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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475180/altered-neural-processing-of-reward-and-punishment-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
I Landes, S Bakos, G Kohls, J Bartling, G Schulte-Körne, E Greimel
BACKGROUND: Altered reward and punishment function has been suggested as an important vulnerability factor for the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Prior ERP studies found evidence for neurophysiological dysfunctions in reinforcement processes in adults with MDD. To date, only few ERP studies have examined the neural underpinnings of reinforcement processing in adolescents diagnosed with MDD. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms of anticipation and consumption of reward and punishment in adolescents with MDD in one comprehensive paradigm...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474996/considerations-for-exercise-prescription-in-patients-with-bone-metastases-a-comprehensive-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Gráinne Sheill, Emer M Guinan, Nicola Peat, Juliette Hussey
Metastatic disease is a frequent complication of advanced cancer, with bone representing one of the most common sites of metastatic occurrence. Patients with bone metastases receive long-term systemic treatments which have a significant attritional impact on muscle strength, fatigue and physical functioning. Physical rehabilitation involving exercise and physical activity prescription has a considerable role in counteracting these changes however exercise is often perceived as a contraindication in the presence of bone metastases due to concerns about aggravating skeletal related events...
February 20, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474509/blepharoplasty-anatomy-planning-techniques-and-safety
#3
Mohammed Alghoul
Blepharoplasty is one of the most commonly performed cosmetic surgical procedures. To date it remains the most powerful method of periorbital rejuvenation when compared to other non-surgical modalities, especially in the aging face. Despite that, the procedure has its shortcomings that include a steep learning curve, prolonged recovery and potential for appearance and life-changing complications. Attaining successful outcomes rely on solid understanding of facial topography, patient and technique selection, and, when appropriate, following a conservative approach...
February 21, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474285/incidence-of-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries-after-training-to-protect-the-perineum
#4
Jennifer Yeung, Anna Stecher, Catrina C Crisp, Donna Mazloomdoost, Benjamin Smith, Steven D Kleeman, Rachel N Pauls
OBJECTIVES: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASISs) are a devastating postpartum complication; reducing rates is paramount to improving quality of care. In Norway, implementation of a perineal protection program decreased the incidence of OASIS by 48%. We sought to assess impact on OASIS rates following a similar program. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study was performed in an academic hospital system. The periods of analysis were November 2014 through October 2015 for the preintervention arm and November 2015 through October 2016 for the postintervention arm...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474134/propagation-of-economic-inequality-through-reciprocity-and-reputation
#5
Leor M Hackel, Jamil Zaki
Reciprocity and reputation are powerful tools for encouraging cooperation on a broad scale. Here, we highlight a potential side effect of these social phenomena: exacerbating economic inequality. In two novel economic games, we manipulated the amount of money with which participants were endowed and then gave them the opportunity to share resources with others. We found that people reciprocated more toward higher-wealth givers, compared with lower-wealth givers, even when those givers were equally generous...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473955/growth-capacity-of-a-novel-potential-probiotic-lactobacillus-paracasei-k5-strain-incorporated-in-industrial-white-brined-cheese-as-an-adjunct-culture
#6
Antonia Terpou, Loulouda Bosnea, Maria Kanellaki, Stavros Plessas, Argyro Bekatorou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou, Athanasios A Koutinas
In this study, a novel potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei K5, previously isolated from traditional Greek Feta cheese and kefir grains, was evaluated as an adjunct culture for industrial white brined cheese production. Targeting industrial applications, apart from free cell cultures, a novel ready-to-use freeze-dried immobilized biocatalyst was prepared. The biocatalyst composed of L. paracasei K5 cells immobilized on delignified wheat bran prebiotic carrier and was freeze-dried without cryoprotectants...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473784/strigolactones-are-common-regulators-in-induction-of-stomatal-closure-in-planta
#7
Yonghong Zhang, Shuo Lv, Guodong Wang
Strigolactones (SLs) have been implicated in many plant biological processes, including growth and development and the acclimation to environmental stress. We recently reported that SLs intrinsically acted as prominent regulators in induction of stomatal closure. Here we present evidence that the effect of SLs on stotamal closure is not limited to Arabidopsis, and thus SLs could serve as common regulators in the modulation of stomatal apertures of various plant species. Nevertheless, TIS108, a SL-biosynthetic inhibitor, exerted no effect on stomatal apertures...
