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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160600/current-evidence-of-cannabinoid-based-analgesia-obtained-in-preclinical-and-human-experimental-settings
#1
REVIEW
J Lötsch, I Weyer-Menkhoff, I Tegeder
Cannabinoids have a long record of recreational and medical use and become increasingly approved for pain therapy. This development is based on preclinical and human experimental research summarized in this review. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are widely expressed throughout the nociceptive system. Their activation by endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids modulates the release of neurotransmitters. This is reflected in antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in preclinical models of inflammatory, cancer and neuropathic pain, and by nociceptive hypersensitivity of cannabinoid receptor-deficient mice...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156899/modulating-the-endocannabinoid-pathway-as-treatment-for-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-a-selected-review-of-preclinical-studies
#2
Shannon O'Hearn, Patrick Diaz, Bo Angela Wan, Carlo DeAngelis, Nicholas Lao, Leila Malek, Edward Chow, Alexia Blake
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain is a distressing and commonly occurring side effect of many commonly used chemotherapeutic agents, which in some cases may prevent cancer patients from being able to complete their treatment. Cannabinoid based therapies have the potential to manage or even prevent pain associated with this syndrome. Pre-clinical animal studies that investigate the modulation of the endocannabinoid system (endogenous cannabinoid pathway) are being conducted to better understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon...
August 31, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147495/standardized-cannabis-sativa-extract-attenuates-tau-and-stathmin-gene-expression-in-the-melanoma-cell-line
#3
Golnaz Vaseghi, Mohamad Javad Taki, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard
Objectives: Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. Materials and Methods: In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617) was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126755/-cannabis-and-lung-what-we-know-and-everything-we-don-t-know-yet
#4
REVIEW
T Urban, J Hureaux
Cannabis use increased sharply from 2010 to 2014 in France. Cannabis is often consumed with tobacco, although the use of marijuana is developing. Tobacco and cannabis smoke have many common characteristics in terms of irritants, carcinogens and carbon monoxide. They also differentiate by their dependence mechanisms, with nicotine and its receptors for tobacco and tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC) and its specific receptors for cannabis. Chronic inhalation (700,000 daily users in France) over a long period most likely increases the relative risk of bronchial cancer...
November 7, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119763/-systematic-review-of-safeness-and-therapeutic-efficacy-of-cannabis-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-neuropathic-pain-and-in-oncological-patients-treated-with-chemotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Laura Amato, Silvia Minozzi, Zuzana Mitrova, Elena Parmelli, Rosella Saulle, Fabio Cruciani, Simona Vecchi, Marina Davoli
BACKGROUND: medical cannabis refers to the use of cannabis or cannabinoids as medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms. In the United States, 23 states and Washington DC (May 2015) have introduced laws to permit the medical use of cannabis. Within the European Union, medicinal cannabis laws and praxis vary wildly between Countries. OBJECTIVES: to provide evidence for benefits and harms of cannabis (including extracts and tinctures) treatment for adults in the following indications: control of spasticity and pain in patients with multiple sclerosis; control of pain in patients with chronic neuropathic pain; control of nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy...
September 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109461/oral-administration-of-cannabis-with-lipids-leads-to-high-levels-of-cannabinoids-in-the-intestinal-lymphatic-system-and-prominent-immunomodulation
#6
Atheer Zgair, Jong Bong Lee, Jonathan C M Wong, Dhiaa A Taha, Jehan Aram, Daisy Di Virgilio, Joshua W McArthur, Yu-Kit Cheng, Ivo M Hennig, David A Barrett, Peter M Fischer, Cris S Constantinescu, Pavel Gershkovich
Cannabidiol (CBD) and ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have well documented immunomodulatory effects in vitro, but not following oral administration in humans. Here we show that oral co-administration of cannabinoids with lipids can substantially increase their intestinal lymphatic transport in rats. CBD concentrations in the lymph were 250-fold higher than in plasma, while THC concentrations in the lymph were 100-fold higher than in plasma. Since cannabinoids are currently in clinical use for the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and to alleviate nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy in cancer patients, lymphocytes from those patients were used to assess the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093004/cannabis-use-and-incidence-of-testicular-cancer-a-42-year-follow-up-of-swedish-men-between-1970-and-2011
#7
Russell C Callaghan, Peter Allebeck, Olof Akre, Katherine A McGlynn, Anna Sidorchuk
Background: Given current drug policy reforms to decriminalize or legalize cannabis in numerous countries worldwide, the current study assesses the relation between cannabis use and the development of testicular cancer.Methods: The study included a population-based sample (n = 49,343) of young men ages 18-21 years who underwent conscription assessment for Swedish military service in 1969-1970. The conscription process included a nonanonymous questionnaire eliciting information about drug use. Conscription information was linked to Swedish health and administrative registry data...
