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Yang Bai, Qing Liu, Xinguang Chen, Yanduo Gao, Huiyun Gong, Xiaodong Tan, Min Zhang, Jiyu Tuo, Yuling Zhang, Qunying Xiang, Fenghua Deng, Guiling Liu
OBJECTIVE: Despite the significance of cervical cancer screening, motivating more women to participate remains a challenge in resource-limited settings. In this study, we tested the protection motivation theory (PMT) in predicting screening intentions. METHODS: Participants were women from Wufeng, a typical rural county in China. Participants (n=3000) with no cervical cancer history were recruited from 10 randomly selected villages. As mediating variables, six PMT constructs (Perceived Risk, Fear Arousal, Perceived Severity, Response Efficacy, Response Cost and Self-Efficacy) were measured using the standardized questionnaire...
July 27, 2017: Psycho-oncology
Aaron P Smith, Joshua S Beckmann, Thomas R Zentall
Individuals often face choices that have uncertain outcomes and have important consequences. As a model of this environment, laboratory experiments often offer a choice between an uncertain, large reward that varies in its probability of delivery against a certain but smaller reward as a measure of an individual's risk aversion. An important factor generally lacking from these procedures are gambling related cues that may moderate risk preferences. The present experiment offered pigeons choices between unreliable and certain rewards but, for the Signaled group on winning choices, presented a 'jackpot' signal prior to reward delivery...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
J Gómez Gómez, J L Gómez Torres, A Hernández Torres, J A García Córdoba, M Canteras Jordana
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of steroid treatment in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), both in length of stay and economical cost of admission at a clinical university hospital. METHODS: Prospective study of admitted patients with the diagnosis of CAP, both in Internal Medicine and Infectious diseases department. The study was conducted from January to march 2015; patients receiving steroids from diagnosis to end of antibiotic treatment were classified as group I; otherwise, they were considered in group II...
July 24, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Monita Karmakar, Sharrel L Pinto, Timothy R Jordan, Iman Mohamed, Monica Holiday-Goodman
The purpose of this observational study was to determine if the Protection Motivation Theory could predict and explain adherence to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy among breast cancer survivors. Purposive sampling was used to identify 288 survivors who had been prescribed AI therapy. A valid and reliable survey was mailed to survivors. A total of 145 survivors completed the survey. The Morisky scale was used to measure adherence to AI. The survivors reported a mean score of 6.84 (±0.66) on the scale. Nearly 4 in 10 survivors (38%) were non-adherent...
2017: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Patrice Cacoub, Mathieu Vautier, Anne Claire Desbois, Antoine Lafuma, David Saadoun
BACKGROUND: The net benefits of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAA) in patients with cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis (CryoVas) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effectiveness and cost of all treatments used for HCV-CryoVas in the DAA vs pre-DAA era. METHODS: A chart review of all HCV-CryoVas patients who received antivirals from 1993 to 2016 in a tertiary centre was performed. Treatment effectiveness was analysed for clinical, immunological and virological responses...
May 3, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Aleks Pieczykolan, Lynn Huestegge
Normally, we do not act within a single effector system only, but rather coordinate actions across several output modules (cross-modal action). Such cross-modal action demands can vary substantially with respect to their complexity in terms of the number of task-relevant response combinations and to-be-retrieved stimulus-response (S-R) mapping rules. In the present study, we study the impact of these two types of cross-modal action complexity on dual-response costs (i.e., performance differences between single- and dual-action demands)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Rui Ma, Li Lu, Luodan Suo, Xiaomei Li, Fan Yang, Tao Zhou, Lijun Zhai, Hongwei Bai, Xinghuo Pang
BACKGROUND: Few measles outbreaks among adults are reported in China, and outbreak response costs are seldom documented. We report an adult measles outbreak and response in 4 linked office buildings in Beijing and its associated costs. METHOD: The World Health Organization measles case definitions were used to determine suspected and confirmed measles cases. Surveillance data were used to describe the outbreak, and records and interviews of response staff were used to describe the response...
February 22, 2017: Vaccine
Agustín Ciapponi, Alison Lee, Ariel Bardach, Demián Glujovsky, Lucila Rey-Ares, María Luisa Cafferata, Pilar Valanzasca, Sebastián García Martí
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety related to the interchangeability between pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and vaccination schedules in pediatric population. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted in December 2010 and April 2015 for economic evaluations in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Web sites and databases from medical societies, experts, and associations related to the topic, proceedings or congressional annals, and doctoral theses were also searched...
December 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
Lauren M Hamel, Louis A Penner, Susan Eggly, Robert Chapman, Justin F Klamerus, Michael S Simon, Sarah C E Stanton, Terrance L Albrecht
PURPOSE: Financial toxicity negatively affects patients with cancer, especially racial/ethnic minorities. Patient-oncologist discussions about treatment-related costs may reduce financial toxicity by factoring costs into treatment decisions. This study investigated the frequency and nature of cost discussions during clinical interactions between African American patients and oncologists and examined whether cost discussions were affected by patient sociodemographic characteristics and social support, a known buffer to perceived financial stress...
