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Wederson Santos
This article discusses the main advances and challenges for understanding and evaluating disability as a restriction for social participation. This new understanding has its origins in the 2006 WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health - ICF, the 2001 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and more recently, the July 2015 Brazilian Inclusion of People with Disabilities Act (IPDA), also known as the Statute on Persons with Disabilities. The change in the understanding of disability from a merely biomedical perspective, to an understanding that is based on oppression and social inequality reinforces the idea that disability is not an individual attribute, but the result of a society that is not prepared for human diversity...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Alex Peaslee, Marleen Wickizer, Julie Olson, Robert Topp
BACKGROUND: Value-based insurance design (VBID) waives or reduces prescription copayments in order to decrease member cost barriers to refilling medications. Medication therapy management (MTM) is a member clinical intervention designed to reinforce members' knowledge of their medications, which addresses barriers to medication adherence. Both methods have been shown to increase adherence in members, particularly when used in combination. To date, studies of such combined programs have often been completed within integrated health systems but have rarely included control populations...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Prerak Gupta, Mimi Adhikary, Joseph Christakiran M, Manishekhar Kumar, Nandana Bhardwaj, Biman B Mandal
Composite biomaterials as artificial bone graft materials are pushing the present frontiers of bioengineering. In this study, a biomimetic, osteoconductive tricomposite scaffold made of hydroxyapatite (HA) embedded in non-mulberry Antheraea assama (A. assama) silk fibroin fibers and its fibroin solution is explored for osteogenic potential. Scaffolds were physico-chemically characterized for morphology, porosity, secondary structure conformation, water retention ability, biodegradability and mechanical property...
October 26, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Benfu Wang, Xiaowei Yang, Anna Sun, Lanman Xu, Sicong Wang, Wenxuan Lin, Miaojun Lai, Huaqiang Zhu, Wenhua Zhou, Qingquan Lian
Clinical and animal studies have indicated that propofol has potential for abuse, but the specific neurobiological mechanism underlying propofol reward is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathways in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in propofol self-administration. We tested the expression of p-ERK in the NAc following the maintenance of propofol self-administration in rats. We also assessed the effect of administration of SCH23390, an antagonist of the D1 dopamine receptor, on the expression of p-ERK in the NAc in propofol self-administering rats, and examined the effects of intra-NAc injection of U0126, an MEK inhibitor, on propofol reinforcement in rats...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Erica I Hodgman, Mark J Watson
BACKGROUND: Surgeons continue to seek an incisional hernia repair technique which minimizes cost and morbidity while maximizing durability. We present a single surgeon's experience with a technique described by N.L. Browse and J.P. Chevrel in 1979. METHODS: The Chevrel/Browse repair consists of a bilateral anterior rectus sheath release, hernia sac imbrication, bilateral rectus complex medialization, and repair reinforcement with an anterior prosthetic mesh. Data were collected on all patients who underwent herniorrhaphy between April 2003 and April 2013...
October 25, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Mingshun Jiang, Yaozhang Sai, Xiangyi Geng, Qingmei Sui, Xiaohui Liu, Lei Jia
We proposed and studied an impact detection system based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm to determine the location and the number of low velocity impacts on a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate. A FBG linear array, consisting of seven FBG sensors, was used for detecting the ultrasonic signals from impacts. The edge-filter method was employed for signal demodulation. Shannon wavelet transform was used to extract narrow band signals from the impacts...