November 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072187/substance-abuse-and-cancer
#8
G I Moussas, A G Papadopoulou
Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066974/cannabinoids-modulate-neuronal-activity-and-cancer-by-cb1-and-cb2-receptor-independent-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Ken Soderstrom, Eman Soliman, Rukiyah Van Dross
Cannabinoids include the active constituents of Cannabis or are molecules that mimic the structure and/or function of these Cannabis-derived molecules. Cannabinoids produce many of their cellular and organ system effects by interacting with the well-characterized CB1 and CB2 receptors. However, it has become clear that not all effects of cannabinoid drugs are attributable to their interaction with CB1 and CB2 receptors. Evidence now demonstrates that cannabinoid agents produce effects by modulating activity of the entire array of cellular macromolecules targeted by other drug classes, including: other receptor types; ion channels; transporters; enzymes, and protein- and non-protein cellular structures...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056081/the-risks-and-benefits-of-cannabis-in-the-dermatology-clinic
#10
Gurbir Dhadwal, Mark G Kirchhof
Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa/indica), also known as marijuana, has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for millennia. There has been a recent trend to legalize the use of cannabis, as illustrated by the recent legalization votes in numerous states in the United States and legislation in Canada to allow recreational cannabis use. With this increasing consumption of cannabis, dermatologists will see increased pressure to prescribe cannabis and will see the side effects of cannabis use with greater frequency...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034533/efficacy-tolerability-and-safety-of-cannabis-based-medicines-for-chronic-pain-management-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#11
REVIEW
W Häuser, F Petzke, M-A Fitzcharles
Medicinal cannabis has already entered mainstream medicine in some countries. This systematic review (SR) aimed at evaluating the efficacy, acceptability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management. Qualitative systematic review of SRs of randomized controlled trials with cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management. The Cochrane databases of SRs, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and PubMed were searched for SR published in the period January 2009 to January 2017. Assessment of the methodological quality of SR was performed by the AMSTAR checklist...
October 15, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017688/cannabinoids-in-pain-management-and-palliative-medicine
#12
Winfried Häuser, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Lukas Radbruch, Frank Petzke
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting interpretations of the evidence regarding the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoids in pain management and palliative medicine. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review (SR) of systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective long-term observational studies of the use of cannabinoids in pain management and palliative medicine. Pertinent publications from January 2009 to January 2017 were retrieved by a selective search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Medline...
September 22, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983880/cannabis-and-cannabinoids-for-chronic-pain
#13
REVIEW
E Alfonso Romero-Sandoval, Ashley L Kolano, P Abigail Alvarado-Vázquez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to provide the most up-to-date scientific evidence of the potential analgesic effects, or lack thereof, of the marijuana plant (cannabis) or cannabinoids, and of safety or tolerability of their long-term use. RECENT FINDINGS: We found that inhaled (smoked or vaporized) cannabis is consistently effective in reducing chronic non-cancer pain. Oral cannabinoids seem to improve some aspects of chronic pain (sleep and general quality of life), or cancer chronic pain, but they do not seem effective in acute postoperative pain, abdominal chronic pain, or rheumatoid pain...