March 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
Amanda Grenier, Rachel Barken, Colleen McGrath
The concepts of 'house' and 'home' are compelling and contradictory. They are compelling because they elicit the desired sentiments of permanence, feeling 'at home', and maintaining continuity in one's life. At the same time, they can be experienced as contradictory where organizational practices and the socio-cultural imperatives of individual responsibility, cost containment, and rationed services are concerned. Where 'house' tends to evoke a sense of permanent stability, 'home' is regarded as the ideal living environment and site of care for older people...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
Ilya Kister, John R Corboy
The rapid escalation in prices of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) over the past decade has resulted in a dramatic overall increase in the costs of MS-related care. In this article, we outline various approaches whereby neurologists can contribute to responsible cost containment while maintaining, and even enhancing, the quality of MS care. The premise of the article is that clinicians are uniquely positioned to introduce innovative management strategies that are both medically sound and cost-efficient...
October 11, 2016: Neurology
Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Tania Singer, Philipp Kanske
A classical model of human attention holds that independent neural networks realize stimulus-driven reorienting and executive control of attention. Questioning full independence, the two functions do, however, engage overlapping networks with activations in cingulo-opercular regions such as anterior insula (AI) and a reverse pattern of activation (stimulus-driven reorienting), and deactivation (executive control) in temporoparietal junction (TPJ). To test for independent versus shared neural mechanisms underlying stimulus-driven and executive control of attention, we used fMRI and a task that isolates individual from concurrent demands in both functions...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Rachel L Cathcart, A Ian Glendon
PURPOSE: Using a young driver sample, this experimental study sought to identify which combinations of threat-appraisal (TA) and coping-appraisal (CA) messages derived from protection motivation theory (PMT) participants would judge as most effective for themselves, and for other drivers. METHOD: The criterion variable was reported intention to drive within a signed speed limit. All possible TA/CA combinations of 18 previously highly-rated anti-speeding messages were presented both simultaneously and sequentially...
November 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Stephanie Tesson, Imogen Richards, David Porter, Kelly-Anne Phillips, Nicole Rankin, Toni Musiello, Michelle Marven, Phyllis Butow
OBJECTIVE: Most women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are at low risk of contralateral breast cancer. Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy (CPM) decreases the relative risk of contralateral breast cancer, but may not increase life expectancy; yet international uptake is increasing. This study applied protection motivation theory (PMT) to determine factors associated with women's intentions to undergo CPM. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-eight women previously diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and of negative or unknown BRCA1 or BRCA2 status were recruited from an advocacy group's research database...
May 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Ashima Singh, Maria M Brooks, Ronald E Voorhees, Margaret A Potter, Mark S Roberts, James F Luther, Stephen R Wisniewski
OBJECTIVE: Multiple treatment options are available for patients who do not respond to initial treatment for major depressive disorder. Previous results show that bupropion, sertraline, and venlafaxine are comparable in terms of therapeutic effectiveness following unsuccessful treatment with citalopram. In this study, we extended these results by incorporating costs of treatment to determine if one option was more cost-effective relative to others. METHODS: In the STAR*D (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression) trial, 727 patients were randomly assigned to a switch drug treatment during level 2; 239 (33%) were assigned to bupropion, 238 (33%) to sertraline, and 250 (34%) to venlafaxine...
January 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Mahsa Khodayarian, Seyed Saied Mazloomi-Mahmoodabad, Minoor Lamyian, Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad, Hossein Tavangar
BACKGROUND: Mammography as the most common secondary prevention method has known to be helpful in detecting breast cancer at the early stages. Low level of participation among women toward mammography uptake due to cultural beliefs is a great concern. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of women about response costs of mammography adherence (MA) in Yazd, Iran. METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was performed. Fourteen women,one oncology nurse, and a breast cancer survivor were purposefully interviewed...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Kathryn Lee, Becky Penrod, Jenifer N Price
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of two variations of a token economy for reducing disruptive behavior within a general education classroom. One variation involved a group contingency in which tokens were removed contingent on disruptive behavior (response cost), and the other variation involved a group contingency in which tokens were gained according to a differential reinforcement of other behavior schedule. Two elementary school teachers and their students participated. Results indicated that both procedures were effective in reducing the overall number of students disrupting; however, both teachers and students indicated a greater preference for the response cost condition...
June 7, 2016: Behavior Modification
T Dehdari, L Hassani, D Shojaeizadeh, E Hajizadeh, S Nedjat, M Abedini
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Given the importance of papanicolaou (Pap) test in the early detection and timely treatment of cervical cancer, present study was designed to determine predictors of a sample of Iranian women's intention to first Pap test practice based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 240 women referral to the 30 primary health care clinics were selected. They completed a developed scale based on PMT variables including intention, perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy and self-efficacy...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
Stephen J Kohut, Jack Bergman
RATIONALE: Despite the high prevalence of nicotine use in humans, robust nicotine self-administration has been difficult to demonstrate in laboratory animals. OBJECTIVES: A parametric analysis of nicotine self-administration was conducted to study its reinforcing effects in nonhuman primates. METHODS: Adult rhesus macaques (N = 6) self-administered intravenous (IV) nicotine (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) under a fixed-ratio (FR)1 schedule of reinforcement during daily 90-min sessions...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
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