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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102927/complex-abdominal-wall-reconstruction-in-the-setting-of-active-infection-and-contamination-a-systematic-review-of-hernia-and-fistula-recurrence-rates
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan D Hodgkinson, Yasuko Maeda, Cosimo A Leo, Janindra Warusavitarne, Carolynne J Vaizey
INTRODUCTION: Minimal evidence exists to guide the surgeon on the risk of complications when performing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) in the presence of active infection, contamination or enterocutaneous fistula. This study aims to establish the outcomes of contaminated complex AWR. METHODS: Analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Pubmed databases was performed. Studies reporting exclusively on single-staged repair of contaminated complex AWR were included...
January 19, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102840/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-enact-field-cancerization-by-promoting-extratumoral-oxidative-stress
#2
Jeremy Soon Kiat Chan, Ming Jie Tan, Ming Keat Sng, Ziqiang Teo, Terri Phua, Chee Chong Choo, Liang Li, Pengcheng Zhu, Nguan Soon Tan
Histological inspection of visually normal tissue adjacent to neoplastic lesions often reveals multiple foci of cellular abnormalities. This suggests the presence of a regional carcinogenic signal that spreads oncogenic transformation and field cancerization. We observed an abundance of mutagenic reactive oxygen species in the stroma of cryosectioned patient tumor biopsies, indicative of extratumoral oxidative stress. Diffusible hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was elevated in the conditioned medium of cultured skin epithelia at various stages of oncogenic transformation, and H2O2 production increased with greater tumor-forming and metastatic capacity of the studied cell lines...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102702/immunomodulating-peptides-for-food-allergy-prevention-and-treatment
#3
Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Rosina López-Fandiño
Among the most promising strategies currently assayed against IgE-mediated allergic diseases stands the possibility of using immunomodulating peptides to induce oral tolerance towards offending food allergens or even to prevent allergic sensitization. This review focuses on the beneficial effects of food derived immunomodulating peptides on food allergy, which can be directly exerted in the intestinal tract or once being absorbed through the intestinal epithelial barrier to interact with immune cells. Food peptides influence intestinal homeostasis by maintaining and reinforcing barrier function or affecting intestinal cell-signalling to nearby immune cells and mucus secretion...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102544/nursing-perceptions-of-patient-safety-climate-in-the-gaza-strip-palestine
#4
A Elsous, A Akbari Sari, Y AlJeesh, M Radwan
AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess the perception of nurses about patient safety culture and to test whether it is significantly affected by the nurses' position, age, experience and working hours. BACKGROUND: Patient safety has sparked the interest of healthcare mangers, yet there is limited knowledge about the current patient safety culture among nurses in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, administering the Arabic Safety Attitude Questionnaire (Short Form 2006) to 210 nurses in four public general hospitals...
January 19, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102502/examining-nutritional-adequacy-and-dietary-diversity-among-women-in-niger
#5
Nafissatou Cisse-Egbuonye, Ariun Ishdorj, E L J McKyer, Rahma Mkuu
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the nutritional adequacy and dietary composition among women residing in Zinder and Maradi of Niger, and the factors that affect the variety of their dietary intake. Methods Data from 3360 women of ages 15-49 were used in the analysis. The variable of interest was the Women Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS), which is the simple sum of scores of the 9 categorized food groups, ranging from 0 to 9. Lower values for WDDS indicate nutritionally inadequate dietary diversity...
January 19, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102016/mechanical-and-barrier-properties-of-maize-starch-gelatin-composite-film-effects-of-amylose-content
#6
Kun Wang, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Junsheng Ding, Shaojing Zhang, Anjun Liu
BACKGROUND: In order to obtain new reinforcing bio-fillers to improve the physicochemical properties of gelatin based film, three types of maize starches: waxy maize starch (Ap), normal starch (Ns), and high amylose starch (Al), were incorporated into the gelatin films, and their properties were investigated, focusing on the impact of amylose content. RESULTS: The thickness, opacity and roughness of gelatin films increased depending upon amylose content along with the concentration of starch...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101928/are-positive-and-negative-reinforcement-different-insights-from-a-free-operant-differential-outcomes-effect
#7
Michael A Magoon, Thomas S Critchfield, Dustin Merrill, M Christopher Newland, W Joel Schneider
Although theoretical discussions typically assume that positive and negative reinforcement differ, the literature contains little unambiguous evidence that they produce differential behavioral effects. To test whether the two types of consequences control behavior differently, we pitted money-gain positive reinforcement and money-loss-avoidance negative reinforcement, scheduled through identically programmed variable-cycle schedules, against each other in concurrent schedules. Contingencies of response-produced feedback, normally different in positive and negative reinforcement, were made symmetrical...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101927/comparing-positive-and-negative-reinforcement-a-fantasy-experiment
#8
REVIEW
John A Nevin, Charlotte Mandell
We propose quantitative experimental approaches to the question of whether positive and negative reinforcement are functionally different, and discuss scientific and ethical concerns that would arise if these approaches were pursued.
