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Seyed Amir Oleyaei, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi, Kirsi S Mikkonen
Sage seed gum (SSG) is a promising biopolymer candidate for utilization and substitution prevalent galactomannan gels of interest in soft biomaterial applications. Herein, physicochemical and rheo-mechanical properties of SSG matrix reinforced by various titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles loading (0-25wt%) were monitored. Particle size and density of the nanocomposite increased with raising TiO2 content, due to the creation of more compact agglomerated and aggregated microstructure. Increasing the particle size resulted in lower electrophoretic mobility of SSG-TiO2 systems upon nanoparticles addition, confirmed the adsorption of TiO2 on the SSG macromolecule...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Cha Gon Lee, Jeehun Lee, Munhyang Lee
Genetic heterogeneity of common genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes is frequently considered. The present study conducted a focused analysis of potential candidate or susceptibility genes for common genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes using multi-gene panel testing with next-generation sequencing. This study included patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy, and epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone. We identified pathogenic variants according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines and identified susceptibility variants using case-control association analyses and family analyses for familial cases...
2018: PloS One
Almudena Pérez-Rodríguez, Javier Batlle, Irene Corrales, Nina Borràs, Ángela Rodríguez-Trillo, Esther Lourés, Ana Rosa Cid, Santiago Bonanad, Noelia Cabrera, Andrés Moret, Rafael Parra, María Eva Mingot-Castellano, Nira Navarro, Carmen Altisent, Rocío Pérez-Montes, Shally Marcellini, Ana Moreto, Sonia Herrero, Inmaculada Soto, Nuria Fernández Mosteirín, Víctor Jiménez-Yuste, Nieves Alonso, Aurora de Andrés Jacob, Emilia Fontanes, Rosa Campos, María José Paloma, Nuria Bermejo, Rubén Berrueco, José Mateo, Karmele Arribalzaga, Pascual Marco, Ángeles Palomo, Nerea Castro Quismondo, Belén Iñigo, María Del Mar Nieto, Rosa Vidal, María Paz Martínez, Reyes Aguinaco, Maria Tenorio, María Ferreiro, Javier García-Frade, Ana María Rodríguez-Huerta, Jorge Cuesta, Ramón Rodríguez-González, Faustino García-Candel, Manuela Dobón, Carlos Aguilar, Fernando Batlle, Francisco Vidal, María Fernanda López-Fernández
The multimeric analysis (MA) of plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) evaluates structural integrity and helps in the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD). This assay is a matter of controversy, being considered by some investigators cumbersome and only slightly informative. The centralised study 'Molecular and Clinical Profile of von Willebrand Disease in Spain (PCM-EVW-ES)' has been carried out by including the phenotypic assessment and the genetic analysis by next generation sequencing (NGS) of the VWF gene (VWF)...
2018: PloS One
Eilidh M Duncan, Heather Cassie, Janet Pooley, Paula Elouafakoui, Maria Prior, Elizabeth Gibb, Craig Ramsay, Linda Young
PURPOSE: A common response to rising demand for healthcare is to extend the role of health professionals and the range of their service provision. Community optometry in Scotland is a recent example of this. Within this context of innovation and change there are challenges to ensuring quality in optometry practice. The purpose of this research is to establish what the priorities are for practice improvement within community optometry and to start a programme to inform strategies to improve practice...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Moritz Bömer, José A O'Brien, Imma Pérez-Salamó, Jovaras Krasauskas, Paul Finch, Andrea Briones, Arsalan Daudi, Puneet Souda, Tjir-Li Tsui, Julian P Whitelegge, G Paul Bolwell, Alessandra Devoto
Background and Aims: Cultured cell suspensions have been the preferred model to study the apoplast as well as to monitor metabolic and cell cycle-related changes. Previous work showed that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) inhibits leaf growth in a CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1)-dependent manner, with COI1 being the jasmonate (JA) receptor. Here, the effect of COI1 overexpression on the growth of stably transformed arabidopsis cell cultures is described. Methods: Time-course experiments were carried out to analyse gene expression, and protein and metabolite levels...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Botany
Erika Simone Galvão Pinto, Rosimeire Fontes de Queiroz, Gisele Santana Pereira Carreiro, Luana Jordana Morais, Eliabe Rodrigues de Medeiros, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa
OBJECTIVE: determine the coordination of Primary Health Care with community resources in the clinical management of tuberculosis. METHOD: descriptive study, of quantitative approach, with participation of one hundred health professionals. Part of a questionnaire was used in evaluating local institutional capacity for the model of chronic conditions care, adapted for tuberculosis care. RESULTS: the coordination between health units, individuals with tuberculosis, and community organizations; the partnerships between institutions and local health councils/committees showed limited capacity...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Laura C Chezan, Erik Drasgow, Gabriela Z McWhorter, Kristine I P Starkey, Brooke M Hurdle
In this study, we extended the literature on the generalization of negatively-reinforced mands in three young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). First, we used example and nonexample stimuli embedded in mand training to teach a new, socially appropriate, negatively-reinforced mand to reject unpreferred food items while continuously assessing mand discrimination. Second, we evaluated the discriminated generalization of the newly acquired mand by using untrained example and nonexample stimuli. Finally, we conducted maintenance probes to examine if the new, discriminated mand occurred over time in the absence of training...