October 24, 2016: Sensors
Adrian S H Ooi, Daniel R Butz, Zhen Gooi, David W Chang
Reconstruction of pharyngolaryngoesophageal defects following salvage surgery in patients with a history of chemoradiation is a challenging problem with a high incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula. The authors describe three cases of successful reconstruction of partial pharyngolaryngoesophageal defects using a modified radial forearm free flap with additional dermal reinforcement and review the literature for innovations in the use of radial forearm free flap for reconstruction of these difficult cases. Modification of the radial forearm free flap makes it a versatile, reliable flap that has become the "go-to" flap for partial pharyngolaryngoesophageal reconstruction...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Yanqiang Zhao, Songmei Yuan, Xiangcheng Chu, Shuning Gao, Zuojin Zhong, Cong Zhu
In this study, an oblate-type ultrasonic micro-motor with multilayer piezoelectric ceramic and chamfered driving tips was proposed and experimentally researched. The micro-motor works based on the standing-wave principle and has a higher rotary speed than the traditional standing-wave one in principle, reaching a rotary speed of 2100 r/min in this study at the voltage of 20 Vp-p. When the micro-motor rotates, single phase alternating current is required, namely, V=Asinωt, and exchanging the signal wire and ground wire will not change the rotary direction of the motor, which reinforces the safety and the compaction of this motor...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Martina Požar, Ariadni Kerasidou, Bernarda Lovrinčević, Larisa Zoranić, Marijana Mijaković, Tomislav Primorac, Franjo Sokolić, Victor Teboul, Aurélien Perera
The evolution of the micro-segregated structure of aqueous methanol mixtures, in the temperature range 300 K-120 K, is studied with computer simulations, from the static structural point of view. The structural heterogeneity of water is reinforced at lower temperatures, as witnessed by a pre-peak in the oxygen-oxygen structure factor. Water tends to form predominantly chain-like clusters at lower temperatures and smaller concentrations. Methanol domains have essentially the same chain-like cluster structure as the pure liquid at high concentrations and becomes monomeric at smaller ones...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhaoqi Guo, Yunlong Wu, Chongqing Deng, Guoping Yang, Jiangong Zhang, Zhihua Sun, Haixia Ma, Chao Gao, Zhongwei An
Two new energetic coordination polymers (CPs) [Pb(BT)(H2O)3]n (1) and [Pb3(DOBT)3(H2O)2]n·(4H2O)n (2) with 1D and 3D structures were synthesized by employing two rational designed ligands, 1H,1'H-5,5'-bitetrazole (H2BT) and 1H,1'H-[5,5'-bitetrazole]-1,1'-diol ligands (DHBT), respectively. Thermal analyses and sensitivity tests show that the 3D architecture reinforces the network of 2 which has higher thermal stability and lower sensitivity than that of 1. Through oxygen-bomb combustion calorimetry the molar enthalpy of formation of 2 is derived to be much higher than that of 1 as well as the reported CPs...
October 26, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Haiyan Jia, Zhangjun Huang, Zhaofu Fei, Paul J Dyson, Zhen Zheng, Xinling Wang
Hydrogels are polymeric materials which have a relatively high capacity for holding water. Recently, a double network (DN) technique was developed to fabricate hydrogels with a toughness comparable to rubber. The mechanical properties of DN hydrogels may be attributed to the brittle sacrificial bonding network of one hydrogel, facilitating stress dispersion, combined with ductile polymer chains of a second hydrogel. Herein, we report a novel class of tuneable DN hydrogels composed of a polyurethane (PU) hydrogel and a stronger, dipole-dipole and H-bonding interaction reinforced (DHIR) hydrogel...
October 26, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fengcang Ma, Ping Liu, Wei Li, Xinkuan Liu, Xiaohong Chen, Ke Zhang, Deng Pan, Weijie Lu
Low-cost TiB whiskers reinforced titanium matrix composite (TMCs) was fabricated with enhanced mechanical performances using in situ technologies and hot working. Morphologies observation indicates that needle-like TiB whiskers with a hexagonal transverse section grow along the [010] direction due to B27 crystal structure and its growth mechanism. Mechanical properties tests show that the mechanical behavior of the TiB whiskers reinforced TMCs is dependent on the deformation amplitudes applied in hot-working...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amber L Alhadeff, Blake D Mergler, Derek J Zimmer, Christopher A Turner, David J Reiner, Heath D Schmidt, Harvey J Grill, Matthew R Hayes
Though the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system is critical to energy balance control and is a target for obesity pharmacotherapies, the receptor populations mediating effects of endogenous GLP-1 signaling are not fully understood. To address this, we developed a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV-GLP-1R) that utilizes short hairpin RNA to chronically knock down GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in rats. Since pharmacological studies highlight the hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) as a brain region important for GLP-1R-mediated effects on energy balance, AAV-GLP-1R was injected into the NTS to examine the role of endogenous NTS GLP-1R signaling in energy balance control...