February 23, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473653/manipulating-parameters-of-reinforcement-to-reduce-problem-behavior-without-extinction
#8
S Shanun Kunnavatana, Sarah E Bloom, Andrew L Samaha, Timothy A Slocum, Casey J Clay
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) most often includes extinction as a treatment component. However, extinction is not always feasible and it can be counter-therapeutic if implemented without optimal treatment integrity. Researchers have successfully implemented DRA without extinction by manipulating various parameters of reinforcement such that alternative behavior is favored. We extended previous research by assessing three participants' sensitivities to quality, magnitude, and immediacy using arbitrary responses and reinforcers that maintain problem behavior...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473486/striving-for-the-best-wonca-global-standards-for-continuing-professional-development-for-family-doctors
#9
Victor Ng, Allyn Walsh, Nandani de Silva, Eleni Politi, Heather Grusauskas
While all physicians must continue to learn new knowledge through their careers, their post-training continuing professional development (CPD) has received less attention. Problems include lack of support for physicians, frequent deviations from best practices such as mandatory participation, focus on community need, and clear conflicts of interest amongst providers. Additionally, specialists from other disciplines catering to different patient populations often provide CPD for family doctors. The Working Party on Education of the World Organisation of Family Doctors (WONCA) sought to develop global standards in CPD for family doctors...
February 23, 2018: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472850/slow-is-also-fast-feedback-delay-affects-anxiety-and-outcome-evaluation
#10
Xukai Zhang, Yi Lei, Hang Yin, Peng Li, Hong Li
Performance-related feedback plays an important role in improving human being's adaptive behavior. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), previous studies have associated a particular component, i.e., reward positivity (RewP), with outcome evaluation processing and found that this component was affected by waiting time before outcome evaluation. Prior research has also suggested that anxious individuals are more prone to detecting threats and susceptible to negative emotions, and show different patterns of brain activity in outcome evaluation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472837/spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-unipolar-silicon-oxide-rram-devices
#11
Konstantin Zarudnyi, Adnan Mehonic, Luca Montesi, Mark Buckwell, Stephen Hudziak, Anthony J Kenyon
Resistance switching, or Resistive RAM (RRAM) devices show considerable potential for application in hardware spiking neural networks (neuro-inspired computing) by mimicking some of the behavior of biological synapses, and hence enabling non-von Neumann computer architectures. Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is one such behavior, and one example of several classes of plasticity that are being examined with the aim of finding suitable algorithms for application in many computing tasks such as coincidence detection, classification and image recognition...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472591/early-sclerostin-expression-explains-bone-formation-inhibition-before-arthritis-onset-in-the-rat-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-model
#12
Guillaume Courbon, Raphaëlle Lamarque, Maude Gerbaix, Robin Caire, Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Norbert Laroche, Mireille Thomas, Thierry Thomas, Laurence Vico, Hubert Marotte
Periarticular bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered to be mainly related to synovial inflammation. However, strong bone loss has also described at the time of arthritis onset. Recently, a paradoxical exacerbation of joint damage was described when blocking sclerostin in various arthritis models. Thus, we aimed to determine kinetics of bone loss and its mechanisms in the adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model of RA. AIA was induced (n = 35) or not (n = 35) at day 0. In addition to well-known arthritis at day 12, we showed with 3D-imaging and histomorphometry that bone microstructural alterations occurred early from day 8 post-induction, characterized by cortical porosity and trabecular bone loss...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471928/effects-of-motivational-interviewing-fidelity-on-substance-use-treatment-engagement-in-primary-care
#13
Karen Chan Osilla, Katherine E Watkins, Elizabeth J D'Amico, Colleen M McCullough, Allison J Ober
OBJECTIVE: Primary care (PC) may be an opportune setting to engage patients with opioid and alcohol use disorders (OAUDs) in treatment. We examined whether motivational interviewing (MI) fidelity was associated with engagement in primary care-based OAUD treatment in an integrated behavioral health setting. METHODS: We coded 42 first session therapy recordings and examined whether therapist MI global ratings and behavior counts were associated with patient engagement, defined as the patient receiving one shot of extended-release injectable naltrexone or any combination of at least two additional behavioral therapy, sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone prescriptions, or OAUD-related medical visits within 30days of their initial behavioral therapy visit...
