is shown that the exceptional points come in nearly degenerated pairs, originating from the different symmetry classes of modes...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jejoong Yoo, Aleksei Aksimentiev
In contrast to ordinary polymers, the vast majority of biological macromolecules adopt highly ordered three-dimensional structures that define their functions. The key to folding of a biopolymer into a unique 3D structure or to an assembly of several biopolymers into a functional unit is a delicate balance between the attractive and repulsive forces that also makes such self-assembly reversible under physiological conditions. The all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) method has emerged as a powerful tool for studies of individual biomolecules and their functional assemblies, encompassing systems of ever increasing complexity...
March 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sen Xu, Xiaofeng Fan, Jialin Liu, David J Singh, Qing Jiang, Weitao Zheng
We report an investigation of the interactions of Li with silicene. We find silicene to be a promising anode material for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. Based on first-principles calculations, we study the interaction between Li and silicene and explore the microscopic mechanism of Li storage on silicene. We find that Li ion is adsorbed on hollow sites at a very low concentration of less than 1.56%. At a high concentration of Li, the Li chains with up-down pairs on top sites become popular. With the formation of the Li chains, the local structure of silicene is modulated...
March 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
James Hope, Frederique Vanholsbeeck, A J McDaid
In neural interfaces for peripheral nerve a trade-off exists between the level of invasiveness and the selectivity of neural recordings. In this study, we implement electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in a nerve cuff with the aim to investigate the achievable level of selectivity.
 Approach: Established modelling approaches in neural-EIT are expanded on to be used, for the first time, on myelinated fibres which are abundant in mammalian peripheral nerves and transmit motor commands. The model is then used to evaluate the viability of using EIT with a nerve cuff to record neural activity in peripheral nerves...
March 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Jocelyne C Whitehead, Lingqian Li, Douglas A McQuiggan, Sara A Gambino, Malcolm A Binns, Jennifer D Ryan
INTRODUCTION: Preferential viewing of novel stimuli in the Visual Paired Comparison task has provided a useful marker of memory and medial temporal lobe function. We created a portable version of the VPC (P-VPC) and contrasted P-VPC metrics against the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in healthy adults, to assess the validity and reliability of the P-VPC as an indicator of memory function across age. A supplementary case series was conducted with individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, to provide a preliminary illustration of the P-VPC's use as a measure in clinical populations...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Ming Xiao, Daozhi Shen, Kevin P Musselman, Walter W Duley, Y Norman Zhou
Neuromorphic computational systems that emulate biological synapses in the human brain are fundamental in the development of artificial intelligence protocols beyond the standard von Neumann architecture. Such systems require new types of building blocks, such as memristors that access a quasi-continuous and wide range of conductive states, which is still an obstacle for the realization of high-efficiency and large-capacity learning in neuromorphoric simulation. Here, we introduce hydrogen and sodium titanate nanobelts, the intermediate products of hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanobelts, to emulate the synaptic behavior...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Zachary Predmore, Jean Pannikottu, Ritu Sharma, Monica Tung, Stephanie Nothelle, Jodi B Segal
This systematic review examined factors associated with overuse of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The authors searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1998 to March 2017. Studies were included if they were written in English, contained original data, involved a US population, and examined factors potentially associated with overuse of CRC screening. Paired reviewers independently screened abstracts, assessed quality, and extracted data. In 8 studies, the associations between patient factors, including age, sex, race, and number of comorbidities, were tested and were inconsistently associated with CRC screening overuse...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
Valentina Cettolo, Maria Pia Francescato
PURPOSE: A new algorithm is illustrated for the determination of breath-by-breath alveolar gas exchange that neglects the contiguity in time of breaths, i.e. it allows the breaths to be partially superimposed or disjoined in time. METHODS: Traces of oxygen, carbon dioxide fractions, and ventilatory flow were recorded continuously over 20 min in 15 healthy subjects in resting conditions; at 5-min intervals, subjects voluntarily hyperventilated for ~ 30 s to induce abrupt changes in lung gas stores...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Patrick Ip, Winnie Tso, Nirmala Rao, Frederick Ka Wing Ho, Ko Ling Chan, King Wa Fu, Sophia Ling Li, Winnie Goh, Wilfred Hing-Sang Wong, Chun Bong Chow
BACKGROUND: Proper parent-child interaction is crucial for child development, but an assessment tool in Chinese is currently lacking. This study aimed to develop and validate a parent-reported parent-child interaction scale for Chinese preschool children. METHODS: The Chinese parent-child interaction scale (CPCIS) was designed by an expert panel based on the literature and clinical observations in the Chinese context. The initial CPCIS had 14 parent-child interactive activity items...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Beibei Zhang, Qiao Wang, Xinhui Xu, Qiang Xia, Feifei Long, Weiwei Li, Yingchun Shui, Xinyi Xia, Jinke Wang
This study develops a new method for detecting target DNA based on Cas9 nuclease, which was named as CARP, representing CRISPR- or Cas9/sgRNAs-associated reverse PCR. This technique detects target DNA in three steps: (1) cleaving the detected DNA sample with Cas9 in complex with a pair of sgRNAs specific to target DNA; (2) ligating the cleaved DNA with DNA ligase; (3) amplifying target DNA with PCR. In the ligation step, the Cas9-cut target DNA was ligated into intramolecular circular or intermolecular concatenated linear DNA...
March 15, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kimberly Coughlin, R David Hayward, Mary Fessler, Elango Edhayan
OBJECTIVES: Although individual socioeconomic status has been linked with risk of traumatic injury, there has been relatively little research into the question of how economic changes may impact trauma admission rates in neighborhoods with different socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: This study pairs ZIP code-level data on trauma admissions with county-level data on unemployment to assess differences in the type of changes experienced in more and less affluent neighborhoods of the Detroit metropolitan area between 2006 and 2014...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Xiangfeng Wang, Hu Fang, Yong Cheng, Lin Li, Xiaohui Sun, Tao Fu, Peide Huang, Anping Zhang, Zhimin Feng, Chunxue Li, Xuanlin Huang, Guangyan Li, Peina Du, Huanming Yang, Xiaodong Fang, Fan Li, Qiang Gao, Baohua Liu
Synchronous colorectal cancers (syCRCs), which present two or more lesions at diagnosis, are rare and pose a great challenge for clinical management. Although some predisposing factors associated with syCRCs have been studied with limited accession, the full repertoire of genomic events among the lesions within an individual and the causes of syCRCs remain unclear. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 40 surgical tumour samples of paired lesions from 20 patients to characterize the genetic alterations. Lesions from same patient showed distinct landscapes of somatic aberrations and shared few mutations, which suggests that they originate and develop independently although they shared the similar genetic background...
March 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Matthew R Marcello, Marina Druzhinina, Andrew Singson
The interaction and organization of proteins in the sperm membrane are important for all aspects of sperm function. We have determined the interactions between twelve known mutationally defined and cloned sperm membrane proteins in a model system for reproduction, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Identification of the interactions between sperm membrane proteins will improve our understanding of and ability to characterize defects in sperm function. To identify interacting proteins, we conducted a split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) analysis of gene products identified through genetic screens that are necessary for sperm function and predicted to encode transmembrane proteins...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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