June 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Lucas Brely, Federico Bosia, Nicola M Pugno
Contact unit size reduction is a widely studied mechanism as a means to improve adhesion in natural fibrillar systems, such as those observed in beetles or geckos. However, these animals also display complex structural features in the way the contact is subdivided in a hierarchical manner. Here, we study the influence of hierarchical fibrillar architectures on the load distribution over the contact elements of the adhesive system, and the corresponding delamination behaviour. We present an analytical model to derive the load distribution in a fibrillar system loaded in shear, including hierarchical splitting of contacts, i...
June 20, 2018: Soft Matter
Polly Hitchcock Noël, Chen-Pin Wang, Erin P Finley, Sara E Espinoza, Michael L Parchman, Mary J Bollinger, Helen P Hazuda
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) suggests that linkages between primary care practices and community-based resources can improve health in lower income and minority patients, but examples of these are rare. We conducted a prospective, mixed-methods observational study to identify indicators of primary care-community linkage associated with the frequency of visits to community-based senior centers and improvements in diabetes-related outcomes among 149 new senior center members (72% Hispanic). We used semistructured interviews at baseline and 9-month follow-up, obtaining visit frequency from member software and clinical assessments including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from colocated primary care clinics...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
A Rosengren
Type 2 diabetes is a major and accelerating public health challenge. Between 1980 and 2014, a period of just 35 years, the number of adults with diabetes globally is estimated to have increased from 108 million to 422 million, due not only to sharply rising obesity rates, but also to increasing population size, and longer life expectancy. The increase in numbers is due to an increasing prevalence of diabetes worldwide, increasing population size, and longer life expectancy. Overall, worldwide age-standardized adult diabetes prevalence doubled from 4...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Antonio Miguel Cruz-Ferreira, Eduardo Miguel Cruz-Ferreira, Pedro Barbosa Ribeiro, Luiz Miguel Santiago, Luis Taborda-Barata
Rugby union has one of the highest injury incidence rates in team sports, however, most of the available data focus on the epidemiology of injuries in countries where rugby is popular. We aimed to report the incidence rate and relevant epidemiological aspects of injuries occurred in a group of Portuguese male rugby players. A prospective cohort study was conducted with a group of 45 senior and 32 under-18 male players (total of 77 players). Outcome measures included injury incidence, position, type, location and severity of injuries...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Flavia Aluisi, Anna Rubinchik, Genela Morris
Reinforcement learning describes the process by which during a series of trial-and-error attempts, actions that culminate in reward are reinforced, becoming more likely to be chosen in similar circumstances. When decisions are based on sensory stimuli, an association is formed between the stimulus, the action and the reward. Computational, behavioral and neurobiological accounts of this process successfully explain simple learning of stimuli that differ in one aspect, or along a single stimulus dimension. However, when stimuli may vary across several dimensions, identifying which features are relevant for the reward is not trivial, and the underlying cognitive process is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fahad S Al-Jasser, Ashry G Mohamed, Abduljamil Choudry, Randa M Youssef
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of mobile phones use while driving by the students of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, their perception of the risks, and contribution to collisions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014 targeting 986 male students of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on possessing a driving license, years of driving experience, driving hours, and collision or near misses in the 6 months preceding the study...