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101925/-watch-out-effects-of-instructed-threat-and-avoidance-on-human-free-operant-approach-avoidance-behavior
#9
Michael W Schlund, Kay Treacher, Oli Preston, Sandy K Magee, David M Richman, Adam T Brewer, Gemma Cameron, Simon Dymond
Approach-avoidance paradigms create a competition between appetitive and aversive contingencies and are widely used in nonhuman research on anxiety. Here, we examined how instructions about threat and avoidance impact control by competing contingencies over human approach-avoidance behavior. Additionally, Experiment 1 examined the effects of threat magnitude (money loss amount) and avoidance cost (fixed ratio requirements), whereas Experiment 2 examined the effects of threat information (available, unavailable and inaccurate) on approach-avoidance...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101924/effects-of-differential-rates-of-alternative-reinforcement-on-resurgence-of-human-behavior
#10
Brooke M Smith, Gregory S Smith, Timothy A Shahan, Gregory J Madden, Michael P Twohig
Despite the success of exposure-based psychotherapies in anxiety treatment, relapse remains problematic. Resurgence, the return of previously eliminated behavior following the elimination of an alternative source of reinforcement, is a promising model of operant relapse. Nonhuman resurgence research has shown that higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster, more comprehensive suppression of target behavior, but also in greater resurgence when alternative reinforcement is eliminated. This study investigated rich and lean rates of alternative reinforcement on response suppression and resurgence in typically developing humans...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101922/a-second-type-of-magnitude-effect-reinforcer-magnitude-differentiates-delay-discounting-between-substance-users-and-controls
#11
Alexandra M Mellis, Alina E Woodford, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel
Basic research on delay discounting, examining preference for smaller-sooner or larger-later reinforcers, has demonstrated a variety of findings of considerable generality. One of these, the magnitude effect, is the observation that individuals tend to exhibit greater preference for the immediate with smaller magnitude reinforcers. Delay discounting has also proved to be a useful marker of addiction, as demonstrated by the highly replicated finding of greater discounting rates in substance users compared to controls...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101921/effects-of-shifts-in-food-reinforcement-context-on-rats-consumption-of-concurrently-available-water-or-sucrose-solution
#12
Chad M Galuska, Leslie E Sawyer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of signaled transitions from relatively rich to lean conditions of food reinforcement on drinking concurrently available water or sucrose-sweetened water in rats. Past research demonstrated that these negative incentive shifts produce behavioral disruption in the form of extended pausing on fixed-ratio schedules. Four male Long-Evans rats operated on a two-component multiple fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedule. In one manipulation, the ratio was held constant and the components arranged either a large six-pellet reinforcer (rich) or small one-pellet reinforcer (lean)...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101892/an-assessment-of-differential-reinforment-procedures-for-learners-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Kate A Johnson, Jason C Vladescu, Tiffany Kodak, Tina M Sidener
Differential reinforcement procedures may promote unprompted correct responding, resulting in a quicker transfer of stimulus control than nondifferential reinforcement. Recent studies that have compared reinforcement arrangements have found that the most effective arrangement may differ across participants. The current study conducted an assessment of differential reinforcement arrangements (i.e., quality, schedule, and magnitude) and nondifferential reinforcement to identify the most effective arrangement for each participant...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101831/psychometric-properties-of-the-portuguese-version-of-the-yale-food-addiction-scale
#14
Sandra Torres, Marta Camacho, Patrício Costa, Gabriela Ribeiro, Osvaldo Santos, Filipa Mucha Vieira, Isabel Brandão, Daniel Sampaio, Albino J Oliveira-Maia
PURPOSE: Rising rates of obesity have been recently associated to the novel concept of food addiction (FA). The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the most widely used measure for examining FA (1) and analysis of its reliability and validity is expected to facilitate empirical research on the construct. Here, we tested the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the YFAS (P-YFAS), establishing its factor structure, reliability and construct validity. METHODS: Data were obtained from 468 Portuguese individuals, 278 sampled from non-clinical populations, and 190 among obese candidates for weight-loss surgery...
