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Rui Ma, Li Lu, Luodan Suo, Xiaomei Li, Fan Yang, Tao Zhou, Lijun Zhai, Hongwei Bai, Xinghuo Pang
BACKGROUND: Few measles outbreaks among adults are reported in China, and outbreak response costs are seldom documented. We report an adult measles outbreak and response in 4 linked office buildings in Beijing and its associated costs. METHOD: The World Health Organization measles case definitions were used to determine suspected and confirmed measles cases. Surveillance data were used to describe the outbreak, and records and interviews of response staff were used to describe the response...
January 25, 2017: Vaccine
Agustín Ciapponi, Alison Lee, Ariel Bardach, Demián Glujovsky, Lucila Rey-Ares, María Luisa Cafferata, Pilar Valanzasca, Sebastián García Martí
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety related to the interchangeability between pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and vaccination schedules in pediatric population. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted in December 2010 and April 2015 for economic evaluations in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Web sites and databases from medical societies, experts, and associations related to the topic, proceedings or congressional annals, and doctoral theses were also searched...
December 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
Lauren M Hamel, Louis A Penner, Susan Eggly, Robert Chapman, Justin F Klamerus, Michael S Simon, Sarah C E Stanton, Terrance L Albrecht
PURPOSE: Financial toxicity negatively affects patients with cancer, especially racial/ethnic minorities. Patient-oncologist discussions about treatment-related costs may reduce financial toxicity by factoring costs into treatment decisions. This study investigated the frequency and nature of cost discussions during clinical interactions between African American patients and oncologists and examined whether cost discussions were affected by patient sociodemographic characteristics and social support, a known buffer to perceived financial stress...
March 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
Amanda Grenier, Rachel Barken, Colleen McGrath
The concepts of 'house' and 'home' are compelling and contradictory. They are compelling because they elicit the desired sentiments of permanence, feeling 'at home', and maintaining continuity in one's life. At the same time, they can be experienced as contradictory where organizational practices and the socio-cultural imperatives of individual responsibility, cost containment, and rationed services are concerned. Where 'house' tends to evoke a sense of permanent stability, 'home' is regarded as the ideal living environment and site of care for older people...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
Ilya Kister, John R Corboy
The rapid escalation in prices of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) over the past decade has resulted in a dramatic overall increase in the costs of MS-related care. In this article, we outline various approaches whereby neurologists can contribute to responsible cost containment while maintaining, and even enhancing, the quality of MS care. The premise of the article is that clinicians are uniquely positioned to introduce innovative management strategies that are both medically sound and cost-efficient...
October 11, 2016: Neurology
Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Tania Singer, Philipp Kanske
A classical model of human attention holds that independent neural networks realize stimulus-driven reorienting and executive control of attention. Questioning full independence, the two functions do, however, engage overlapping networks with activations in cingulo-opercular regions such as anterior insula (AI) and a reverse pattern of activation (stimulus-driven reorienting), and deactivation (executive control) in temporoparietal junction (TPJ). To test for independent versus shared neural mechanisms underlying stimulus-driven and executive control of attention, we used fMRI and a task that isolates individual from concurrent demands in both functions...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Rachel L Cathcart, A Ian Glendon
PURPOSE: Using a young driver sample, this experimental study sought to identify which combinations of threat-appraisal (TA) and coping-appraisal (CA) messages derived from protection motivation theory (PMT) participants would judge as most effective for themselves, and for other drivers. METHOD: The criterion variable was reported intention to drive within a signed speed limit. All possible TA/CA combinations of 18 previously highly-rated anti-speeding messages were presented both simultaneously and sequentially...
November 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Stephanie Tesson, Imogen Richards, David Porter, Kelly-Anne Phillips, Nicole Rankin, Toni Musiello, Michelle Marven, Phyllis Butow
OBJECTIVE: Most women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are at low risk of contralateral breast cancer. Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy (CPM) decreases the relative risk of contralateral breast cancer, but may not increase life expectancy; yet international uptake is increasing. This study applied protection motivation theory (PMT) to determine factors associated with women's intentions to undergo CPM. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-eight women previously diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and of negative or unknown BRCA1 or BRCA2 status were recruited from an advocacy group's research database...
May 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Ashima Singh, Maria M Brooks, Ronald E Voorhees, Margaret A Potter, Mark S Roberts, James F Luther, Stephen R Wisniewski
OBJECTIVE: Multiple treatment options are available for patients who do not respond to initial treatment for major depressive disorder. Previous results show that bupropion, sertraline, and venlafaxine are comparable in terms of therapeutic effectiveness following unsuccessful treatment with citalopram. In this study, we extended these results by incorporating costs of treatment to determine if one option was more cost-effective relative to others. METHODS: In the STAR*D (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression) trial, 727 patients were randomly assigned to a switch drug treatment during level 2; 239 (33%) were assigned to bupropion, 238 (33%) to sertraline, and 250 (34%) to venlafaxine...