April 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471475/assessing-viral-transfer-during-doffing-of-ebola-level-personal-protective-equipment-in-a-biocontainment-unit
#14
Lisa M Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), and PPE doffing is a critical point for preventing viral self-contamination. We assessed contamination of skin, gloves, and scrubs after doffing Ebola-level PPE contaminated with surrogate viruses: bacteriophages MS2 and Φ6. Methods: In a medical biocontainment unit, HCWs (n = 10) experienced in EVD care donned and doffed PPE following unit protocols that incorporate trained observer guidance and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471253/high-performance-resorbable-composites-for-load-bearing-bone-fixation-devices
#15
Bryant Heimbach, Beril Tonyali, Dianyun Zhang, Mei Wei
Bone fractures are some of the most common injuries annually, and many require a fixation device to help properly heal. The present study focuses on developing a bioresorbable composite that has high strength and stiffness for bone fixation applications. To achieve this, a design of experiments was performed, testing the effect of long fiber reinforcement type, matrix type, matrix amount, and particle reinforcement amount on the flexural properties of the composite. Based on these results, the ideal resorbable long fiber reinforcement, particle reinforcement, and matrix material are degummed silk fibroin, hydroxyapatite, and polylactic acid, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471217/how-gender-norms-are-reinforced-through-violence-against-adolescent-girls-in-two-conflict-affected-populations
#16
Marni Sommer, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Anaise Williams, Yana Mayevskaya, Kathryn Falb, Gizman Abdella, Lindsay Stark
Violence against women and girls is a global concern, and particularly salient in humanitarian settings. Successful efforts to prevent gender-based violence in humanitarian settings must address a wide range of issues, from discriminatory laws to explicit community support for violence, and yet, at the core of these efforts is reducing oppressive gender and social norms. This study examined local attitudes towards and social norms around responding to physical and sexual abuse of girls through interviews conducted with adolescent girls (n = 66) and with caregivers (n = 58) among two conflict-affected populations: villages in South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudanese and South Sudanese refugees in Ethiopian camps...
February 19, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471203/significance-of-an-in-situ-generated-boundary-film-on-tribocorrosion-behavior-of-polymer-metal-sliding-pair
#17
Yongkun Xu, Huimin Qi, Guitao Li, Xueping Guo, Yong Wan, Ga Zhang
Polymer composites have a high potential for applications as tribo-materials exposed to sea water owing to their self-lubrication characteristic and high chemical stability. In the present work, tribological behaviors of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites rubbing with stainless steel in sea water were explored using a pin-on-disc tribometer integrated with a potentiostat for electrochemical control. It was demonstrated that further adding 5 vol% hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles into PEEK reinforced with short carbon fibers (SCF) significantly enhanced the wear resistance...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471093/chemical-cross-linked-polyvinyl-alcohol-cellulose-nanocrystal-composite-films-with-high-structural-stability-by-spraying-fenton-reagent-as-initiator
#18
Meili Song, Houyong Yu, Jiping Gu, Shounuan Ye, Yuwei Zhou
Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films with high structural stability were prepared by free radical copolymerization between cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and maleic anhydride (MAH) modified PVA through spraying Fenton free radical as initiator. The influence of chemical cross-linked and physical network structure on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of the composite films were investigated. Compared to PVA and PVA/CNC composite film, significant improvements in the mechanical, thermal and water uptake properties of the cross-linked composite film were found...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470833/cost-of-depression-in-japanese-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-evidence-from-administrative-data
#19
Florent Guelfucci, Yuko Kaneko, Jörg Mahlich, Rosarin Sruamsiri
INTRODUCTION: To determine the cost of depression comorbidity among Japanese adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A retrospective database study of 8968 patients diagnosed with RA between 2010 and 2015 and treated with any RA medication was conducted. Health care utilization characteristics were compared between patients with and without a comorbidity of depression. Propensity score matching was applied to ensure a balanced comparison between the two cohorts...
February 22, 2018: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470818/variability-in-predictions-from-online-tools-a-demonstration-using-internet-based-melanoma-predictors
#20
Emily C Zabor, Daniel Coit, Jeffrey E Gershenwald, Kelly M McMasters, James S Michaelson, Arnold J Stromberg, Katherine S Panageas
BACKGROUND: Prognostic models are increasingly being made available online, where they can be publicly accessed by both patients and clinicians. These online tools are an important resource for patients to better understand their prognosis and for clinicians to make informed decisions about treatment and follow-up. The goal of this analysis was to highlight the possible variability in multiple online prognostic tools in a single disease. METHODS: To demonstrate the variability in survival predictions across online prognostic tools, we applied a single validation dataset to three online melanoma prognostic tools...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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