January 18, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101113/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-pubertal-preparedness-program-in-terms-of-knowledge-and-attitude-regarding-pubertal-changes-among-pre-adolescent-girls
#15
Manisha Rani, Poonam Sheoran, Yogesh Kumar, Navjyot Singh
Objective: To compare the knowledge and attitude regarding pubertal changes among pre - adolescent girls before and after the pubertal preparedness program (PPP) in experimental and comparison group. Materials and methods: A Quasi experimental (non- equivalent comparison group pretest posttest) design was adopted with 104pre-adolescentgirls (52 in each experimental and comparison group) of age 12-14years, selected by purposive sampling from two different Government schools of Ambala District. Knowledge and attitude was assessed using structured knowledge questionnaire (KR-20 = 0...
September 2016: Journal of Family & Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100062/prevalence-and-correlates-of-psychological-distress-of-middle-aged-and-older-women-living-with-hiv
#16
Fabiana Monteiro, Maria Cristina Canavarro, Marco Pereira
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099919/autophagy-related-gene-lrrk2-is-likely-a-susceptibility-gene-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-northern-han-chinese
#17
Yue-Miao Zhang, Xu-Jie Zhou, Fa-Juan Cheng, Yuan-Yuan Qi, Ping Hou, Ming-Hui Zhao, Hong Zhang
Autophagy is associated with various immune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Seven variants within autophagy-related genes previously reported to show top association signals by genome-wide association studies in immune diseases were selected for analysis. Initially, 510 SLE patients (631 controls) were enrolled in the study. An additional independent cohort of 511 SLE patients (687 controls) was included for replication. Polymorphism rs2638272 in LRRK2 gene showed significant association with susceptibility to SLE (P = 1...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099447/genome-wide-immune-modulation-of-tlr3-mediated-inflammation-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-differs-between-single-and-multi-strain-probiotic-combination
#18
Chad W MacPherson, Padmaja Shastri, Olivier Mathieu, Thomas A Tompkins, Pierre Burguière
Genome-wide transcriptional analysis in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) can aid in elucidating the impact of single versus multi-strain probiotic combinations on immunological and cellular mechanisms of action. In this study we used human expression microarray chips in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model to investigate the impact of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 (Lh-R0052), Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 (Bl-R0033) and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (Bb-R0071) individually and in combination, and of a surface-layer protein (SLP) purified from Lh-R0052, on HT-29 cells' transcriptional profile to poly(I:C)-induced inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098430/behavioral-and-electrophysiological-alterations-for-reinforcement-learning-in-manic-and-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#19
Vin Ryu, Ra Yeon Ha, Su Jin Lee, Kyooseob Ha, Hyun-Sang Cho
AIMS: Bipolar disorder is characterized by behavioral changes such as risk-taking and increasing goal-directed activities, which may result from altered reward processing. Patients with bipolar disorder show impaired reward learning in situations that require the integration of reinforced feedback over time. In this study, we examined the behavioral and electrophysiological characteristics of reward learning in manic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder using a probabilistic reward task...
January 18, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098244/stochastic-evolution-in-populations-of-ideas
#20
Robin Nicole, Peter Sollich, Tobias Galla
It is known that learning of players who interact in a repeated game can be interpreted as an evolutionary process in a population of ideas. These analogies have so far mostly been established in deterministic models, and memory loss in learning has been seen to act similarly to mutation in evolution. We here propose a representation of reinforcement learning as a stochastic process in finite 'populations of ideas'. The resulting birth-death dynamics has absorbing states and allows for the extinction or fixation of ideas, marking a key difference to mutation-selection processes in finite populations...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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