January 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Mahsa Khodayarian, Seyed Saied Mazloomi-Mahmoodabad, Minoor Lamyian, Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad, Hossein Tavangar
BACKGROUND: Mammography as the most common secondary prevention method has known to be helpful in detecting breast cancer at the early stages. Low level of participation among women toward mammography uptake due to cultural beliefs is a great concern. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of women about response costs of mammography adherence (MA) in Yazd, Iran. METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was performed. Fourteen women,one oncology nurse, and a breast cancer survivor were purposefully interviewed...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Kathryn Lee, Becky Penrod, Jenifer N Price
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of two variations of a token economy for reducing disruptive behavior within a general education classroom. One variation involved a group contingency in which tokens were removed contingent on disruptive behavior (response cost), and the other variation involved a group contingency in which tokens were gained according to a differential reinforcement of other behavior schedule. Two elementary school teachers and their students participated. Results indicated that both procedures were effective in reducing the overall number of students disrupting; however, both teachers and students indicated a greater preference for the response cost condition...
June 7, 2016: Behavior Modification
T Dehdari, L Hassani, D Shojaeizadeh, E Hajizadeh, S Nedjat, M Abedini
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Given the importance of papanicolaou (Pap) test in the early detection and timely treatment of cervical cancer, present study was designed to determine predictors of a sample of Iranian women's intention to first Pap test practice based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 240 women referral to the 30 primary health care clinics were selected. They completed a developed scale based on PMT variables including intention, perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy and self-efficacy...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
Stephen J Kohut, Jack Bergman
RATIONALE: Despite the high prevalence of nicotine use in humans, robust nicotine self-administration has been difficult to demonstrate in laboratory animals. OBJECTIVES: A parametric analysis of nicotine self-administration was conducted to study its reinforcing effects in nonhuman primates. METHODS: Adult rhesus macaques (N = 6) self-administered intravenous (IV) nicotine (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) under a fixed-ratio (FR)1 schedule of reinforcement during daily 90-min sessions...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
Leila Ghahremani, Zahra Khiyali Harami, Mohammad Hossein Kaveh, Sareh Keshavarzi
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is known as one of the most prevalent types of cancers and a major public health problem in developing countries which can be detected by Pap test, prevented, and treated. Despite the effective role of Pap test in decreasing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer, it is still one the most common causes of cancer-related deaths among women, especially in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effect of educational interventions implemented by health volunteers based on protection motivation theory (PMT) on promoting Pap test use among women...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: Behavioral economics and neuroeconomics bring together perspectives and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand decision making and choice behavior. Extending an operant behavioral theoretical framework, these perspectives have increasingly been applied to understand the alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and this review surveys the theory, methods, and findings from this approach. The focus is on 3 key behavioral economic concepts: delay discounting (i...
April 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Towhid Babazadeh, Haidar Nadrian, Morteza Banayejeddi, Baratali Rezapour
Skin cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers, worldwide, which happens more among those with more sunlight exposure like farmers. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of skin cancer preventive behaviors (SCPBs) among rural farmers using Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, multistage random sampling was employed to enroll 238 farmers referring to rural health houses (HH) in Chaldoran County, Iran. A valid and reliable instrument based on PMT variables was used...
February 27, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Erica S Jowett Hirst, Claudia L Dozier, Steven W Payne
Researchers have shown that both differential reinforcement and response cost within token economies are similarly effective for changing the behavior of individuals in a group context (e.g., Donaldson, DeLeon, Fisher, & Kahng, 2014; Iwata & Bailey, 1974). In addition, these researchers have empirically evaluated preference for these procedures. However, few previous studies have evaluated the individual effects of these procedures both in group contexts and in the absence of peers. Therefore, we replicated and extended previous research by determining the individual effects and preferences of differential reinforcement and response cost under both group and individualized conditions...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
John D Salamone, Merce Correa, Samantha Yohn, Laura Lopez Cruz, Noemi San Miguel, Luisa Alatorre
This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs...
June 2016: Behavioural Processes
Joseph Birundu Mogendi, Hans De Steur, Xavier Gellynck, Anselimo Makokha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite successes recorded in combating iodine deficiency, more than 2 billion people are still at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. Rural landlocked and mountainous areas of developing countries are the hardest hit, hence the need to explore and advance novel strategies such as biofortification. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We evaluated adoption, purchase, and consumption of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes (IBVL) using the theory of protection motivations (PMT) integrated with an economic valuation technique...
February 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Diana M Graham, Leila Glass, Sarah N Mattson
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure affects inhibitory control and other aspects of attention and executive function. However, the efficacy of extrinsic reinforcement on these behaviors has not been tested. METHODS: Alcohol-exposed children (AE; n = 34), children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 23), and controls (CON; n = 31) completed a flanker task with 4 reward conditions (no reward, reward, reward+occasional response cost, equal probability of reward+response cost)...
February 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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