May 2018: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Stacey M Chin, Christopher V Synatschke, Shuangping Liu, Rikkert J Nap, Nicholas A Sather, Qifeng Wang, Zaida Álvarez, Alexandra N Edelbrock, Timmy Fyrner, Liam C Palmer, Igal Szleifer, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Samuel I Stupp
Skeletal muscle provides inspiration on how to achieve reversible, macroscopic, anisotropic motion in soft materials. Here we report on the bottom-up design of macroscopic tubes that exhibit anisotropic actuation driven by a thermal stimulus. The tube is built from a hydrogel in which extremely long supramolecular nanofibers are aligned using weak shear forces, followed by radial growth of thermoresponsive polymers from their surfaces. The hierarchically ordered tube exhibits reversible anisotropic actuation with changes in temperature, with much greater contraction perpendicular to the direction of nanofiber alignment...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Maketalena Aleamotu'a, Yu-Ting Tai, David W McCurdy, David A Collings
Phi thickenings are specialized bands of secondary wall deposited around radial walls of root cortical cells. These structures have been reported in various species from the Brassicaceae, including Brassica oleracea , where previous reports using hydroponics indicated that they can be induced by exposure to salt. Using roots grown on agar plates, we show that both salt and sucrose can induce the formation of phi thickenings in a diverse range of species within the Brassicaceae. Within the genus Brassica , both B...
June 19, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Qun Ye 叶群, Futing Zou 邹富渟, Hakwan Lau 劉克頑, Yi Hu 胡谊, Sze Chai Kwok 郭思齊
Metacognition is the capacity to introspectively monitor and control one's own cognitive processes. Previous anatomical and functional neuroimaging findings implicated the important role of the precuneus in metacognition processing, especially during mnemonic tasks. However, the issue of whether this medial parietal cortex is a domain-specific region that supports mnemonic metacognition remains controversial. Here, we focally disrupted this parietal area with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy human participants of both sexes, seeking to ascertain its functional necessity for metacognition in memory versus perceptual decisions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mark J Van Ryzin, Cary J Roseth
BACKGROUND: Peer influence processes have been linked to escalation in substance use during the middle school years, particularly among at-risk youth. In this study, we report on an approach to prevention that attempts to counteract peer influence by interrupting the process of deviant peer clustering, in which socially marginalized youth self-aggregate and reinforce delinquent behavior, including substance use. We aimed to interrupt this process by implementing collaborative, group-based learning activities in school (i...
June 13, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Bibi Zhou, Youyun Yang, Tong Chen, Yongliang Lou, X Frank Yang
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme disease, exists in nature through a complex enzootic life cycle that involves both ticks and mammals. The B. burgdorferi genome encodes five Oligopeptide ABC transporters (Opp) that are predicted to be involve in transport of various nutrients. Previously, it was reported that OppA5 is important for the optimal production of OspC, a major virulence factor of B. burgdorferi. In this study, possible role of another Oligopeptide ABC transporter, OppA4 in ospC expression was investigated by construction of an oppA4 deletion mutant and the complemented strain...
June 15, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Diana Chaker, Charbel Mouawad, Albert Azar, Didier Quilliot, Ibrahim Achkar, Ziad Fajloun, Nehman Makdissy
BACKGROUND: Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) are promising cells that may promote hepatocyte differentiation (Hep-Dif) and improve liver function, but the involvement of Cdc42, a key small RhoGTPase which plays a crucial role in aging, is still not well established. We hypothesized that the inhibition of Cdc42 may rescue the hepatogenic potential of hADSCs derived from aged donors. METHODS: hADSCs isolated from 61 women of different ages were cultured for evaluation of the proliferation of cells, adherence, apoptosis, immunomodulation, immunophenotyping, multipotency, gene expression, and cell function during Hep-Dif...
June 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Guy-Roger Kamga, Fanny N Dissak-Delon, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Benjamin D Biholong, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Jacob Souopgui, Joseph Kamgno, Annie Robert
BACKGROUND: After more than 15 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in the Centre 1, Littoral 2 and West CDTI projects in Cameroon, the epidemiological evaluation conducted in 2011 revealed that onchocerciasis endemicity was still high in some communities. To investigate the potential reasons explaining this high endemicity, a cluster coverage survey was conducted in April-May 2015 in three health districts (HD), to assess the implementation of the CDTI, the 2014 therapeutic coverage and the five-year adherence to treatment...
June 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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