October 26, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
David A Balota, Andrew J Aschenbrenner, Melvin J Yap
There has been growing interest in dynamic changes in the lexical processing system across trials, which have typically been assessed via linear mixed effect modelling. In the current study, we explore the influence of previous trial lexicality and previous trial perceptual degradation on the effect of lexicality and degradation on the current trial. The results of analyses of three datasets (two previously published studies and a new study) provide evidence for a robust four-way interaction among previous trial lexicality and degradation and current trial lexicality and degradation effects...
October 26, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jasmina Bakic, Gilles Pourtois, Marieke Jepma, Romain Duprat, Rudi De Raedt, Chris Baeken
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) creates debilitating effects on a wide range of cognitive functions, including reinforcement learning (RL). In this study, we sought to assess whether reward processing as such, or alternatively the complex interplay between motivation and reward might potentially account for the abnormal reward-based learning in MDD. METHODS: A total of 35 treatment resistant MDD patients and 44 age matched healthy controls (HCs) performed a standard probabilistic learning task...
October 26, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Luisa Kessler, Johannes Hewig, Karina Weichold, Rainer K Silbereisen, Wolfgang H R Miltner
Adolescent risk taking is strongly influenced by peer presence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peer presence on the ERP after negative and positive feedback in the time range of the feedback-related negativity (FRN). Eighteen male adolescents completed a version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) under two conditions: playing alone and while observed by a peer. We recorded the ERPs after success or failure feedback and analyzed risk-taking behavior under both conditions...
October 26, 2016: Psychophysiology
Xiao-Chao Xia, Wei Yang, Zheng-Ying Liu, Rui-Yan Zhang, Dan-Dan Xie, Ming-Bo Yang
The formation of a hybrid shish-kebab (HSK) structure with different degrees of lamellar orientations was first observed in the solution crystallization of polyethylene (PE) in the presence of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). In this study, PE crystal lamellae were periodically decorated on the surface of CNFs and were aligned approximately perpendicular to the long axes of the CNFs, forming aligned hybrid shish-kebab nanostructures. More importantly, the fascinating structure was directly formed in all regions of the injection molded bars of HDPE/CNF composites, via a gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM), instead of the shell-core structure...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Luciana Maria Arcanjo Frota, Bernardo Almeida Aguiar, Maria Gerusa Brito Aragão, Bruno Carvalho de Vasconcelos
A wide range of accidents might happen during the treatment of the root canal system, where the instrument separation is one of the most unpleasant occurrences. Several techniques have been developed to facilitate the removal of the fragments; however, they generally require specific devices that not always are available to the clinician. The aim of this case report is to present a simple alternative technique to remove from the root canals manual instruments fractured during the treatment. The case has its outline based on a 31-year-old patient who sought the clinic to have her maxillary first left premolar rehabilitated...
2016: Case Reports in Dentistry
Tiansheng Shen, Kui Zhang, Gene P Siegal, Shi Wei
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to assess their prognostic significance. METHODS: The expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin was examined semiquantitatively and correlated with other pathologic factors and survival outcomes. RESULTS: Of 72 consecutive TNBCs, 56% showed reduced membranous expression of E-cadherin or β-catenin, with a strong correlation to each other...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
A R J Sanders, J M Bensing, M A L U Essed, T Magnée, N J de Wit, P F M Verhaak
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a clustered randomised controlled trial to study the effects of shared decision making (SDM) on patient recovery. This study aims to determine whether GPs trained in SDM and reinforcing patients' treatment expectations showed more trained behaviour during their consultations than untrained GPs. METHODS: We compared 86 consultations conducted by 23 trained GPs with 89 consultations completed by 19 untrained GPs. The primary outcomes were SDM, as measured by the OPTION scale, and positive reinforcement, as measured by global observation...
October 11, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
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