October 5, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945457/preferences-for-medical-marijuana-over-prescription-medications-among-persons-living-with-chronic-conditions-alternative-complementary-and-tapering-uses
#14
Douglas Bruce, John P Brady, Elissa Foster, Mona Shattell
OBJECTIVES: Despite expanded legalization and utilization of medical cannabis (MC) internationally, there is a lack of patient-centered data on how MC is used by persons living with chronic conditions in tandem with or instead of prescription medications. This study describes approaches to use of MC vis-à-vis prescription medications in the treatment of selected chronic conditions. DESIGN: Participants completed semistructured telephone interviews with open-ended questions...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944449/cannabis-use-among-patients-at-a-comprehensive-cancer-center-in-a-state-with-legalized-medicinal-and-recreational-use
#15
Steven A Pergam, Maresa C Woodfield, Christine M Lee, Guang-Shing Cheng, Kelsey K Baker, Sara R Marquis, Jesse R Fann
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is purported to alleviate symptoms related to cancer treatment, although the patterns of use among cancer patients are not well known. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and methods of use among cancer patients, the perceived benefits, and the sources of information in a state with legalized cannabis. METHODS: A cross-sectional, anonymous survey of adult cancer patients was performed at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center in Washington State...
September 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923526/results-of-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study-of-nabiximols-oromucosal-spray-as-adjunctive-therapy-in-advanced-cancer-patients-with-chronic-uncontrolled-pain
#16
Aron H Lichtman, Eberhard Albert Lux, Robert McQuade, Sandro Rossetti, Raymond Sanchez, Wei Sun, Stephen Wright, Elena Kornyeyeva, Marie T Fallon
CONTEXT: Prior phase 2/3 studies found that cannabinoids might provide adjunctive analgesia in advanced cancer patients with uncontrolled pain. OBJECTIVE: To assess adjunctive nabiximols (Sativex(®)), an extract of Cannabis sativa containing two potentially therapeutic cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [27 mg/mL] and cannabidiol [25mg/mL]), in advanced cancer patients with chronic pain unalleviated by optimized opioid therapy. METHODS: Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with advanced cancer and average pain NRS scores ≥ 4 and ≤ 8 despite optimized opioid therapy...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866904/a-selective-review-of-medical-cannabis-in-cancer-pain-management
#17
Alexia Blake, Bo Angela Wan, Leila Malek, Carlo DeAngelis, Patrick Diaz, Nicholas Lao, Edward Chow, Shannon O'Hearn
Insufficient management of cancer-associated chronic and neuropathic pain adversely affects patient quality of life. Patients who do not respond well to opioid analgesics, or have severe side effects from the use of traditional analgesics are in need of alternative therapeutic op-tions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that medical cannabis has potential to effectively manage pain in this patient population. This review presents a selection of representative clinical studies, from small pilot studies conducted in 1975, to double-blind placebo-controlled trials conducted in 2014 that evaluated the efficacy of cannabinoid-based therapies containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) for reducing cancer-associated pain...
August 23, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857069/the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-a-budding-source-of-targets-for-treating-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain
#18
Giulia Donvito, Sara R Nass, Jenny L Wilkerson, Zachary A Curry, Lesley D Schurman, Steven G Kinsey, Aron H Lichtman
A great need exists for the development of new medications to treat pain resulting from various disease states and types of injury. Given that the endogenous cannabinoid (that is, endocannabinoid) system modulates neuronal and immune cell function, both of which play key roles in pain, therapeutics targeting this system hold promise as novel analgesics. Potential therapeutic targets include the cannabinoid receptors, type 1 and 2, as well as biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes of the endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826544/cannabis-pharmacology-the-usual-suspects-and-a-few-promising-leads
#19
Ethan B Russo, Jahan Marcu
The golden age of cannabis pharmacology began in the 1960s as Raphael Mechoulam and his colleagues in Israel isolated and synthesized cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and other phytocannabinoids. Initially, THC garnered most research interest with sporadic attention to cannabidiol, which has only rekindled in the last 15 years through a demonstration of its remarkably versatile pharmacology and synergy with THC. Gradually a cognizance of the potential of other phytocannabinoids has developed. Contemporaneous assessment of cannabis pharmacology must be even far more inclusive...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799775/a-review-of-the-therapeutic-antitumor-potential-of-cannabinoids
#20
Višnja Bogdanović, Jasminka Mrdjanović, Ivana Borišev
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss cannabinoids from a preclinical and clinical oncological perspective and provide the audience with a concise, retrospective overview of the most significant findings concerning the potential use of cannabinoids in cancer treatment. METHODS: A literature survey of medical and scientific databases was conducted with a focus on the biological and medical potential of cannabinoids in cancer treatment. RESULTS: Cannabis sativa is a plant rich in more than 100 types of cannabinoids...
November 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
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